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to the editor
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"When opineins A"reer
Truth Winl Preval"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers or
the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
FRIDAY, JULY 12, 1957 NIGHT EDITOR: RENE GNAM
Four Years With A Smile
THE MORE than four years of Arthur Sum- fensive - if special delivery service were quick-
merfield's leadership in the Post Office de- ened 50 per cent. Indeed, the thirty cents
partment has brought this country a solid might well be saved for the little difference
i'ecord of progress in every area but one: it makes. A special delivery letter mailed late
service. in the day in Detroit, for example, invariably
Postal rates have gone up and are going arrives in Ann Arbor the morning of the sec-
up, more mailboxes and mail trucks than ever ond day following - the same schedule as
before have been painted red, white and blue, first class mail.
talking postage stamp machines have been Deliveries, moreover, remain at best on the
added to major post offices across the coun- old-fashioned one-a-day schedule. But there is
try, "In God We Trust" has been daringly and no degree of surety or confidence in mail de-
excitedly inscribed on some of our postage liveries.
stamps, and other of our postage stamps have As for the large number of "improvements"
taken on multi-colored hues. during his four years that Summerfield has
Last week, In anticipation of his hoped-for recently been bragging about, we are sure that
rise in first class mail rates from three to four one of them, if no other, has pleased countless
cents, Summerfield came out with a four-cent numbers of sentimental, voting Americans. The
adhesive depicting "Old Glory - Long May "In God We Trust" legend should undoubtedly
She Wave" in her own true colors. snare some good, solid American votes for the
An exceedingly attractive stamp, it may lay GOP ticket in future years.
around in post offices across the country for
many years before American citizens exhaust ET THE "improvements" in the service de-
supplies by using the stamp to send post cards Epartment of the post office are still to be
air mail within the country - the only cur- seen. In fact, Summerfield has shown little
rent use for a four-cent rate. If, of course, evidence of being concerned with "service'
Congress should decide to raise postal rates outside of the manufacture of talking postage
again, the problem will have been solved. stamp machines.
UT PERHAPS the average American would It will probably take Summerfield at least
Bitlk oseaymr fta ido another four years at the country's expense to
haot like to see any more of that kind of ..
post office progress. A very recent rate-hike, learn finally that post office is not the game
coming the first of this month, saw special he understood it tp be when a child.
delivery rates boosted 50 per cent. -VERNON NAHRGANG
This, in itself, would not nearly be so of- Editor
A Model Conference
IN THE SHADOW of the tense disarmament Asia's millions. The youngest nation there,
talks, the Commonwealth Prime Ministers' " Ghana, badly needs money which Britain is
Conference is quietly going on in London. hardly in a position to spare.
The issues in that meeting are remote to Newer members have brought different and
those of us who are so desperately occupied often opposite ideas into the Commonwealth.
with more immediate matters, but it should India does not automatically second British
be noted that problems of world significance foreign policy, and is in fact often vehement
are being discussed in a sincere and friendly in its condemnation. Suez is a more recent ex-
atmosphere so sadly lacking in other summit ample. Canada, too, is remembered as being
or near-summit conferences. active in forming the United Nations expedi-
Periodically, the chiefs of these self-govern- tionary force to the Gaza Strip.
Ing nations gather to iron out internal diffi There is even strife within the Common-
culties. In the days of the Empire, these were wealth. India and Pakistan have fought a war
largely economic, concerned with preferential and are still embroiled in the Kashmir issue.
trade agreements and the like. But the Empire But it is heartening to see their representa-
Is now history, and the family has been re- tives sitting at the same conference table.
christened the "Commonwealth". Its spirit is Perhaps nothing of immediate urgency will
exemplified by the dropping of "British" from be resolved at the conference. We cannot hope
the formal designation. for an easing of world tensions as its result,
THE COUNTRIES represented in the confer- although a united stand may be taken on Red
ence are no longer subordinate dominions Chinese trade.
under London rule. Each has real problems of But the confidence and optimism of even
its own, often outside the orbit of immediate holding such a meet, with a genuine effort to
British interest. South Africa is plagued Ly solve important-enough problems, is h happier
violent racial discord; Australia and New Zea- example of foreign relations.
land are islands of "white supremacy" among --ERNEST ZAPLITNY
INTERPRETING THE NEWS:
Russia and the West
(Editor's Note: The Daily makes
every effort to print signed Letters
to the Editor not exceeding 300 words.
