EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS Op THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
" By WALTER LIPPMANN
'ry+ " ., ta- [y ,.+:;.+1r..;;vy,.m ",.:
"Now Do You Want To Try For Nothing ?"
By DREW E
fals printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions f staff writers or
the editors. This must be noted in all refprints.
Y, JULY 31, 1957 NIGHT EDITOR: RENE GNAM
World Student Congresses
And international Arairs
EASON for youth festivals arxd con-
es is well under way now, and pros-
e holding true for a great number of
in international relations for all those
)scow, 160 Americans are taking part
'orld Festival of Youth and Students -
with the blessing of the United States
ent of State. The government has dis-
1 such participation, .but did nothing
nt .Americans from travelling to Mos-
its, however, are finding out for them-
e dangers involved in visiting a nation
posite ideas and ideology.
y reports have come in of students,
isquoted in the Soviet, press, of other
being held for investigation for sev-
rs in "camera incidents" where their
films' have been .taken from them 'and
:, and of still others who have been
ed by English-speaking guides as the
E SAME TIME, the students have dis-
ed some rather glaring' omissions in
vledge of Communist Party affairs in
on the part of .the Russian citizens.
hat these students journeying to other
often do not realize until too late is
i actions reflect the whole United
,d that the Soviet people ca interpret,
;ions in many ways to arrive at a sat-
doctrine for their belief.
In spite of the "student movement" or "world
youth movement," the American government
remains uppermost in importance here - and
students or world travellers must constantly be
aware of not doing anything that would in any
way harm their country.
ANOTHER student congress, this time a little
closer to home, will be held during the last
weeks of August on this very campus. This, of
course, is the National Student Association
congress, with thousands of students from ev-
ery state in the nation and many foreign coun-
tries planning to attend.
For the American student, there is less dan-
ger of harming his own country while he is
deep within it, but there are still precautionary
measures that must be taken to insure against
a visit6r's going away with an incorrect im-
pression of the United States and its students.
The student, as much as any. other citizen,
must remember that in dealing with other na-
tions or individuals from other nations, he rep-
resents the United States ' to them. And he
must act at all times in accordance with his
Student congresses and festivals have their
value - definite value in the exchange of
knowledge and ideas - but they can easily be-
come dangerous when drawn too closely into
the realm of international affairs.
expiring as front-page news is the
action in Oman. After several air
1 abandoned rebel forts, and anl en-
of a detachment of troops to back
Itan, security has essentially been re-
9 of "gunboat diplomacy" have been
n various quarters. (By far the loud-
from Russia, as is to be expected.)
ik that whatever issue can be made
incident, security should be the fore-
ideration. In the ill-defined borders3
sultanates ringing the Persian Gulf,
to commerce and therefore the live-
Britain was immediate.
iead of the gulf is Abadan, the world's
refinery and very much in the news
's ago when Premier Mossadegh of
d it and paralyzed that section of the
PERHAPS the British had this in mind when
they dispatched jets to pulverize rebel vil-
lages. They might not have feared the bush-
league rebellion so much as they feared a spark
in the Near East tinderbox. Perhaps they re-
called Suez and months of gasoline rationing.
They might even have remembered the spite-
ful rupture of the Iraq-Syria pipeline coming
on the heels of the abortive Suez venture.
They may have beeni concerned that Egypt
and Saudi Arabia would set up the hue and cry
for an emergency United Nations General As-
sembly session to "discuss" the rights of Oman
rebels. And they probably pictured Saudi in-
filtration in the Oman protectorate while the
UN debates ran their devious courses.
With Saudi control of the gulf, they might
have guessed that this would be an effective
lever to conduct diplomatic blackmail on the
Israeli-Aqaba Gulf question, or to extract big-
ger revenues from Saudi wells run by the Brit-
THE BRITISH took quick and effective ac-
tion. It was justified and it was as fair as
the situation permitted. The rebels were given
warnings of air attacks and Britain otherwise
appeared to bend over backwards to prevent
It is the same Britain that had the right in-
tentions but used the wrong methods in the
Suez attempt; the same that is granting inde-
pendence to its colonies when maturity is dem-
onstrated; the same that can still hold its head
up in respect because of insistence on law and
We note that Dulles has flown to London for
disarmament talk conferences. We hope he will
be fully appraised of the situation in the Ara-
bian peninsula, while he's there.
