EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
When Opinions Are Free UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
Truth Will Prevail STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MIcH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
DNESDAY, JULY 29, 1959 NIGHT EDITOR: KATHLEEN MOORE
Strong Man: Hope
And Threat. to Growth
By THOMAS TURNER
SAN JUAN, P. R. - When I first
saw Puerto Rico's Democratic
chairman, he was sitting on his
terrace, drink in hand, dictating
biographical information to a
We shook hands and he offered
me a seat and a drink. I sat there,
looking down six stories onto the
ocean, the lagoon and the finest
hotels on the island. It was quite
"I see you've got the book,"
Jose Benitez said to me, referr-
ing to the copy of his book,
"Puerto Rico and the Political
Destiny of America," which I had
prudently bought anid brought.
He explained he had tried his
own theory of writing, brief and
concise - "I could write a chap-
ter on every sentence." (The book
is 125 pages long, of which 41
pages are devoted to the Puerto
Rican constitution, and still man-
ages to be repetitious.)
"Senator Kennedy entered the
whole book in the Congressional
Record," Benitez said.
"A book is something difficult,"
he commented. "It takes years
and years to have its effect."
* * *
JUST THEN his wife entered,
a pretty young thing in tight
slacks. She mixed another round
of drinks. Benitez motioned with
his glass toward a man getting
out of his car at a house across
the street, on the ocean.
"There's the richest man in
Puerto Rico," he said, "outside of
"Felipe!" he called down. The
man waved back, and they ex-
changed greetings. I could see a
pool and tennis court behindethe
house, invisible from the street.
After a few minutes more,
working with the journalist, Beni-
tez shook his head and said, "I've
been at it since morning.
"Carmine's secretary was here
for a while," he said. Then seeing
I didn't understand, he said,
"We have all the Puerto Ricans
in New York organized," he
Then his eye fell on my copy of
his book again and he noticed the
cover was slightly torn. "I'm go-
ing to get you a new cover," he
said, "and dedicate it for you."
(The dedication reads: "To
Tom Turner, a hope in America's
new generation, Sincerely, Jose A.
* * *
"SO YOU'RE from Michigan,"
Benitez said a few moments later.
"Your governor is a very good
friend of mine - he's been here
(in his home). He's chairman of
the Nationality Committee of the
Democrats and we're working to-
I commented I was going to try
to see Gov. Williams during the
governor's- conference. "Meet him
here," Benitez said expansively.
The columnist, a gravel-voiced
fellow nambed Irurozqui, was now
working on a caricature to ac-
company the story. Benitez shook
his head. "You never realize how
old you are until you see a car-
toon of you," he said.
"How old are you?" Benitez
asked me. "Twenty? When I was
your age I was a sergeant in the
army in the jungle of Panama.
"When I was at the University
HE PROBLEM of the young democracy al-
ways has been the strong men. History
ims to show that whenever a strong new
nocracy rises up, it is largely through the
brts of one or two or a half-dozen men who
rture and guide it to its successful birth.
En France today, Charles de Gaulle is the
ench government. In Germany it is Konrad
enauer. It is Fidel Castro in Cuba. It is
hru in India. In America it was George
Of all these countries, bnly America has and
ance may become a lasting instituiton,
The foundation of democracy is a govern-
nt of the people. In Cuba, West Germany
d India there is government by Castro, Ade-
uer and Nehru. Adenauer is certainly one of
e mainstays of the West in Europe. He has
ided his country through the hardest period
redevelopment and is staying in office to
ure that his country gets the best possible
dership during the tense cold war ahead.
t he, like Castro, has made his position one
being the country. In the years ahead after
dies -- one fact that remains unaltered by
lomats - he will have left his land with the
dition' of a popular monarchy or worse, a
id of the one-slate ballot.;
GEORGE WASHINGTON set a precedent
that lasted nearly 150 years when he re-
fused a third term. For whatever reason he re-
fused, he left his country with the tradition
which has insured that at least every eight
years new blood has infused the government.
As a man remains in office for a long term
he can fill his administration with men who
agree with him. In time he can get around
this orthat constitutional point until finally
the constitution stands for nothing - the man
is the country.
Now is the time for Castro to get out of
Cuban politics. Perhaps he could assume some'
government post which carries honorbut little
power. There is no doubt but that Adenauer
dealt the West German government a blow
when he decided not to become president.