The Daily also reserves the right to
edit or withhold all letters.)
Civil Rights .. .
To the Editor:
IN TUESDAY'S Daily an editorial
by Vernon Nahrgang headed
"Civil Rights Issue Lacks Real
Understanding" points out cor-
rectly that the question of civil
rights is "crucial . . . a problem
that calls for deep understanding
and careful consideration."
However when Mr. Nahrgang
states that the particular piece of
legislation which has passed the
House and is now before the U.S.
Senate is perhaps "too demanding
from one side" and when he ad-
vises a general go-slow policy
"even at the cost of ..'tolerating
undemocratic practices" he ex-
hibits a great lack of understand-
Mr. Nahrgang completely over-
looks tie demonstrated fact that
today American citizens of other
than white pigmentation are not
willing to pay the cost of tolerat-
ing undemocratic practices. While
he writes that this "is a problem
that will never be settled in the
foreseeable future" thousands and
thousands of southern Negroes are
walking rather than ride busses
on which they are insulted, are
sending their children into ade-
quate and decent schools for the
first time despite threats of mob
violence, and in many, many other
ways are challenging the evils of
the status quo with a force, a
vigor, with a particular technique
of non-violent direct action which
puts timid northern editorialists
It is Mr. Nahrgang's lack of
understanding of the currently-
demonstrated courage and deter-
minations of America's minorities
to end their shameful second-class
citizenship which makes possible
his timidity. And just what is the
particular piece of legislation be-
fore the Senate on which he
sounds his warnings? Essentially
it is a bill providing that all
American citizens shall have pro-
tected their right to vote, their
right to exercise their franchise.
Really this is a very mild and tiny
step. It makes one wonder about
the current generation of college
editors to find such timidity and
pussy-footing amongst their
Human Rights . .
To the Editor:
IN YOUR editorial of July 10 on
the Girard case, you stated that
the Supreme Court "should not by-
pass the fundamental issue-that
an American soldier, on duty in
American occupied territory, is not
subject to the government of a
I agree that the fundamental
issue should not be bypassed, but
I do not think that you have found
this issue. If we deny the Japanese
the jurisdiction in the case, we are
in effect saying that they have not
the ability to try the case justly.
To say this not only refutes an
old and fundamental principle of
American democracy, but one that
more recently has been confirmed
by the United Nations in the Uni-
versal Declaration of H u m a n
Rights: namely, that all men are
created equal. To discard this
principle at this time would be
to throw away much that America
has stood for.
The main objection to a Japa-
nese trial is the fear that it would
not be a just one. Fear grows from
ignorance. The way current opin-
ion is rnnning, one would think
that the Japanese are a barbarious
people without any law whatso-
As the injustice was done to the
Japanese people rather than the
Army, the jurisdiction naturally
lies with the former. If we begin
to discard our own principles,
there is no telling where it may
stop, and we may become such a
people without law.
-Eric B. Arnold
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FRIDAY, JULY 12, 195,
VOL. LXVIII, NO. 13
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session tea at the Hall farm on Sat.,
July 13, from 3:00-5:00 p.m. Please
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Idcast 1 L Fc~cc <
AT MUSIC CIRCLE:
'New Moon' Shining Bright
By DREW PEARSON
WASHINGTON-Some weeks be-
fore he left Moscow, Ambas-
sador Chip Bohlen reported deep-
rooted churning inside Russia.
He connected this with industry
and domestic economy, predicted
that because of this inner turmoil
there was no danger of war with
Russia for many years to come.
In another report, Bohlen ex-
pressed the conviction that the
Russian people had become so sold
on peace that it would take inten-
sive propaganda for their leaders
in the Kremlin to convert them to
He also expressed the view that
the leaders in the Kremlin were
convinced modern war would be
so suicidal to both sides that no
one would win; therefore Russia's
futura lay in a peaceful though
vigorous struggle to control men's
These reports had already been
used by Harold Stassen as a guide-
post for his arms talks, were one
reason Stassen has believed the
Russians are ready for a genuine
The reports are now being re-
viewed further in the light of the
Kremlin crisis. Net conclusions:
that deep trouble is stirring inside
Russia; that the Russian people
as well as the satellites must be
given the alternative of more free-
dom or else strict Stalinist sup-
pression; that the more-freedom
school has won out.