, -ERNEST ZAPLITNY
t And the Council Race,
WE COULDN'T help but get the impression,
from reading Sunday's Detroit newspapers,
that the coming Detroit city council election is
being looked upon by the/press as a race race.
In what is supposed to be a mature northern
city, the newspapers have taken an awfully
The News listed Sunday all the candidates
for council, enumerating name, age, address
and occupation. After 15 of the names was .
the' designation "Negro."
The Times lifted the 15 names out of its list
and placed them in two separate paragraphs
near the beginning of the story. The Free Press
merely said there were 15 Negro candidates for
council but did not identify them singly..
Certainly these candidates boast (or lack)
other criteria of greater importance to the in-
telligent voter than their racial status.
rTHE CENTRAL issue in the Civil
Rights debate now is whether
the Federal government shall have
more or less power to secure and
protect the constitutional rights of
Negroes to vote.
The Eisenhower administration,
having put forward the Brownell
Bill, is asking Congress to author-
ize the Department of Justice to
ask for injunctions in the Federal
Court, with no trial by jury in
case the injunctions are disobeyed.
The theory of the bill is that in
those regions of the South where
the% Negroes are a large propor-
tion of the citizens, white juries-
the only juries there are-will not
convict a white man who prevents
a qialiied Negro from voting.
Therefore, if jury trials are re-
quired, the Federal power to pro-
tect Negro voting in the deep
South will be nullified.
The President is deeply involved
in the substance of the question.
The question is not merely wheth-
er he really favors the bill his ad-
ministration has proposed, favors
it practically, that is td' say, in
the sense that he will exert his in-
fluence with the Republicans in
Congress to get it passed.
He is more deeply involved than
that. And he cannot fairly -take
refuge in the theory he .often,
though not always, i n v ok e s -
namely, that it is the business of
Congress alone to legislate. This
bill does not add to or subtract
from the existing law of the land
on the right of citizens.
Congress is entitled to a state-
ment of policy. Such a statement
would constitute what is known
in politics as "leadership."
* * *
THERE IS no use pretending
that the passage of the bill as it
now stands will be followed by a
general and automatic action in all
the Federal courts of the South
which will secure the right to
What we must expect is that
there will be a gradual enfran-
chisement of the Negroes in more
and more election districts, but
with a hard core of implacable
Where the resistance is implac-
able to Negro voters, there is al-
most certain to be implacable re-
sistance, by one device or anoth-
er, to Federal injunctions.
This will mean that the Presi-
dent and his Attorney General
will be faced not with the simple
task of enforcing the law but with
problems of policy as to where,
when, and how, to use the power
to enforce the law.
There is no evidenc, so far as I
know, that the President or Mr.
Brownell have ever put their
minds on all this, or that they
have ever thought to discuss the
problem thoroughly with the lead-
ers of the various factions in Con-
Yet leadership of this kind is
greatly needed if we are to avoid
or at least to assuage, a struggle,.
infected with violence, over en-
forcement and nullification.
* * .*
THOUGH I AM very much in
favor of the bill as it now stands,
it seems to me self-evident that
whether the bill turns out to be a
good one, a bad one, or just a de-
ception, will depend on whether
the President has a policy for ad-
ministering the bill which he has
persuaded the liberal South to ac-
That is why the President can-
not sit back, cannot deal with the
issues at arm's length and with
his finger-tips, and leave policy to
be worked out later on by lawyers
of the Department of Justice under
the pressure of politicians.
The problem of Civil Rights is
the problem of guiding with wis-
dom and magnanimity a great
change 'in the human and social
order of many parts of the Union.
The ciange is already well under
way. It is gaining momentum.
Federal laws will 'not make or
break the change. Sen. Eastland
cannot really stop the change an'd
Sen. Douglas cannot very much
hasten it. What the Federal gov-
ernment can do is, in some mea-
sure, to channel the change and
to control its pace..
THE GREAT task of the Fed-
eral government-and particularly
of the President and of the Sen-
ate-is among contending factions
to be the mediator and the con-
ciliator, seeking always to insure
the greatest possible progress to-
wards civil equality which can be
combined with the greatest pos-
sible amount of consent.
