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CHEERS AND JEERS AT WORLD'S FAIR:
Is the U.S. a Failure at Brussels?
When Opinions Are Free
Truth Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
(EDITOR'S NOTE - What's the
disagreement orcr the United
States pavilion at the World's Fair
all about? Why is there such sio-
lent difference of opinion that
ranges from ecstatic cheers to bit-
ter outrage? here's am analysis by
a Pulitzer 'rize-winning reporter.)
By RELMTAN MORIN
Associated Press Writer
BRUSSELS - The most "Amer-
ican" exhibit at the World's
Fair is not listed in the catalogue
nor found in any booth.
It isn't the voting machines sug-
gested by President Eisenhower,
the Idaho potatoes or Kansas
wheat, the well-thumbed mail or-
der books, the California red-
wood, the New England scenes -.
certainly not that now-famous
nude ician woman in the ham-
It's the total disagreement, the
virolent reaction, pro and con, of
(Americans themselves about their
One American tourist emerges
spluttering with indig nation, out-
raged, mentally composing a furi-
o'is letter to his hcmetown news-
paper or his ccngressman.
Right behind him i& another.
DNESDAY, JULY 16, 1958
NIGHT EDITOR: SUSAN HOLTZER
An Ultimatum of Arms
-The Only Alternative
ITH THE LANDING of marines in Lebanon,
United States officials seem, at long last,
be admitting the failure of American foreign
That frightening word -intervention -ap-
arently has been confronted and accepted now
the only way to retrieve the shattered pieces
American diplomacy spread throughout the
aming Middle East. In its usual fashion the
untry that "never lost a war" has been forced
concede the loss of another peace. It is
,cing the consequences now-one can only
ope it has faced them in time.
If this country is to be plunged into war, it
because there is no other choice. Had the
nited States backed down once more, the de-
ouement would have been delayed, but it would
ave come in time..
In any case, the events that are upon this
>untry now are as much its own fault as any-
ae's. In the time-honored American tradition,
ere has been a failure to examine our foreign
)liCy once it was formulated, and now, at the
'itical moment, it is too late for recrimina-
The importance of the Middle East is some-
Ling that has been realized; it needs but a
tle explanation. The uncommitted peoples,
mnerican prestige, oil for the lamps of Europe--
1 these are at stake in this area, and the
nited States has been either unwilling or un-
>1e to protect them. Now, as is the United
ates' habit, it must make a desperate grasp
r them, with the constant threat that, if it
>es not catch hold this time, there may not be
The Middle East, however, is merely a symbol
what has been happening to this country
roughout the world. What the Truman Doc-.
ine and the Marshall Plan refused to allow,
as been happening not only in the Middle East
it in Africa, Asia,-in every corner of the globe
here Russia's golden promises and America's
ept actions compete.
The nations of the Middle East turned to
ussia only when the United States placed con-
tions on its friendship which those countries
were unwilling to accept. The Soviet offer came
"with no strings attached;" Russia has played
a different game, preferring 'to await economic
dependence before attempting political subjuga-
One chance to answer the Arab challenge
came-and went-in 1956, when the United
States used its influence to stop a Franco-
British invasion of the Suez region. From that
event can be traced the real rise of Nasserism,
and its accompanying circumstances, one of
which is the current Iraq crisis.
Spurred on by a desperate desire for peace,
the United States has failed to recognize its
ultimate price. Egypt, Indonesia, other "in-
significant" countries have been allowed to
move out of the American sphere of influence.
Because the United States has been so fearful
of Jeopardizing its shaky "non-war," position,
it has deluded itself into accepting a policy of
containment that was outmoded some time
ago. The Soviet Union has not been contained;
except for those areas where the United States
is solidly entrenched, Communism has con-
tinued to spread, amoeba-like, while the United
States sits on the sidelines, inert.
In Lebanon and Iraq now, it is almost too
late. It is, at least, too late for diplomacy. There
was only one course left to this couitry if it
wished to recapture any portion of its lost
strength-a show of force.
If its politics of peace has led it into war,
that is largely its own fault. The possibility of
Russian "volunteers" entering the area is pre-
sent; it is unlikely they will let the United
States proceed without some action. But the
theory of "limited" or "preventive" war has not
yet been disproved-it had reasonable success
in Korea, and we must hope it will succeed in
But this country could not afford further
vacillation. Outmoded Munich diplomacy
proved a failure against Nazi Germany, and it
would have similarly failed against Communist
Russia in the Middle East. An ultimatum of
arms was the only answer left.
