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Sixty-Six Years of Editorial Freedom
743 a t t
,RAIN DUE AGAIN
VOL. LXVII, No. 13S ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, FRIDAY, JULY 12, 1957
Lecturer Says Major Problems
* Arise from Sudden Transition
By RENE GNAM
Japan has made rapid strides towards achieving economic, so-
cial and political stability in the past few decades, but she still has
a long way to go.
The question of whether Japan will be able to achieve relatively
enduring stability is of major concern to the Japanese who have seen
their nation change abruptly from one form of government to an-
This stability can be achieved, Prof. Edwin 0. Reischauer said
Fourth lecturer in the summer session' series "Asian Cultures
and the Modern American," Prof. Reischauer spoke/to a capacity
PRAGUE, Czechoslovakia () -
Soviet Communist boss Nikita
Khrushchev said yesterday Presi-
dent Dwight D. Eisenhower's re-
port on the possibility of a "clean"
hydrogen bomb is "stupid,"
In a speech in this Communist
capital, the victor in the latest
Kremlin shakeup declared: "Pres-
Sident Eisenhower is a talented
man of great principles. But look
at what a stupid thing he says
4when he says there is a clean
"How can you have a clean bomb
to do a dirty thing? It means the
destruction of women and children.
'What a contradiction: They call
dirty things clean."
* * *
The White House issued a state-
ment saying: "It is rather amazing
that Mr. Khrushchev would think
efforts by American scientists to
eliminate dangerous fallout from
atomic explosions is a stupid
"The avoidance of mass destruc-
tion in an atomic war is and has
been a prime objective of President
Eisenhower and his administration,
no less than the aim of eliminating
the possibility of war itself.
"Such efforts to which the
United States is dedicated are and
will be continued."
** * '
President Eisenhower told his
June 26 news conference scientists
had informed him that possibly
within four or five years they
m i g h t produce an "absolutely
This would be a bomb free of
radioactive strontium -90 fallout
which can contaminate vast areas.
Present bombs are called. "dirty"
because of the high amount of fall-
out involved. A "clean" bomb could
be concentrated on military tar-
Of 10 Nations
PUGWASH, Nova Scotia (A)--
Nuclear scientists from the United
States, Russia, Britain and seven
other countries said yesterday
4that development of atomic arma-
ments has reached the point
where a "completely effective and
reliable control system appears
to be no longer possible."
But the group of 20 scientists
insisted that mankind must some-
how find the way to abolish war
or suffer catastrophe.
The scientists, including lead-
ing atomic experts. issued a state-
ment saying international power
gl oulps must be broken and the
arms race ended.
They released the statement
after four days of study and dis-
cussion at an international con-
ference called by British philo-
sopher Bertrand Russell.
INDIANAPOLIS, (R) - Summer
flood damage to Indiana crops was
labeled a "major disaster" by Lt.
Gov. Crawford F. Parker, state
agriculture commissioner, yester-
day on the eve of a conference of
,audience in Auditorium A, Angell
He said Japan has been in "vio-
lent, rapid transition." This tran-
sition, he indicated, poses two
questions in addition to the prob-
lem of stability.
To the first - What does Asian
change portend? - he said "real
conflicts arise in areas of politi-
cal and social change."
Social change ,in Japan, Prof.
Reischauer indicated, "tends to
go in the same direction as the
Political change presents a vi-
Japan in the 1930's was torn
between two systems-democracy
Favors Quick Vote
WASHINGTON (M-By unani-
mnous agreement, the Senate de-
cided late yesterday it will not
start round-the-clock sessions on
the civil rights bill at least until
D e m o c r a t i c Leader Lyidon
Johnson of Texas, who engineered
the agreement, said he hoped the
senators could get together later
on a definite time to vote on a
motion to bring the controversial
legislation to the floor.
The Senate has been debatirg
the motion in overtime sessions
Sen. Johnson said he favored a
vote next Wednesday. Others seek
a vote Monday and some want
The fact that "some 18 or 20
senators" still want to make
speeches on the motion, the Dem-
ocratic leader said, made it impos-
sible to fix a voting time now.
(The time must be fixed by un-
Sen. Johnson said that after
last night's session the Senate
would meet at 9:30 a.m. today
Earlier in yesterday's long ses-
sion Sen. Johnson announced he
woud support a propos l by Sen.