' That ought to be a congenial
task for President Eisenhower. It
is one which suits his temperament
and fits his conception of the
But to perform such a task, it
would be necessary to spend much
time and energy on the problem,
and to care about it seriously.
1957 New York Herald Tribune
Chinese Play Curious, Effective
THE fourth summer presenta-
tion of the speech department
is "Circle of Chalk," a traditional'
Chinese fantasy dating from thet
13th or 14th century.
This affords spectators a rare
opportunity to visualize some-
thing of the complex, elaborate,
and often incomprehensible con-
ventions and forms which make
up early Chinese drama.
All actors Are made up, with,
elaborately painted faces in-bright
colors, the Chinese equivalent of
masks. Costumes are traditional:
women wear flowing robes to sim-
ulate grace and elegance, men
wear more or less .ornate gar-,
ments, depending upon wealth
and position, etc.
Although singing is not uncorn-
mon in early ,Chinese drama, the
version presented here is entirely
dialog. An almost off-stage or-
chestri of assorted gongs and
sound effects is used to emphasize
the action; also each character
has a particular sound effect: the
villain walks to a sly shuffle of
brushes, the heroine's entrance is
accompanied by a small bell.
* * * '
THE PLOT of "The Chalk
Circle" is a favorite Chinese de-
vice, the eventual discovery of
hidden guilt and vindication of
Hai T'ang, second wife of Lord
Ma, is wrongly accused of his
death by first wife Mrs. Ma, whose
lover Ch'ao is the corrupt clerk of
Su-Shun, fat and affable Judge
of the region.
Hai T'ang is beaten by court
guards and forced to confess the
murder, but is sent to the supreme
court of Pao-Ch'ing for sentence.
There, aided by her brother
Ch'ain-Lin, clerk of this court, she
establishes her innocence via the
Chalk Circle in a symbolic man-
Pao-Ch'ing, a, wise man, pun-
ishes the evil ones and their.
bribed witnesses, frees Hai T'ang
and all ends well, after the Chi-
* * *
MARTHA .Wilson (Hai T'ang) '
Is the chief character, called upon
to produce a more varied spec-
trum of emotional expression than
any other character.' This she'
does in an impressive perform-
ince; both with respect to direct
action in the play and in her
monologues to the audience.
Al Phillips (Ch'ao) is cunning
and satanic as the wicked clerk.
His movements are the picture of.
vice and duplicity; his voice is the
essence of oily deception.
Orrol Loveless (Mrs. Ma) pre-
sents a cool and cruel picture of a
basically evil woman who, within
the framework of the form, offers
a portraiture of rutheless ambi-
Lloyd Evans (Su-Shun) is jolly
and openly corrupt in his role as
the inept judge. While all the cos-
tumes and make-up. (by Marjorie
Smith) are imaginative and color-
ful, especially so is the outfit of
William Moore (Lord Ma). His, in-
terpretatiori of this part lacks
somewhat in pomopsity but
* * *
A SPECIAL word of praise must
be :said for the direction by Wil-
liam Halstead and Marilyn Lewis.
which has translated this rather
unfamiliar Chinese drama into a
form which offers the audience a
worthwhile and comprehensible
Scenery (Ralph Duckwall) is'
necessarily limited by Chinese tra-
dition, but beautiful. The back-
drop is a large fire-breathing dra-
gon in bright colors.
Marjorie Smith's costuming, al-
ready mentioned, is twi e praise-
worthy, exhibiting much ingenu-
ity and contributing considerably
to the overall technical excellence
of this production.
Also adding to this excellence is
the skillful work of the "property
men," Patricia Graves and Shirley
Nikoden, who walk on stage at ap-
propriate moments, to provide-
scenery changes, cushions for fall-
ing bodies, simulated falling snow,
and other such help.