U N I T E D STATES diplomats
have been stung so often, either by
McCarthy investigations or by the
changeable Kremlin, that they are
extremely hesitant about express-
ing public optimism about our fu-
ture relations with Russia.
However, if, as seems almost cer-
tain, the current Kremlin ferment
stems from a stirring of the Rus-
sian people, then this presents a
heavensent opportunity to the
. United States.
The opportunity is to win closer
friendship with the Russian people.
As this writer has frequently
emphasized, and as President
Eisenhower pointed out at the
Geneva summit conference, the
best guarantee against war is
friendship among people.
For years the United States has
not worried about war with Eng-
land, France, oi Canada for the
simple reason that our peoples
have too much common sense, plus
friendship, to make war. They
understand each other.
But the hurdle of different poli-
tical systems, different language,
plus the Iron Curtain, has made
friendship with the Russian people
LIKEWISE .the Soviet system
of dictatorship was built for speedy
decisions for war or peace with-
out consulting the people. With no
free press, no free churches, no
free radio, there were no brakes
'on the Kremlin's ability to declare
war anytime it wished.
Today, however, there is a stir-
ring inside Russia-and a golden
opportunity for an intensive cam-
paign for people-to-people friend-
When Nikita Khrushchev pro-
posed on television that we lower
the American Iron Curtain, the
only man who took him up vigor-
ously was Sen. Lyndon Johnson
of Texas, who got slightly slapped
for his pains by John Foster
(Copyright 957 by Bell Syndicate Inc.)
MUSIC CIRCLE passed a difficult
test in putting on its fourth
musical of the new summer season.
To date, the three successful shows
have, been of very recent vintage,
none older than "Plain and Fancy."
The trial of a theatrical group
which stages musicals - in - the -
round surely must come whenl it
undertakes to follow up a series
of lively recent shows with one of
The "oldie" in this case is "New
Moon," Sigmund Romberg's time-
worn classic about French-Axperi-
cans on and off the coast of
Florida in the 1790's.
The show is heavy on memor-
able songs, to be sure, but it re-
quiresa lively cast to keep up the
pace in between old favorites like
"Wanting You," "Softly, As In A
Morning Sunrise," "Stouthearted
Men," "One Kiss," "Lover Come
Back to Me," and still others.
Well, pace was'exactly what the
young and exciting Music Circle
people had on opening night. Led
by Betty McNaiara as Marianne
and Richard Armbruster as Robert,
and with Jon Cypher (the Prince
Charming of the Cinderella TV
spectacular) as an added attrac-
tion, the cast carried the show to
the audience all evening long.
Miss McNamara, who is strik-
ingly a combination of all that is
good in Debbie Reynolds blended
with her own talents (which in-
clude a wonderful singing voice),
was a lovely heroine whom the
audience applauded enthusiastic-
ally at her bow.
Richard Armbruster, who played
opposite her, had an impressive
stage bearing, a, fine voice well-
matched to Miss McNamara's, and
a female teen-age following that
clapped and cried at his every ap-
Jon Cypher had a minor role
which he handled with dignity;
his delicate voice, while no match
for the talents surrounding him,
seemed to fit in well with his role.
Phil Green, who played tie part
of the inept French Captain, hap-
less suitor for the hand of Mari-
anne, gave up the best single ren-
dering of a song with his "Inter-
rupted Love Song" which he direct-
ed to his amused lady-love. It
could never have been better.
And as Alexander, the knuckle-
headed valet of the noble Robert,
James Moore pulled the lion's
share of the laughs. He had the
itchy stage bearing of a pixie out
of next week's "Peter Pan."
"New Moon" will run through
Sunday under the big striped tent
on Grand River, with performance
time at 8:30 p.m.