- SUSAN HOLTZER
Inside the American Pavilion
SBehind the Mafia Scenes
By DREW PEARSON
OP Needs Politicians, Not Generals
REPUBLICANISM seems to be dying. Presi-
dent Eisenhower was unable to carry a Re-
publican Congress into office in his big land-
slide of 1956 and even "Time" magazine, a
somewhat less than neutral political observer,
now predicts the Republicans will lose at least
15 seats in the House and, with luck, break
even in the Senate in the coming elections.
If off-year Congressional elections have any
value in predicting forthcoming contests, the
Republican Party will lose the 1960 elections,
including the Presidency.
The impending GOP election defeats "Time"
attributes to party squabbles at the state levels,
using California and Michigan as prime ex-
amples. Both states used to be solidly Repub-
lican. But the Knowland-Knight-Nixon battles
on the West Coast over the past few years,
plus aggressive Democratic grass roots organ-,
izing has changed this to the point where pre-
dictions have both Knowland and Knight los-
ing this fall.'
Michigan has been thoroughly demoralized
by Gov. G. Mennen Williams, a man who can-
not lose, as much as his actions warrant it. A
split, which seems to have developed between
different factions of the Michigan Republican
party in 1952, is still present. The Republicans
face a minority situation or at least a two-
party situation where they previously had a
monopoly in such states as Iowa, Maine,
Nebraska, and Oregon.
A LL THIS has caused some Republican
thought but not much real action. Party
splits still exist; factions seem more concerned
with fighting each other than in fighting the
common enemy; Democrats continue building
organizations which are more efficient than
The importance of these facts cannot be
minimized. But the decline in Republican pop-
ularity includes another factor. President
Eisenhower is a military man; in 1952 the
people trusted him and wanted him to lead
the nation in a troubled world. The world now
Is even more troubled but the President is no
longer leading. The world situation, with the
exception of the brief summit conference glow
in 1955, has remained serious.
Subconsciously Americans probably have
moved away from conservatism in search of a
modern, dynamic policy which can lead the
United States out of the cold war, something
the present administration has failed to do.
MICHAEL KRAFT DAVID TARR
ROBERT JUNKER ...................Night Editor
EDWARD GERULDSEN ................ Night Editor
SUSAN HOLTZER ... . . .............,.. Night Editor
LANE VANDERSLICE ...............Night Editor
RICHARD MINTZ....................Sports Editor
RED SHIPPEYs................Chief Photographer
THIS SHIFT may be a major factor in tak-
ing votes from the "New" Republicans, an-
other name for the New Deal with the "Repub-
lican" replacing "Deal" to gain minority sup-
The Republicans are now forced into the
situation where a President who generally
lacks initiative must deal with over-ambitious
congressmen, who have the nasty habit of
turning up old wives tales like the Sherman
Russian science advances, too, have created
a tension the White House has been unable to
dispel. And the President's health is still an-
other factor for national uneasiness. Malty
voters will not cast their ballot for more of
the unfavorable atmosphere the American pub-
lic has been forced to tolerate since 1952.
REPUBLICAN chances for retaining any
semblance of power in 1960 are now slim,
and growing slimmer. Probably only a Demo-
cratic political blunder of major proportions
or very dynamic Republican action at home
and abroad can reverse this trend. Only a
small number of Republicans appear worried
about their political future.
Richard Nixon cannot himself carry the ag-
ing, impotent party into power; he will be
lucky to win himself. Another twenty years
out of office may be necessary to teach Re-
publicans that their place is on the conserva-
tive side domestically, the liberal side inter-
nationally. This lesson may never be learned
if they do not keep generals out of the White
House and put shrewd politicians in.
New hooks at the Library
McCormick, Anne O'Hare-Vatical Journal,
1921-1954; N.Y., Farrar, Strauss and Cudahy,
Ios Passos, John-The Great Days; Saga-
more Press Inc., 1958.
Ferber, Edna-Ice Palace; N.Y., Doubleday,
Hubler, Richard G.--SAC: The Strategic Air
Command; N.Y., Duell, Sloane & Pearce, 1958.
Leach, Douglas E. - Flintlock and Toma-
hawk; N.Y., Macmillan, 1958.
Murphy, Dennis - Sergeant; N.Y., Viking,
Peretz, I. L.-In This World and The Next;
N.Y., Thomas Yoseloff, 1958.
