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July 25, 1957 - Image 2

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1957-07-25

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"Do You Think It's Cooling Off A Little?"

Sixty-Seventh Year

'b Opluoua AnPh
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Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily ex pres the individual opinions of staff writers or
the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

DAY, JULY 25, 1957


Education by Television:
Two V iewpoints
1assroom Video Use: Importance of Teacher
Intellectual Automation' Not Found in Machine

r E ADVENT of television as a major fac-
tor in formal American education must be
regarded seriously by all those concerned with
the future intellectual and social development
of our nation's youth.
There is no question about the medium's ef-
fectiveness as a visual aid. Scientific experi-
ments and medical operations, which could
not be readily seen by many members of a
class, can be brought right before the viewer's
eye through video.
Instruction in areas such as drama could be
made more meaningful for high-school stu-
dents If a different class each week were as-
signed to produce a short play which would be
shared by students in other high-school class-
Elementary school pupils, not able to make
frequent field trips outside the school, could
have various aspects of the ;community, in-
cluding its leading officials, brought directly
to them every day over the television receivers
In1 their classrooms. A possible series title would
be "Wide, Wide City."
'f E TWENTY-FIVE existing educational
television stations, with the assistance of the
Ford Foundation's Educational Television and
Radio Center here in Ann Arbor, have done a
great deal to provide cultural "enrichment"
programming in the evening hours for viewers
whose interests are not satisfied by the medioc-
rity of most commercial television.
Adult education/"telecourses" for credit have
proved highly Successful for post-college-age
students unable to get away from their homes
to attend on-campus classes.
However, when prominent educators, such
as the University of Detroit's President, the
Very Rev. Fr. Celestin J. Steiner, suggest a
wholesale replacement of many teachers by
television, a frightening porgram of "intellec-
tula automiation" of the future can be en-
AT LEAST 100 freshmen at U of D will be
able to take the lecture and demonstration
portion of their courses next fall for a full
15-credit program over home receivers in 15
thirty-minute segments a week.
Students will be required to go to campus
only once or twice a week, depending on the
courses they are taking, for group discussion
and examinations.
The main reason given by Father Steiner for
the rapid development of "telecourses' on a
full-time basis on the college level is the in-
adequacy of qualified teachers and building
Other proponents of educational television,
such as "Reporter" columnist William Harlan
Hale, also say that there are "not enough good
teachers to go around."
CONSEQUENTLY, the logic goes, we need
only a few "master" teachers to undertake
the major portion of our pedagogic tasks.
The continuance of basic person-to-person
relationships, as difficult as it seems, is vital
to the creative educational process.
Certainly, numerous tests can be cited show-
ing how students taking telecourses do as'well,
if not better, than those attending lectures.
But no test can measure comparatively the
total effects of a college education, the count-
less hours spent in bull sessions - frequently
related to school subjects, and the occasional
rich relationships, a student may develop with
an instructor or two.
In truth, there is probably not really a short-
age of qualified teachers as much as there is
a shortage of educated persons willing to en-
dure the inconveniences of the teaching pro-
Iadequate pay is certainly one deterrent
factor. But even more discouraging to potential
teachers is the over-bureaucratic, basically
non-democratic structure of many school sys-
tems in which administrators treat members of
the faculty as if they were pupils, themselve.
PROBLEM of staffing our schools in
view of the impending deluge of new stu-
dents on all educational levels is definitely a
serious one.
However, it seems that the use of television
-essentially a high-powered and extremely
effective audio-visual aid - as a solution to the
dilemma is only part of a futile attempt to
avoid more basic problems of our educational
philosophy, both in theory and in practice.