Next week, when "Peter Pan"
flies in for its six-day stay, Peter
Floy, the chap who kept Mary
Martin "up in the air" on the stage
and on the TV showing of "Peter
Pan," will be on hand with his
apparatus to see that the "flying"
--Donald A. Yates
By CARL HARTMAN
BUDAPEST (4P) -- Today's Hun-
garian regime denounces for-
mer Premier Imra Nagy as a trai-
tor, but it has kept his liberalized
policy toward the farmers.
Nagy in his two weeks of power
abolished the hated system of
forced crop deliveries, and Pre-
mier Janos Kadar has not re-
stored its most objectionable fea-
What the peasants used to dis-
like most was the government's
way of setting a delivery quota
in the spring on the basis of past
crop yields and then holding them
to it, no matter what their luck
with the weather and other risks.
This often resulted in farmers,
having to buy grain to hand over
to the government. The quota sys-
tem is now out.
Almost "s important, prices to
farmers have been raised an aver-
age of 35 per cent-more in the
case of wheat, Hungary's basic
This year the peasant will get
the equivalent of $2.30 to $2.80 per
bushel for his wheat, figured at
the official exchange rate. In
terms of the real value of the
Hungarian forint on world mar-
kets, the true price would be only
about one-quarter of that but on
the Hungarian market he will be
quite well off.
Peasants are still forbidden to
trade for resale except to author-
ized government buyers.
This measure is designed to curb
speculation. They may, however,
sell to other farmers for their own
Hungary is no longer one of Eu-
rope's prime producers of bread
grains. Low prices and forced de-
liveries combined to drive farmers
to other crops, or to leave surplus
Since 1953 Hungary has had to
import wheat and this year is
expected to need 400,000 to 500,000
Most of it will probably come
from Soviet Russia.
By J M. ROBERTS
Associated Press News Analyst
THE ATOM BOMB gets so much attention as
a deterrent to war that people frequently
overlook another very important one.
That is the Western world's lead over Rus-
sia in industry.
World War II demonstrated as no other such
conflict ever has the definitive relationship of
productivity to conventional war.
It might not be so important to atomic war,
where it is conceivable that victory might be
won quickly by surprise air attack of sufficient
With two sprawling nations such as Russia
and the United States, such an attack would
have to be massive indeed.'
If the nations ever, by any long chance,
outlaw atomic war, then a preponderance of
industrial potential would return to full force.
as a deterrent.
For a long time authoritative estimates have
led the world to believe that Russia is catching
up rapidly on the Western potential, and that
within 10 or 15 years she might feel herself
capable of challenging it.
News reports indicate that is more of a pos-
sibility than a probability. They also indicate
why Russia is always so careful to present her
industrial progress by percentages rather than
giving actual figures.
Where Russia is worst off, when considering
war potential, is in consumer production. That
has been sacrificed to heavy industry, and
may prove to be the Communist Achilles heel
either in war or political conflict.
VERNON NAHRGANG, Editor
JOHN HILLYER............ . .....Sports Editor
RENE GNAM..............................Night Editor
STEPHENrTOPOL. R nes~ - a. ye
Russia went to the wall in World War I and
was forced to make a separate peace with Ger-
many because a hungry, cold and downtrodden
people and a poorly supplied soldiery had no
stomach for continuing the conflict.
This was prevented in World War II only by
the 20 per cent of her total needs which' was
supplied by the Western powers - a source
which will not be open to her again. At that
time it represented the margin by which she
was able to turn the tide when she was at war
only with a beleaguered Germany.
INTEREST IS high in whether Nikita Khrush-
chev will climax his purge pf Molotov & Co.
Probably not, but }n history the really im-
portant matter will be his motives and intent
after the purge.
The communique announcing Russia's lat-
est political upheaval stressed issues - rigid
communism rigid xenophobia and plotting.
Since then it has appeared that nine-tenths
of the trouble, at least, was that the losers in-
sisted on their right, under collective govern-
ment, to disagree with Khrushchev.
"They thought they could take over power
and you know how it ended," brags Khrush-
chev during his visit to Czechoslovakia. That is
a revelation of what is uppermost in his mind.