Singer, Issac Bashevis; Gimpel the Fool and
Other Stories; N.Y., Monday, 1957.
Stanwell-Fletcher, Theodora C.-Clear Lands
and Icy Seas; N.Y., Dodd-Mead, 1958.
Almedingen, E. M. - A Very Far Country;
N.Y., Appleton, 1958.
Ashmore, Harry S. - An Epitaph for Dixie;
N.Y., Norton, 1958.
Brittain, Robert -'Rivers, Man and Myths;
N.Y., Doubleday, 1958.
Burrows, Millar - More Light on the Dead
Sea Scrolls; N.Y., Viking, 1958.
Campbell, Alexander - The Heart of India;
, WASHINGTON - An interest-
ing battle is taking place behind
the scenes regarding the biggest
underworld society in the U.S.A.
-the Mafia. The tug-of-war is
btween the Justice . Department
and the Senate Rackets Commit-
tee, both wanting to get credit for
cracking down on these king-pins
of organized crime.
The Mafia has been investigat-
ed backward and forward for
about eight years but still seems
to thrive. This column first pub-
lished a series of Mafia exposes in
October 1950, showing how terror-
ism 'was first employed in Sicily
against Italian landlords, then
used in th U.S.A. to develop over-
lords of crime. Following this, Sen.
Estes Kefauver investigated the
Mafia and for a time had them on
Then Attorney General James
McGranery started a campaign to
deport the Mafia chieftains. He
listed over a hundred top gang-
sters for deportation. His succes-
sor, Attorney General Herbert
Brownell, talked a lot about de-
portation, but few of the gang-
sters actually left the U.S.A.
*' * *
MORE RECENTLY, Paul Wil-
liams, able United States attor-
ney in New York, has tried to
scoop the Senate Rackets Com-
mittee - ad incidentally build
himself up as Republican candi-
date for governor - by rushing
indictments of top Mafia mem-
bers Meanwhile, the Senate
committee is holding daily hear-
Williams staged a dramatic ar-
rest of Vito Gcnovese, the top
Mafia leader, and some of his
henchmen in New York. He is
backed up by a special task force
of Justice Department investiga-
INTERPRETING THE NEWS:
In Postwar History
By J. M. ROBERTS
Associated Press News Analyst
SELDOM HAS THE United States been required to set high and fateful
policy in such an atmosphere of uncertainty as exists today.
The mere fact that President Eisenhower felt constrained to order
troops into Lebanon before any action could be obtanied in the United
Nations, ordinarily a key point in his policy, ranks the Middle East
crisis among the most serious in postwar history.
Whatever the previous commitment to President Chamoun may
have been, such unilateral action could have been taken only by facing
the alternative of possible collapse of the whole Western position in the
CHIEF UNCERTAINTIES, of course, are the reactions to be ex-
pected from the Soviet Union and the Arab nationalist movement under
Nasser of Egypt, which the Soviet Union supports.
The President is-obviously hoping that this demonstration of Ameri-
ca's most serious interest in Middle Eastern political stability will serve
as a check on nationalist moves against Jordan and Saudi Arabia until
the new situation can be assayed.
The fact that Britain has remained in the background indicates a
Western desire to keep away as far as possible from actions of a colonial-
, * * ,
NEVERTHELESS, Britain is going to have to make some move
against the loss of her oil interests in Iraq, and the possible spread of
nationalist subversion to Kuwait. The United States has similar inter-
ests in Saudi Arabia.
Coordination will be essential this time, as against the independent
action in Egypt by Britain and France in 1956 which resulted in such
a hassle among the Allies.
The United States is also committed to the preservation of Jordan
not only for its own sake but also to prevent the complete encirclement
of Israel by Nasserism.
Yet in all of these countries the imposition of the status quo by
Western intervention is against the wishes of large sections of the
BRITAIN is reported willing to answer a request to help either the
remnants of the pro-Western government in Iraq or King Hussein in
tors. Simultaneously, counsel Bob
Kennedy of the Senate Rackets
Committee, has had his agents
checking on the Mafia.
Both sides have learned pretty
much the same thing - namely,
that the Mafia has taken over
loose control of most organized
rackets and the loot from these
rackets has been invested in legi-
timate businesses which serve as
a front to hide the Mafia's secret
* * *
THE BI~G G E ST Mafia-con-
trolled racket is narcotics smug-'
gling. Investigators have uncov-
ered evidence that the sensational
meeting of gangland leaders at
Apalachin, N.Y., last November
was called to shake up the nar-
cotics organization and redistrib-
The shakeup was believed re-
lated to the gangland slaying of
Albert Anastasia in a New York
hotel barbershop and the at-,
tempted slaying of Frankie Cos-
tello. Genovese and Costello were
rivals inside the Mafia.