There will never be a time when any coun-
try is in top shape and without problems of
tremendous importance to solve. One man can
never solve all the problems, because there is
no end of problems. Rather, he can leave his
land better equipped to handle the problems
of the future by giving it a government able
to handle the changing world and domestic
Castro and Adenauer have not done so.
"Out of This Nettle, Danger, We Pluck
This Flower, Safety"
TODAY AND TOMORROW:-
MR. NIXON'S trip behind the
has, as everyone knows, beet
prepared as a triple wager. It
propaganda, a flyer in diplomac
in his .own personal Presidential
the moment, with the Moscow v
it appears that there has been no
no disaster, and' that no money
This is not due to the charm
ings of Mr. Nixon. The real sit
United States and the U.S.S.R..
passed the point where an ama
can alter it by word and gesture;
Mr. Nixon took with him in his1
a collection of words and gestur
At the best he might persuad
the President wants to go on t
worst, he may still say or do so
haps when he goes to Poland,
cause he has been needled, whic
will put the Russians in a worse
they are in most of the time any
substance of things will not be
AS REGARDS propaganda, our
Moscow and the Soviet expo.
York undoubtedly have an infiu
who visit them or who hear abo
their friends. The main influence
in dissolving nightmares -. wh
pounded of distance, fear, and
ment - and in replacing ther
familiar objects seen by daylig
something disarming in the spe
two nuclear giants going to so m
show each other what lovely I
manufacture. This kind of cont
doubtedly relax popular tension
kind of wet blanket on the fir
But these results are not much
way or the other by what Mr. K
Nixon say and do in opening th
That is because the Soviet Un
United States are both much t
too set to be influenced by a p
words and gestures, such as patt
American super markets or handi
ing gum in Moscow's streets. T
some who wait breathlessly to1
In their tit-for-tat, Nixon gives
he gets. But trying to measure1
Soviet and American public opin
like measuring how much lower
of the cean after drawing out o
AS REGARDS diplomacy, we ar
lock over Berlin because the
not give us what we want excer
that the Western allies, if united,
We want to have the status quo in
anteed to us until that distant d
two Germanys are reunited. It is
clear whether the Soviet Union
SUSAN HOLTRER ROE
PETER ANDERSON .................
THOMAS HAYDEN ...................
KATHLEEN MOORE ...................
Nixon in Russia
By WALTER LIPPMANN
iron curtain that guarantee at any price. But her' present
6 planned and position appears to be that she might nego-
is a flyer in tiate such a guarantee if in effect the East
y, and a flyer German state is recognized as juridically and
politics. As of politically equal to the West German state.
isit concluded, Neither side is prepared to concede what
triumph, and the other wants. But neither side looks for-
need be paid. ward with anything but reluctance and anxi-
or to the fail- ety to what would happen if the negotiations
uation of the were brolen off. The U.S.S.R. has made cer-
has long since tain commitments to East Germany and we
teur diplomat have made commitments to West Germany
s. Yet all that which involve risks that neither of us wishes
briefcase were to take.
es. As we may not be able to agree on the settle-
e Mr. K. that ment, and as we want to avoid or at least post-
alking. At the pone a showdown, it may be that we shall take
mething, per- refuge in a protracted series of conferences
perhaps be- and negotiations. It may be that here Mr.
h for a while Nixon and Mr. Khrushchev are not too far
e humor than apart.
yway. But the
changed. AS FOR THE Presidential politics of it all,
my view is that Mr. Nixon should feel well
satisfied if he can depart from behind the iron
exposition in curtain without making any serious blunders.
sition in New The trip as such can do nothing whatever to
ence on those prove that he ought to be President of the
ut them from United States, or that he possesses any pe-
lies, I think, culiar magic for dealing with the Russians.
ich are com- Nothing he can do will make anyone believe
verbal excite- that he knows more about how to conduct for-
m with more eign relations than do, let us say, Gov. Rocke-
ght. There is feller or Gov. Stevenson. And indeed, if any-
ctacle of the one in his circle thinks that it might be pos-
ich trouble to sible to prove his superiority by a flying visit
kitchens they of this kind, the Vice-President badly needs to
act does un- find more adult advisors.