The video "gimmick" cannot solve the prob-
lems of conformity, inertia,.and over-conserva-
tismwhich seem to plague so many of our
people at the present time.
Editorial Staff

THE PROBLEM of rising enrollments in our
schools and colleges, seen as a serious threat
to the standards of higher education, is be-
coming more intense with the opening of each
new fall term.
At the same time, each school appears to be
coping with this problem in its own different
way. The University is meeting the growth in
numbers through expansion - both local, on
North Campus and at the new Dearborn Cen-
ter, and state-wide, at the Flint campus. Mich-
gan State University has met the problem by
closing its doors to the excess student popula-
tion and limiting enrollments. The University
of Detroit is solving the problem by offering,
beginning this September, a program of edu-
caton-by-television wherein students will be
taught at home through their television sets.
While expansion seems the most valid solu-
tion to the problem of absorbing additional
students, it does have forseeable limits. The
costs involved are not only high, but their
source is greatly in doubt. The extent to whicfi
a school may expand and still retain respect-
able academic standards is also dubious. And
nany other problems concerning adequate per-
sonnel and satisfactory facilities also remain.
A closed-door policy, while certainly main-
taining high academic standards within the
school, would be a serious threat to the Ameri-
can promise of higher education for all. Lim-
iting enrollments does not solve the problem;
it merely intensifies it.
ON THE other hand, the prospect of televis-
vising education appears to be the most
workable method of teaching vast numbers of
students - as violently as it may depart from
contemporary theory and practice in teaching.
The size of the audience may reach any num-
ber and the quality of telecourses may be of
any degree.
Indeed, there are no forseeable limits to edu-
cation by the television screen. The prospects,
while still hazy today, can at least be recog-
nized as being almost unlimited.
Our minds are crossed by visions of student
legions seated in front of that instrument of
mass communication, receiving mass education
and instruction, all at the same time. The sight
of vast numbers of people listening, unable to
question or talk back, writing and learning the
same thing at the same time.
Or, if telecourse receiving were an individual
matter, there comes the view of solitary per-
sons, watching, wondering, trying to keep up
with the pace, perhaps switching channels, per-
haps dozing.
Yes, the prospects for education-by-television
are many.
BUT EDUCATION is primarily and without
exception a voluntary process. And that
process needs encouragement and stimulation
to exist.
This is the major impediment in the way
of mass education by mass communication.
Therstudent learns onlyas much as he wants
to learn. The knowledge he derives from study
is in direct proportion to the amount of time
he spends in serious study and research. At
the same time, as good as the student's inten-
tions may be, the often laborious nature of
study (although always eventually rewarding)
can be and is too often discouraging and tedi-
ous, leaving the student susceptible to numer-
ous distractions.
,This is where the leadership and knowledge
of the teacher comes in. Without the expert
who has already followed the same paths of
learning standing by to guide and encourage
and enthuse, all but the most devoted and
monk-like students are lost, unable to follow
the tortuous trails.
Anyone can attempt to teach, but it is the
real teacher who shows the student how to
learn. The real teacher is effective as a person
and not as a machine.
Television, of course, is a machine. Whether
the personality of the real teacher can be
transmitted by a machine without losing any
of its effect is highly questionable. The most
likely result of such a venture would probably
be to cancel out the person with the machine,
leaving the student without that imperatbe
element of the encouraging personality so es-
sential to learning.
MOREOVER, what administrators and other
would-be educators often overlook is that
education is that individual, voluntary process.

The student does not learn fhrough lectures
alone, but through the reading and research
that is supplemented by lectures.
The student must discover for himself the
facts that he wants to learn. It is not suffi-
cient for him to be told them.
Television would obviously operate in the
opposite way. It would expect rapt attention
from the viewer, who; in turn, would be quizzed
on the material shown him.
The University of Detroit's system appears to
resemble this. Students would watch television