* * *
THE conventions of Chinese
theatre provided members of the
audience with many moments of
amusement not intended by the,
author, particularly when, after
Lord Ma is poisondl and dies in
a spectdcular if tra'ditional man-
ner (falling upon a fortuitously
placed rug), a property man
rushes out to straighten his
Qq95~.p 'r't~ ~.dA$j4f.4~T'~c~v.J 10ST' ~-
AT LYDIA MENDELSSOHN:
WASHINGTON - Things
fast in the House of Represen-
tatives. They move so fast that ex-
perts can hardly keep up wtl
In split seconds a motion is gay-
eled down. In a couple of seconds
a voice vote is rule on The hub-
bub, the whispered conversations
the- visiting along the aisle Is s
laud sometimes you can hadl
hear the speaker.yh
It was during this fast-movini
welter of debate last week that u
vote was taken which will meaz1
that the United States starts slip-
ping behind Russia on education
For 100 years or so the United
States has been well ahead of Rus-
sia on sehools, teachers, universi-
ties. Russian illiteracy under the
Czar was 75 per cent Now almost
every Russian can read and write,
in some, parts of Russia chi1
drer are required to spendI1 ye
in school-which means two com-
pulsory years of hgh 8chool -
ahead of some parts of the Unkted
New, modern schoolhouses have
been springing up all over Russia,
Amazing amounts of money have
been spent on them.
The state university of Kazakh
looks as modern as the Supreme
Court Building in Washington,
The new building of Moscow Uni-
versity cost $150,000,000 and re-
sembles a New York skyscraper, It
cost about as much as the entire
campus of many American col-
All in all, Russia is still behind,
but is catching up.
A REPUBLICAN banker' who
doesn't' like communism led the
battle to pass a school bill on the
turbulent floor of the house last
He is Sam McConnell of Ard-
more, Pa., the fashionable 'main
line just outside Philadelphia. He
traveled over the United .States at
his own expense studyifg schools,
decided they were vitally needed.
This will be Sam's last session
of Congress. He is retIring at -he
end of the year. And the attempt
to pass the school bill was his last
big battle. He lost it.
The man who outmaneuvered
him was another Republican, Con-
gressman "Two-Cadillac" Charley
Halleck, who came to Washington
a poor country lawyer from north-
ern Indiana. Now he Is wealth.
Charley sent his children to 'pri-
vate schools, the most expensive
in Washington. So public schools
aren't important to him.
But to Sam McConnell, wealthy
investment banker, they are. Dur-
ing the school debate, another Re-
publican, Bill Ayres, of Akron,
Ohio, proposed substituting the
original Eisenhower school bill, for
the McConnell-Democratic comn
promise bill. This distributed fed-
eral funds on the basis of need,
not on the basis of both popula-
tion and need.
Up jumped "Two . Cadillac"
"Now this is the bill the presi-
dent really wants," he declared
"I could support this amendment.
LATER HALLECK had this re-
mark censored from the coigres-
siona record - for reasons that
will become obvious in a minute.
At this point, Northern Demo
crats came over to Sam McCon-
nell, told him they would throw
their full weight behind the Ayres
McConnell was djubilant. He
jumped up, started to telephone
the White House, confident he
could get an immediate message
from Eisenhower supporting the
Before he could act, Halleck
went over to Congressman How-
ard Smith of northern Virginia,
leader of the conservative DIxIe-
Republican coalitin. They knew
the tide was going against them;
a school bill might 'be passed,
Smith then moved to strike the
enacting clause of the original
This forestalled McConnell's
move to phone the White House
and pass the Ayres Republican bill
which Northern Democrats had
"Two-Cadillac" Charley then
voted with the Dixie-GOP coali-
tion to kill the bill and promptly
had his own earlier remarks ex-
punged from- the record.
That's how fast things move in
the House of Representatives.
That's also how hypocritical some
Congressmen can be.
(Copyrigt 1957 by Bell Syndicate Inc.).
D aoN o*s
Drama of Onw- O I E d
iTERPRETING THE NEWS:
By J. M. ROBERTS
Associated Press News Analyst
[DAY'S statement of Allied policy regard-
g the future of Germany didn't mention
there's always one thing to remember.
Western European Union was devised
means of connecting a rearmed West
mny with the North Atlantic Treaty Or-
tion. But that is by no means its only
he same time it gives the Allies the benefit
.man military power in the general de-
poisture, it also gives them a check on
ower to see that it shall not outstrip the
unity need and again become a threat to
e lies the bars to an Austrian-type settle-
which some people have suggested might
ally be the solution for a unified Ger-
VERNON NAHRGANG, Editor
The Big Three and the Germans will not
agree to a neutralized and disarmed Germany.