Wayne Morse (D-Ore) to ref e the
civil rights bill to the Judiicary
C mmittee with orders to report it
back in two weeks.
The move would probably save
time, he said.
In effect, Sen. Morse and Sen.
Johnson were asking the Senate
to reverse its decision of June 20
Which by-passed the Judiciary
bommittee and placed the House-
passed bill directly on the Senate
Sen. Morse supports the civil
rights legislation but objects to
short-circuiting the committee
He conceded yesterday that the
Judiciary Committee has been
holding up the Senate's version
of the civil rights bill for more
than six months. but he said the
Senate could instruct the com-
mittee when to report back the
Sen. Morse's motion probably
would not be voted on until the
motion to bring the House bill to
the floor is disposed of.
Additional amendments are ex-
pected td be proposed by other
Kills Aga Khan
At Age of 79
GENEVA ()P-Aga Khan, Mos-
lem religious leader who lived like
a king of old, died yesterday at his
lakeside villa in suburban Versoix.
He was 79.
His heart began to fail six years
Sorrowing Moslems of all sects
prayed for the soul of the spiritual
head of 20 million Ismaili Mos-
lems-the man who had weighed
himself in gold, diamonds and
Prince Aly Khan, 46, former
husband of actress Rita Hayworth,
seemed destined to succeed his
father as the Ismaili leader.
For GI Court Trials
WASHINGTON (P) -A House
battle began shaping up last night
to add to President Dwight D.
Eisenhower's new foreign aid bill
a prohibition against foreign court
trials of United States servicemen
The move developed in the wake
7bf the Supreme Court's decision in
the case of GI William S. Girard.
Rep. F. T. Bow (R-Ohio) said
he was studying President Eisen-
hower's $3,242,333,000 foreign aid
measure "to see where an amend-
ment might be offered."
The aid bill was cleared by the
Rules Committee yesterday for
House consideration starting Mon-
Rep. Bow said the Supreme
Court decision in the Girard case
"makes it even more urgent" that
Congress act on his resolution
aimed at preventing the prosecu-
tion of United States servicemen
in foreign courts.
Rep. Bow's resolution, which has
been approved by the Foreign Af-
fairs Committee, would direct the
President to revise or renounce
any status of forces agreements
which contain any provisions for
foreign jurisdiction over offenses
committed by American GIs
As a result of the court deci-
sion in the Girard case, Bow in-
troduced a new measure yesterday
which he said will "provide the
barrier which the Supreme Court
indicates is necessary to save our
servicemen from foreign justice."
This new measure, a supplement
to his previous resolution, would
amend the United States Uniform
Code of Military Justice to provide
that no serviceman "shall be sub-
ject to the criminal laws of any
Rep. Bow said this would meet
the court's decision that in the ab-
sence of any United States law to
the contrary, the executive branch
was free to decide whether to turn
an American serviceman over to
the Japanese for trial.
Rep. Wayne Hays (D-Ohio) pre-
dicted that Rep. Bow's resolution,
which has been bottled up in the
Rules Committee, "will be put on
as an amendment" to the foreign
The resolution is opposed by the
Eisenhower administration, whose
spokesmen contend its adoption
would force the recall of United
States forces from all parts of the
Prosecutor Yields Files Relu4
Li t .dMonth.
rtantly- Backed Up'
an oral statement Unanimously
itness, J. M. Burk
ollowing a now well- Judge Gatrsumte uarantees
UI statement to Tay- Fair, Speedy Trial
ruled that he will
arbiter on all such To Illinois Soldier
KNOXVILLE, Tenn. (R) ,- The
government yielded segments of
its secret FBI "raw" files in the
four-day-old Clinton segregation
But it fought tenaciously to
save every possible scrap from
hard-probing defense lawyers.
Under a ruling byeUnited States
District Judge Robert L. Taylor,
United States District Attorney
John C. Crawford Jr. ceremonious-
ly handed over to the defense a
transcription of a witness' state-
nent to the FBI.
After studying the document
overnight, Taylor ruled that the-
statement - made by Robert G.
Crossno, chairman of the Ander-
son Couny Clinton School Board
- was pertinent to the trial of 16
defendants on criminal con enompt,
charges in United States District
_ As such, the judge said, the de-
fense was entitled to knots what
Crcssno, as a witness here, had
told the FBI during its investiga-
WASHINGTON - The chair-
man and counsel of the Senate
Rackets Investigating Committee
yesterday denied in court they
baited a trap to snare Midwest
Teamsters boss James R. Hoff a.