and act as a
e-eaters. His greatest chance to make a bad blunder,
and to prove that we have sent a boy on a
affected one man's errand, is in his unexpected, and in the
ozlov and Mr. nature of things his not carefully considered,
e expositions, decision to visit Poland. This cannot do any
ion and the positive good and it can do much harm. For
oo large and the position of Poland is in the highest degree
ropaganda of delicate, and, given the fact that Poland is sur-
ing babies in rounded by the Red Army, the most tactless
.ng out chew- thing that the United States can do is to make
here may be an ostentatious public display of its friendship
hear whether for Poland and of its sympathy with the griev-
better than ances of the Polish nation.
the effect on
ion would be W HAT COMPLICATES the matter seriously
is the level iis that the Vice-President is a politician
if it a bucket running for office, and no matter what he
does, he is certain to be charged with caring
not so much about the fate of the Poles in Po-
'e in a dead- land but about the votes of the Polish Ameri-
Soviets will cans in Illinois, Michigan, New York and else-
t at a price where. Mr. Nixon will be all the more open to
will not pay. this charge after the absent-minded bumble of
Berlin guar- Congress and the President in proclaiming this
ay when the week, of all weeks, "Captive Nation Week."
not entirely The resolution on the captive nations was
adopted without debate by the Senate on July
6. The resolution had not come to the Senate
from the Foreign Relations Committee which
would be concerned with such matters. The
A~'(LA~jresolution came from the Committee on the
Judiciary, of which the chairman is that no-
torious lover of liberty, Mr. Eastland of Mis-
ERT JUNKER sissippi. Mr. Eastland had promoted a resolu-
co-editor tion, believe it or not, which says among other
Night Editor things that the United States has "been able,
SNight Editor through the democratic process, to achieve a
Nigh ,t itnr . -. __. __,. .
I> ~ -A,.j
(of Puerto Rico) I was the direc-
tor of two university publica-
tions," he said.
He asked me what I was study-
ing. I told him English-literature
and Russian, and the conversa-
tion turned to Europe.
Benitez said he too went to
Europe, didn't like Spain but
loved Italy. He was the guest of
Premier Fanfani ("a very good
friend of mine") and through
him met Pope Pius.
He took me out to show me his
picture with the Pope, stopping to
flick on the lights in the living
room. "Darkness is a symbol of
poverty," he commented. I no-
ticed a 'four-foot photograph of
himself on his wal, the same one
used on the cover of the book.
The walls of the sunporch were
covered with pictures of Benitez
with leading Democrats - Ken-
nedy, Truman, Humphrey, Wil-
liams, Stevenson and others. Oc-
cupying the place of honor was
the picture of the Pope, Fanfani
BACK ON the terrace, I asked
Benitez a few questions about his
book. (The essential point is that
Puerto Rico, as a meeting point
of Latin American and North
American cultures, can be valu-
able as a showcase to the nations
to the south, and as a catalyst for
the "mighty unified America that
is on its way,")
"In Latin America there are a
lot of leadershwho are not true
to America," he commented.
"They forget that the United
States is made up of people from
all over the world," when they
charge us with imperialism.
Benitez said he's been all over
Latin America, and is a "personal
friend" of the presidents of Pan-
ama, Venezuela and Costa Rica.
"I say 'To hell with the leaders
of Latin America who get mad at
the United States'," he declared
bristling. "The big majority of
them are afraid to speak in favor
of the United States in public,"
he added. "That's why Puerto
Rico is important."
He said Puerto Ricans should
not let their Latin neighbors
speak ill of this country.
Puerto Ricans are an important
political force in the States, too,
he indicated. In the past 10 years
they migrated to "New, York,
Philadelphia, New Jersey, Chi-
cago, Miami, and Michigan," he
said. There are now 770,000 Puer-
to Ricans in New York City, who
with their 110,000 votes can "de-
fend" Cubans, Venezuelans, Ha-
waiians and Spaniards, according
"They will reciprocate," he
* * *
THERE ARE two things wrong
with Latin American politics, he
First, "University students ac-
tively participate in politics." In
the United States and in Puerto
Rico, on the other hand, they are
interested, but don't run politics,
and "don't carry guns."
Second, "Why should nations
with no danger of invasion have
big armies?" he asked. "It's time
to show them that power can
come not through bullets but
votes - this is getting chronic."
I accepted a grilled cheese
sandwich from Mrs. Benitez,
while her husband told me Com-
munists in Latin America are
"frustrated people" who can't
make much headway.
("In Puerto Rico there are six,"
he said with a laugh. "No, I think
there are only five.")
But "nationalistic ideas have to
go," he said. "How the hell can
you think your nation is the best
in the world?