Investigators have also found
a link between the Apalachin con-
ference and Lucky Luciano, now
exiled to Italy. Luciano's secret
contact man, Santo Serge, met
with two Mafia messengers, in
Palermo, Sicily, shortly before the
This underworld conclave, inci-
dentally, was attended by 139
mobsters who came all the way
from California to Cuba. The
main Mafia headquarters are lo-
cated in New York, Chicago and
Miami. There are other important
Mafia rings operating in Los An-
geles, Las Vegas, Denver, Omaha,
Detroit, Philadelphia, Boston, At-
lanta and Tampa.
WHAT is needed to curb the
Mafia, in addition to exposure, is
a law permitting the FBI to aid.
local police, based on the fact that
most Mafia murders cross inter-'
state boundaries. The killers are
usually imported from out of
state; witnesses are either terror-
ized or killed; the getaway cars,
usually rigged with phony license,
plates, cross state lines; the mur-
der weapons, in case they are
dropped or abandoned, carry no
markings that can be traced.
These Mafia methods make it al-
most impossible for local police
to cope with them.
As a result, the Mafia has left
a long series of unsolved murders
in its wake. The Chicago police,
reporting on some of these mur-
ders, noted: "In each of these pre-
viously cited homicides the meth-
od of assassination was identical.
The murderers boldly attacked
their victim in public places and
imp, .n n n nnn '- n ih i.,1 ales hrii-
starry-eyed, thrilled, with a spine-
ful of ecstatic shivers.
* * *
SOME weep openly, tears of
pride for well-loved American
scenes. Others, bewildered and
angry, burst into scalding re-
marks: "But that isn't America:
what will the rest of the world
think of us?"
This could develop into one of
the all-time American controver-
The summer flood of tourists to
Europe is just beginning. Thou-
sands more will see the pavilion -
with the same hot reactions.
Moreover, President Eisenhower
recently sent George V. Allen, di-
rector of the United States In-
formation Agency, to inspect the
pavilion after criticism reached
the floor of the Senate. He re-
turned with a generally favorable
But the dispute remains. What
Is its basis?
You find it readily in two files
of letters, classified "favorable"
and "unfavorable" in the pavilion
offices. There are more in the
"unfavorable" file. Could that be
because the man who likes the
pavilion is less likely to write and
THERE are also bales of Euro-
pean newspaper comment.
Finally, if you stand around for
three days, asking questions, and
eavesdropping, certain undeniable
lines of opinion emerge. Here they
1) Most Europeans appear fa-
vorably impressed with the United
States presentation. Some are
lyrical about it. Many say It is
the best in the whole gigantic ar-
ray of national exhibits.
2) Europeans and Americans
alike praise the drum-shaped,
gold-and-glass building, which is
light and ethreal and glows at
night like a Jewelled crown. It
was created by Edward D. Stone,
an Arkansas-born architect. A
high Soviet official - who said
he did not like the United States
exhibit inside - called it "the
most beautiful building I have
ever seen in my life."
3) The technique of the soft
sell - that is, quiet, relaxed, de-
void of circus blurbs -- keynotes
the American exhibit. Curiously
enough, this very fact disappoints
manry Americans and conversely,
it comes as a pleasant surprise to
Europeans who have come to ex-
pect Anericans to brag about "the
* * *
4) CRITICISM by Americans
focuses mainly on, four aspects --
the amount of abstract sculpture
and painting, the fashion show,
the absence of 'a "typical" home
furnished with the best in Ameri-
can 'decorative arts, and the col-
lection of objects in front of what
is, in fact, the main group of en-
Allen agreed with the criticism
about too much abstract painting
and sculpture. In his report to the
President he suggested more va-
riety in the art show. He also
wanted £o broaden the display
dealing with America's unfinished
tasks such as segregation and
housing, perhaps to include pub-
To oft-repeated criticism that
the American presentation doesn't
show enough ma chines and
enough of American industrial
products, he replies: "Everybody
knows we have such machines.