Hoffa is on trial for an alleged
bribery-conspiracy plot to obtain
the committee's secret.s
The testimony was given by Sen.
John McClellan (D-Ark), the
commnittee's chairman, and Robert
F. Kennedy, its chief counsel.
The four-week-old trial began
to move swiftly after United
States District Judge Burnita S.
Matthews declared a mistrial as
to Hoffa's codefendant, Miami at-
torney Hyman I. Fischbach, whose
counsel had become ill.
Fischbach is to be tried later.
Sen. McClellan and Kennedy
were called after the government's
key witness, John Cye Cheasty, an
investigator on the McClellan
committee staff, wound up 10 days
Cheasty has told how Hoffa
paid him to get a job on the Rack-
ets Committee staff and feed Hof-
fa data from committee files.
Both Sen. McClellan dand Ken-
nedy, in their separate testimony,
said they thought the idea of hir-
ing Cheasty on the committee
staff was discussed by them in a
secret conference with FBI Di-
rector J. Edgar Hoover on Feb. 15.
tion of mob violence which erupt-
ed in the little town of Clinton,
20 miles northwest of Knoxville,
With heavy sarcasm, the tall,
booming-voiced C r a w f o r d an-
nounced: "It is agreeable to the
government to turn over certain
sections of the document."
But Crawford fought to keep
back every possible bit of infor-
mation a little later when chief
defense counsel Robert L. Dobbs,
Memphis, demanded a similar FBI
by another w
lor, who has
be the final
FBI data turned over to the de-
Clinton High was the first state-
supported secondary school in
Tennessee to admit Negroes along
with white students.
Civil Defense Exercise
To Test War Machinery
WASHINGTON (A')-Imaginary death and devastation will be
poured on "American cities today to launch the nationwide civil
defense and mobilization exercise: Operation Alert 1957.
State and city civil defense authorities are preparing to fly into
action as .if at the outbreak. of World War III, but no team knows
yet whether its own city is among those chosen for mock nuclear
blast, fire and fallout.
In Washington, President Dwight D. Eisenhower and 24 staff aides
will be lifted in a fleet of 14 helicopters and flown to a secret site
PROF. EDWIN O. REISCHAUER
.. . sees a stable Japan
andtotalitarianism. Since the end
of the war Japan has tended to-
ward democracy, but she still
must make a definite choice be-
tween a democratic form of gov-
ernment and a totalitarian sys-
The second question - Can
Asian cultures survive? - is per-
haps most immediately important.
to the Japanese and other Asiatic
peoples, he said.
These peoples, Prof. Reischauer
emphasized are constantly con-
cerned lest their cultures lose in-
dividuality due to absorption of
Western social and moral prac-
tices and beliefs.
The Japanese, Prof. Reischauer
said, have acquired many Ameri-
can customs and adopted and
adapted them to their own use.
Little to Fear
But, he declared, Asiatic peo-
ples have little to fear with re-
gard to loss of individuality in
Asiatic cultures, he said, "are
"Modernization, rather than
Westernization" of the cultures
is the trend, Prof. Reischauer said.
fitted out as the civilian cormand
center of a country at war.
This will provide the first full
test of the new helicopter system.
of White House evacuation.
About 5,000 government officials
and key employes have been alert-
ed for a less spectacular removal
three days later.
They will simply report for duty
Monday at 80 relocation centers
maintained by 30 agencies in sev-
For three weeks these officials
have been operating in Washing-
ton under simulated conditions of
mounting world tensions and "de-
teriorating international relation-
This has been the "prepared-
ness" phase of the exercise.
Robert E. A. Lillie, director of
Washtenaw- County civilian de-
fense unit has .nnounced that
air raid sirens will be sounded
during daylight hours today.
These signals are in connection
with the National "Operation
The signals are a drill exercise
testing various civil defense func-
Lillie requests that the public
not phone law enforcement agen-
cies to ascertain the cause of the'
A ntici pates
WASHINGTON (')-Some Unit-
ed States officials say they expect
Egypt's President Gamal Abdel
Nasser to announce some new,.
possibly sensational Middle East
move in a speech to his people set
for July 23.