"The greatest countries in the
world are those with governments
of the people, by the people and
for the people," he said, "and the
United States is the best example,
even with the racial situation in
* * *
I ASKED Benitez to analyze
Puerto Rican politics.
The Estadistas are affiliated
with the national Republican
Party, he said, "even if they are
And Puerto Ricans "have gone
Democratic" though there is no
Democratic participation in is-
land elections. They vote "nine to
one" Democratic when they go
to the States, he said. "No, nine
and a half to one-half."
The Estadistas are currently
"making ,a lot of noise" and pick-
ing up some supporters by play-
ing on the fact that most Puerto
Ricans favor "continued associa-
tion" with the United States.
"Also," he said, "when there is
a government like ours it is bound
to have disagreement with it." He
compared opposition to Munoz to
Michigan opposition to Gov. Wil-
liams, a "terrific governor and
potential presidential candidate."
The opposition tries to create "a
storm in every glass of water," he
Statehood would be "very bad
financially" because tax exemp-
tions to industry would stop, he
necessary, he continued, but
cuts out independence sharply."
Benitez leaned back in his
chair. "The Republican leaders
here are very intelligent boys,
very honest boys. But they have
a lack of political personality.
"My advice to them is if they
want statehood so bad, they
should take a plane and go to
live in Michigan." He chuckled.
The papers here are both "Re-
publican," he said. "But we will
blast them" (in 1960).
REP. ADAM Clayton Powell
was here recently to talk to him,
Benitez, trying to set an "alli-
ance" between Puerto Ricans and
Negroes in New York.
But Benitez said he doubts such
an agreement will be made, "not
because they are Negroes" but be-
cause it wouldn't be to the ad-
vantage of the Puerto Ricans.
In came Mrs. Benitez to offer
us a supper of squid and rice. I
accepted, having enjoyed it very
much in Spain, but her husband
declined. While she heated it, we
turned again to politics.
Every fifteen days, Benitez said,
he flies to St. Thomas, in the Vir-
gin Islands. There he addresses
huge crowds, he said, as the Dem-
ocrats build up party strength
Then he looked down, to where
another neighbor was pulling in.
"Simon," he called, then identi-
fied his friend as a department
store owner. He pointed out the
home of a merchant beyond, then
the French consulate.
"Life," Jose Benitez said, "is
good when you have people who
love you." After- supper, he drove
me home in his Cadillac.
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
;Michigan Daily assumes no edi-
torial responsibility. Notices should
be sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Build-
ing, before 2 p.m. the day preceding
publication. Notices for Sunday
Daily due at 2:00 p.m. Friday.
WEDNESDAY, JULY 29, 1959
VOL. LXIX, NO. 26-s
Regents Meeting: Fri., Sept. 25. Com-
munications for consideration at this
meeting must be In the President's
hands not later than Sept. 15.
Persons wishing their name. and ad-
dress added to the mailing list to re-
ceive announcements of plays pre-
sented by the Department of speech
as part of Playbill'"59-60 may have this
done by caling extension 3883 between
10:30 and 11:30 amx. or 215 and 3 p.m.,
daily, or sending name and address to
the Dept. of speech.
The Cerele Franoals presents French
fim: "Le Colonel Chabert" based on
the novel of the same name by Bal-
zac, with French actors. French dia..
logues, English subtitles. This Wed.,
July 29, 8 p.m. Multipurpose Rm., Un-
dergrad Library. Admission 5 cents.
Waltz of the Toreadors, by Jean
Anouiih; Wed., July 2 through Sat.,
Aug. 1 at Lydia Men lssohn Theatre.
8p.m. Dept. of Speech, Box office open
from 10 a.m. Tickets available at $1.50,
$1.10 and 75c.
Student Recital:, Franklin Koch,
pianist, Thurs, July 30, 8:30 p.m., Aud.
A,' Angell Hal.
Stanley Quartet: Gilbert Ross, violin,
Gustave Rossees, violin, Robert Court,
viola, Paul Olefsky, cello, assisted by
Clyde Thompson, double bass. Rack-
ham Lecture Hall. July 29, 8:30 p.m.
Physics-Math Seminar. Wed., July 29,
11 a.m. Rm. 3017 Angell Hall. Craige E.
Schensted. Research Engineer, "Five-
Doctoral Examination for Jaap Died-
rick Snoek, Social Psychology; thesis:
"Some Effects of Rejection Upon At-
traction to the Group," Thurs., July
30, 6625 Haven Hall, 3:00 p.m. Chair-
man, T. M. Newcomb.