Permanent disarmament for a nation such as
Germany is impossible.
France and Britain, and presumably the
United States, will not agree to an armed but
neutralized Germany, as in Austria, because
that would mean the end of'the ability to limit
her military strength to the community need.
France, Britain and the United States say
they will leave it to a unified Germany as to
decide whether it remains associated with
If time should undermine that estimate, how-
ever, and Germany should show signs of pre-
ferring neutralization, the Big Three would
have to reassess their position.
France has made notable concessions since
World War II in order to advance the cause of
Western European unity, especially in the Saar
matter, but there is no prospect that she will
give up her checks on German militarism.
This, then, is always in the background when
German reunification is under discussion, and
will be a major factor in any negotiations with
Russia such as are now suggested.
' The four-power statement is, of course, a
reply to suggestions from Moscow for new nego-
tiations on Germany, and on a nonaggression
By WILLIAM HAWES
Daily Television Writer
NEITHER Webster's nor Aris-
totle's definition of drama ap-
plies to modern plays. Webster's
most profound definition of drama
is "the quality of being dramatic."
But it is perfectly clear that
quality has little or nothing to do
with modern drama. Aristotle on
the other hand provided an even
more complicated definition. He
included the "unities:" time, place,
and; the girl. Since his day they've
Television, for instance, defined
"time" as meaning anywhere be-
tween commercials; the theater
defined "place" as an interior set,
preferably a. living room; Holly-
wood limited the "girl" to 42-28-36.
With such restrictions modern
drama may be simply defined as
the revelation of anything at all.
A tragedy, therefore, is any show
which didn't get a larger audience
than its competitors; whereas a
comedy is any show which did.
To illustrate, There was 'a fabu-
lously successful comedy earlier
this year. I don't remember the
name. It was about a ragged but
pretty young girl who kept house
for her two ugly sisters all day.
Now this sweet child had a won-
derful life. She sang, she dreamed,
and she appeared quite content.
Then* she attended some big
social affair. The result was she
married some unhappy fellow she
This brings me to the other
category-tragedy. Tragedy isn't
as good a box office as comedy..
The reason is because it's about
discontented people. And who
wants to see them on TV when
there are so many discontented
people around all the time? An-
swer: People who need a cathartic
(that's from Aristotle too). In
short, they want to cry.
Here's a typical story of dis-
contentment. I saw it on Matinee
Theater (NBC-TV) recently.
A real swell young fellow; who
has centered his life on a military
school, works hard enough to be-
come chief personality potentate
as well as First Captain. Alonh
comes the villain-a sweller fellow
who is-on, the faculty.
Immediately the young cadet
burns with a jealousy complex.
Well, 56 minutes and several dia-
bolical schemes later,,the captain
now a private-realizes the error
of his ways.
Or, Climax (CBS-TV) featured
"King of the Mountain." This was
about a proxy fight for control of
a big company. Adversaries were
the conservative old man who
founded the company aind the
liberal new one who wanted to ex-
Well, 56 minutes and two com-
mercials later, the liberal man won.
And you can bet it was pretty
heart-breaking to watch t h a t
lonely old man, who had devoted
his life tn gettinr rich nff +hat
Within the next 56 minutes all
Hades broke loose., Both older.
couples (some relatives were also
present) confessed they didn't
have enough love in their own
lives. Sad, boy, it was sad.
Another recent heartbreaker was
-"Summer Return" (Video Theater,
NBC-TV). The revelation this time
was about a young girl 'who loved
a young guy but owed something
(marriage) to an old guy. Oh, you
know this plot. too do .you? That's
what I thought.
NOW MY complaint with these
shows (which I might say were
well produced) is this: I know mom
and dad are inconsiderate, I know
the younger generation hasn't any
sense, I know beautiful girls marry
old men. And I know TV costs
money. No one needs to take an
hour to dramatize these facts.
What I want to understand is:
Why is a girl happier (if she is),
if she marries a handsome fellow
and has nothing to do all day but
look beautiful? Why do men build
financial kingdoms and exclude
living? Why do parents think they
could choose better mates for their
Why does an old man f9ll for a
young girl when he's got a re-
spectible wife already? Why does
a seemingly well-adjusted cadet
become maliciously jealous- of
The Daily Official Bulletin In