It was under similar circum-
stances at about the same time
I a s t year that he announced
Egypt's seizure of the Suez Canal,
Some authorities believe that
Nasser this year may demand that
United Nations Emergency forces
leave his soil, or that he may an-
nounce w blockade of the disputed
Gulf of Aqaba with submarines
bought from Russia.
SAN FRANCISCO (AP) - T h e
chairman of a government Security
Commission and a California con-
gressmen disagreed yesterday over
necessity for more stringent con-
trols of publishing information
that might harm national defense.
Chairman Lloyd Wright of the
commission argued the nation's
survival requires drastic penalties
and said limits on secret informa-
tion actually involve national se-
Replying in a debate before the'
American Society of newspaper
editors, Rep. John E. Moss (D-
Calif), said the Wright commit-
tee's proposals would result in a
virtually complete blackout of
news on government operations.
Rep. Moss said there is ever-
increasing secrecy in Washington
and. against that backdrop, the
Wright commission's recommenda-
tions for a new security law re-
quired a "clear definition of what
we are to protect" beyond the ob-
vious categories of new weapons
and war plans.
Ro tDTW le Dt
By The Associated Press
The Supreme Court, in an 8-0
decision of far-reaching import,
yesterday cleared the way for Ja-
pan to try GI William S. Girard for
The high tribunal ruled that the
Eisenhower administration violated
no provision of the Constitution or
laws when it waived any 'right to1
try. Girard by United States Army~
court-martial and decided instead
to turn him over to Japan.
In Tokyo today ,District Judge
Juzo Kawachi announced he will
open the Girard trial at 10 a.m.
Aug. 26 (7 p.m. CST, Aug. 25) at
Fair, Fast Trial
He said he will' give Girard a
fair and fast trial.
Kawachi, roused from sleep be-
fore dawn for comment on the
Supreme Court decision said he
was not surprised at the court's
The Supreme Court justices up-
held the legality of the status-of-
forces agreement between t h e
United States and Japan.
This pact gives the pirmary right
to try American servicemen to the
Unite' States in some cases and-to
Japan In others.
It also provides that one nation
shall give "sympathetic considera-
tion" to waiving its right on re-
quest from the other nation.
After a dispute with Japan as to
who had the primary right in the
Girard case, top-ranking American
officials decided to allow Japan to
try the soldier in connection with
the fatal shooting of a Japanese
woman scavenging for scrap metal
on a rifle range which American
and Japanese forces shared.
This decision was approved by
President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
The Supreme Court expressed no
opinion as to the wisdom of the
waiver provision as applied in the
It said merely that since there
is no constitutional' or statutory
barrier against it, "the wisdom of
the arrangement is exclusively for
the determination of the executive
and legislative branches."
The decision was hailed as
"good news" by the Japanese am-
At Camp Whittington, Japan,
21-year-old Girard said only that
he was "not surprised" by the
His Japanese bride, Haru Candy
Girard, was unavailable for com-
And in Ottawa, Ill., Girard's
home town, the decision shocked
and saddened his family.
But in Congress there were re-
newed demands for action to scrap
or change the status - of -,forces
pacts which have been signed with
about 50 nations. Rep. H. R. Gross
(R-Iowa) called the court decision
"another assault on the Constitu-
tion of the United States."
Secretary of Defense Charles
Wilson quickly issued a statement
that the United States "will render
every possible assistance to Girard
and his counsel in the protection
of his rights."
Wilson had previously said that
if the status-of-forces pacts were
canceled, the United Staes would
have to pull its forces out of for-
eign lands and retire to a "fortress
T h e United States - Japanese
agreement a b o u t servicemen's
trials was entered into under a
mutual security treatv which h-
'GLIMPSES OF ASIA':
Kimonoed Group Shows 'Lighter Side of Life'
By ERNEST ZAPLITNY
July is the month of festival in
Japan ,- and through the capable
efforts of the University's Japa-
nese students, the carefree spirit'
was brought to a responsive audi-
ence in Rackham Hall last night.
The presentation, "Summer Fes-
tival in Japan," was fourth in the
"Glimpses of Asia" series.
A well organized format was put
together by Akira Hoshino. Before
the program had progressed too
far, it became joyfully evident that
Japanese can be humorous.
The star festival is marked by
symbolic offerings festooned on:
the "tanabata" tree. A demonstra-
tion was given: to show that the
Japanese think of everything, it
was explained that one of the 'r