Doctoral Examination for James
Buckley Crowley, History; thesis: "Ja-
pan's China Policy, 1931-1938: A Study
of the Role of the Military in .the De-
termination of Foreign Policy," Wed.,
July 29, 3609 Haven Hall; at 10:00 a.m.
Chairman, J. W. Hall.
Doctoral Examination for Edward
Wayne Bundy,. Speech; thesis: '"An Ex.
perimental Study of the Relative Ef-
fectiveness of Television Presentation-
al Techniques and, Conventional Class-
room Procedures in Promoting Initial
Comprehension of Basic Verb Concepts
in Elementary Spanish," Wed., July 29,
1050 Frieze Bldg., 2:00 p.m. Chairman,
E. E. Willis.
Doctoral Examination for Patricia
Ann Claire O'Connor, Psychology; the-
sis: "The Representation of the Mo-
tive to Avoid Failure in Thematic Ap-
perception," Wed., July 29, 6625 Haven
Hall, 3:00 p.m. Chairman, R. W. Heyns.
Doctoral Examination for Duncan
Arthur McCarthy, Jr., Pharmacology;
thesis: "Pharmacologic Analysis of Me-
chanism in the Morphine-Dependent
State," Wed., July 29, 6322 Medical
Science Bldg., at 10:30 a.m. Chairman,
M. H. Seevers.
Doctoral Examination for ,Julian Carr
Burroughs, Jr., Speech; thesis: "The
Effectiveness of Television Criticism in
Influencing Viewers' Judgments of
Programns in an Educational Television
E}t9s'g't}b Wi/+.StE<.d(,-rca a ' oST " . r
NEARING FOUR BILLION:
U.S. Defense Costs Rising
By ELTON C. FAY
Associated Press Military Affairs Writer
THE VAST network designed to
warn of approaching enemy
planes or missiles is nearing four
billion dollars in construction
costs to the United States.
The total will go higher.
This is just to put together the
intricate radar and communica-
tions system operated by the Air
Force on the North American
This outlay accounts for the
alarm system and only for a frac-
tion of the total cost of the whole
continental air defense complex,
which has been expanding for a
decade as the Soviet threat in-
creases and changes technologi-
As an example, the Defense De-
partment will have invested in
only two fiscal years - the one
that ended June30sand the one
that started July 1 - about $8,-
900,000,000 for warning system
construction, the missiles, planes
and ships deployed for use if the
alarm is sounded, plus associated
Merely to operate the contin-'
ental defense system costs more
than 600 million dollars a year.
* * *
SPENT, obligated or planned
for expenditure for four of the
major warning systems comes to
a total of about $3,885,000,000,
figures provided by the Defense
Depatrment and other records
This includes: 600 million dol-
lars for the Distant Early Warn-
ing Line (DEW Line) in the Can-
adian Arctic; 285 million for the
United States -share of building
the Pinetree system along the
listic missiles within seconds of
launching. It is the earliest, ele-
mentary development phase and
may not be ready for from four
to six years.
.IF AND WHEN it works, MIDAS
may be far superior to the
ground-based BMEWS system
and, perhaps cost less. Defense
scientists estimate that between
four and six MIDAS satellites
might be adequate for the detec-
tion mission, could stay aloft and
working for up to three years.
In current Congressional con-
sideration of the proposed 40 bil-
lion dollar appropriation for the
Defense Department in current
fiscal year, questions have been
raised about the amount of warn-
ing and the type of warning pro-
vided in the four billion dollar
program. Some Senators say that
much of the continental air de-
fense system has been rendered
obsolete both by what they con-
sider a diminishing threat of at-
tack of manned bombers and by
the swiftly rising menace of mis-
* * *
THE PENTAGON looks upon
the investment in manned air-
craft warning systems as insur-
ance now against one form of at-
tack while preparing for another
-a form of insurance compelled
But some influential Senators
contend that times are changing
rapidly, that major emphasis
should be directed toward defense
against ocean-spanning missiles
bearing thermonuclear warheads.
Similar to the manned bomber
warning system, the BMEWS ra-
dar net for missiles may prove to
be only an interim method to be
superseded by MIDAS. The latter
could provide up to 15 minutes
more warning time against mis-
siles; the best expected for
BMEWS is about 30 minutes.
Willie's ords ...