Regardless of the front he tries to put on it,
he is beginning to feel himself both infallible
and secure. That's just what success did to
There is no indication that the Kremlin
shakeup had anything to do with the stale-
mate which has developed in London over dis-
armament. That was foreordained by the fact
that none of the powers are ready for disar-
mament, and that it is something to be con-
sidered by friendly nations, not avowed ene-
Khrushchev, with regard to war, said in
Czechoslovakia that Russia would never use
her might for war "except against aggressors
as we used it when the British, French and
Israeli aggressors attacked Egypt."
'M - . -E.7.,, .. .- , .z. ,, ,,--- - -4- - . ; -
SALVATION OR DISASTER?
Disarmament Talks Raise Many Key Questions
By RELMAN MORIN
WASHINGTON (MP-A great and
dangerous maneuver, reaching
,into the future of every living be-
ing, is unfolding with tortuous
caution around a conference table
The objective is to slow the race
between the United States and
Russia for more, and more terri-
ble, nuclear weapons.
Salvation or disaster?
This is the fearful question that
broods over the meetings of the
United Nations subcommittee on
On the one hand, there is the
hope, of diminishing the risk of a
nuclear war, of 'cooling off the
world," as a top Pentagon off i-
cial put it. On the other, the dan-
ger of walking into a Soviet trap.
Hence, Washington is a mosaic
of feelings, watchfulness, deep
suspicion, some hope-only a thin
thread of optimism.
The stakes are enormous. Rid-
ing on every move is nothing less,
potentially, than the survivalof
the United States and the free
world. This could be the supreme
penalty for error.
Yet, after 11 years of iron dead-
lock, a develonment has come. It
Kingdom and "Pacific Ocean
areas." Operating them would be
-an international commission, re-
porting to the United Nations.
In short, the Russians said they
will permit watchmen to come in-
to their territory if the free na-
tions do the same.
For years, this question-on-the-
spot-monitors-has been a major
roadblock to controlling the wea-
pons race. No agreement would be
"rascal proof" without it. Now the
Russians seem to have conceded
Thenwhy not snap up their
S * *
FOR ANSWER, consider the
following key questions-
1. "Can a nuclear device be
exploded without detection?"
American scientists say "yes,',
if on a small scale, deep in the
earth or the sea.
On April 1, Britain's Prime
Minister Macmillan said, "Our sci-
entists believe that if a deliberate
attempt were made to run a test
explosion in such a way to avoid
detection it would almost cer-
tainly be successful."
Soviet boss Khrushchev dis-'
agrees. On June 19, he said it is
ment-and perhaps even test
them on a small scale-without
being hampered by inspectors.
"There aren't enough trained
technicians alive to watch every
rathole," said a Pentagon tech-
3. "What is the communist rec-
ord on honoring agreements?"
Korea is the latest example, a
miniature of the global experience.
Since the 1953 armistice, UN in-
spectors have been stationed in
five points in North Korea.
But they were cooped up there,
not permitted to see what was go-
ing on all over the country.
A buildup in new airfields and
equipment took place, the UN
Command charges. It notified the
Reds, June 21, that it would now
take steps to redress the military
On a global scale, in such case,
would there be time?
These are some of the main
technical problems and dangers.
* * *
EQUALLY complicated are ques-
tions of halting the production of
nuclear w e a p o n s, sequestering
those already in the armories,
controlling fissionable materials
and the effect of the "clean" bomb,
world. That doesn't mean to let
ourselves become weak. It doesn't
mean appeasement. We are 'not
dragging our feet, but we don't
think it can all be accomplished
in a year or two either. Direction,
not speed, is the important thing.'
2. There is a unanimous 'opin-
ion that "the Russians seem very
anxious to get an agreement."
Why? Several answers are pos-
It may be the cost of continu-
ing the race. Maybe they like the
heavy expense even less than w&
Or the Communist objective may
be to slow American arms develop-
ment long enough to give them a
chance to catch up.
3. They were unanimous also on
the effect of stopping the test-
ing of nuclear devices.
"It would largely destroy our
,It is possible to stop the tests
for a year without perceptible ef-
fect on morale. But two or three
years would adversely affect it.
"There's no question that it
would be hard to keep the sci-
entists working at the present
pace. There would be a morale
problem. After all, a scientist's