You can walk down the street in
Brussels or almost any European
capital and see them"
w w -
HE THEN points out something,
that many Americans do not
"There were some ground rules
laid down for this fair. Itis not
supposed to be a trade fair. It is
supposed to show man and prog-
Tess, what we call 'a new human-
Many, if not most, of the exhi-
bits of other, nations conform to
The Soviet exhibit heavily em-
phasizes machinery, massive and
overpowering - and, to be sure -
It also stresses-Marxist propa-
ganda at every turn, and the ac-
complishments of the Commu-
nists in everything from education
to producer consumption of silks.
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editor-
ial responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN forma to
Room 3519 Administration Build-
ing, before 2 p.m., the day preced-
WEDNESDAY, JULY 16, 1958
VOL. LXVIII, NO. 15-s
Classical Studies Coffee-Hour: The
AMIDST the waving of many
fans, the Stanley Quartet last
night presented the second of their
three summer programs in Rack-
ham Lecture Hall.
The evening's fare was bounded
by familiar works of Beethoven
and Debussy, with the 7th quartet
of "composer in residence" Ross
Lee Finney (who is at present "in
residence" in England) providing
the contemporary contrast.
The Beethoven Quartet, Op. 18,
No. 2, which opened the program,
is perhaps one of the most familiar
yet most durable pieces in the
repertoire. Although the perform-
ance got off to a somewhat shaky
start, the particularly nice pianis-
simo ensemble in the coda of the
opening Allegro more than com-
pensated for any faults.
The secondmovement with its
long, quietly moving melodies pro-
vided an excellent vehicle for the
opulent cello tones of Robert
Swenson. The final two move-
ments were respectively sprightly
and solid, marred only by a few
intonation difficulties not uncom-
monly encountered in such hu-
The Finney Quartet No. 7,
though diverging from the tradi-
tional harmonic sonorities, is uni-
fied by the use of conventional
form. Unlike many other contem-
porary composers, Mr. Finney is
most conservative in both the
range and number of notes. This
circumstance makes his work more
easily assimilated upon first or
second hearing, and is one of the
distinguishing features between a
true composer and a talented
THE FIRST movement is fur-
ther unified by an identical open-
ing and closing statement for cello.
The second movement, marked
Capriccioso consists of a four-way
conversation between the instru-
ments. Sometimes the conversa-
tion is lyrical and assured and at
other times it is excited, agitated
and insistent. There being no dis-
cernable pause between the second
and third movements, this re-
viewer (along with about half the
audience) was anticipating yet
another movement at the conclu-
sion of the work.
The concert concluded with the
very well known Quartet in G
minor, Op. 10 by "le Musicien
Francais," Claude Debussy, in
which he proved that given the
same number of notes, four men
can be made to sound like a string
AT MUSIC CIRCLE :
A Sure Bet
Guysand Dolls may not be the
oldest established musical in
the book (Oklahoma has it beat
for age) but it is the fastest mov-
ing and most colorful. Musie
Circle's production of the Frank
Loesser score bears this out.
The youthful singing and danc-
ing choruses keep the stage alive
with the seediest bunch of Damon
Runyon guys and the most invit-
ing dolls that ever inhabited
Broadway from midnight to dawn.
The show's scenery is rather
scant but what it lacks in this
area is amply compensated for by
the freshness and vitality of the
show as a whole. Wten the cast
goes into a production number
such as "A Bushel and a Peck"
or "Luck Be a Lady Tonight,"
stage settings are easily forgotten.
Maxie Rosenbloom, the only
well-known name in the show,
is enormously funny in his por-
trayal of Big Jule, the Chicago
gamb"er whose only pleasure is
shooting crap. But the show by no
means depends on Rosenbloom for
PHILIP STERLING is a con-
vincing Nathan Detroit. As pro-
prietor of a permanent floating
crap game, Nathan must find a
place for the game and also be
careful not to be trapped into
marriage by Adelaide, his fiancee
for 14 years. He finds a place to
gamble even while the police are
putting on the heat; but evading
Adelaide is another story.
Pat McMahon plays Sky Mas-
terson who gets his name because
he bets so high. Sky takes a "mis-
sion doll" to Havana on a $1,000
wager. He wins the bet and also
the girl and in doing so gets to
show off his singing talents in a
ballad or two.
The part of Sarah Brown, Sky's
romantic interest, is handled by
Rose Maric Robinson. Miss Rob-
inson is best during her songs -
particularly "If I Were a Bell."
WHILE Miss Robinson is mere-
ly adequate as Sarah, Jacqueline
James is perfect as Adelaide. Her
singing, dancing and acting adds
up to the most satisfying per-
formance in the entire produc-