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W: C:$?narnamqw........Ux...
OF THE "MANY" long discus-
sions about our respective doc-
trines which he had with Marshal
Zhukov some twelve years ago,
one point in particular seems to
stand out in the President's mind.
The 'Soviet commander had as-
serted that Communism is "ideal-
istic" whereas our doctrine is "ma-
The President remembers that
he "was very hard put to it" to
reply. Judging by his remarks at
the press conference last week, he
still feels that he did not win the
argument by a knockout.
The two soldiers were agreed, we
learn, that a system is idealistic
if its ideal is that people should
"believe that their greatestsatis-
faction in life is in sacrificing for
the state, giving to the state."
Theirs, it would seem, "not to
make reply, their not to reason
why, theirs but to do and die."
With this military definition of
the ideal society, Gen. Eisenhow-
er was bound to be in trouble
about the comparative idealism of
Communism and liberal democ-
This was especially the case
when, in describing our own soci-
ety, he accepted the view of Mar-
shal Zhukov that "a man can earn
what he pleases, save what he
pleases, buy what he pleases."
No wonder the argument of the
two soldiers was, as the President
said on Wednesday, "very tough."
Both of them were hazy not only
as to what were their "respective
doctrines" but as to what was in
fact the character of their two so-
AS WE SEE him through the
President's recollections, Marshal
Zhukov was then a veteran pro-
fessional soldier but a new, raw,
and very naive amateur in the
Communist Party.
He had found it easy and con-
venient to believe that the Com-
munist ideal is the ideal of the
soldier, sworn to live and die obey-
ing the orders of the rulers of the
Bravely, he assured the Ameri-
can general that Stalin did not
"force" the contribution of the
people to the state. State was
"teaching a people to support that
This, argued the Marshal, was
very idealistic. It was more ideal-
istic than any other social system.
Is it not idealistic to give, like a
soldier, everything to the state?
And is it not very idealistic of
Stalin to teach people to enjoy be-
ing so idealistic?
* * *
HAD SOMEONE, who was versed
in Leninism, been present at these
discussions, he would have pointed
out that the word "teaching" cov-
ered the whole vast apparatus of
the so-called dictatorship of the
The earlier Marxists, those be-
fore Lenin, had believed that
there would beadbrief regrettable
but necessary, period of dictator-
ship for the purpose of socializing
the means of production.
But then human nature would
become re-educated to selflessness
by the new institution of social-
ist property. After that there
would be no more need of coer-
cion ,and the state would wither
Lenin, who was quite truly the
founder of Soviet Communism,
was a harsh and implacable real-
ist. He would have had only scorn
for the two tender-minded gener-
als in search of idealism.
And so, no doubt sincerely but
most naively, Marshal Zhukov was
telling Gen. Eisenhower an old
fairy tale. It was the tale of an
ideal condition of selflessness, of
'a community of the regenerate,
which for thousands of years has

been the dream of many religious
communities, among them the
early Christians.
The dream is entirely unrelated
to the realities of the Soviet state,
or to the teachcings of Lenin, who
is its prophet.
IN THE liberal democratic or-
der the ideal is not that the high-
est good is to sacrifice for the
state. The state exists for the good
of man.
The highest political good is
that the sacrifice must be justified
to the people of the community,
that it must be explained, debated,
assented to, and that there shall
be an audit and a reckoning after
the sacrifice has bee nmade.
It is true, as Marshal Zhukov
said, that the liberal democratic
order permits everyone to "do any-
thing." Gen. Eisenhower should
have had no difficulty replying
to that.
For all our economic activities
take place within an environment
of laws and customs which regu-
lates them. Men, women and chil-
dren work within the laws of prop-

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' -,,o .

Golden Demon"Color Poetry

PASSION flourishes in the "Gold
en Demon." And so does the
acting. And so does the Eastman
The opening scene is a tricky-
looking card game being played by
several young 'people. They are
kneeling in two long rows opposite
each other. The idea, as near as I
could gather, is to grab one of your
opponents cards before he catches
Anyway, gaily grabbing at each
others' cards aretwo guys and a
girl. Yes, sir you guessed it: a
triangular romance. One guy call-
ed Tomiyama,is rich; the other,
Kan-ichi, is poor. The girl, Miya,
to the editor
(Editor's Note: Letters to the Edi-
tor must be signed, in good taste, and
not more than 300 words in length.
The Daily reserves the right to edit
or withhold letters from publication.)
Zealousness .
To the Editor:
ZEALOUSNESS may be an attri-
bute when mingled with wis-
dom, but, more often than not, the
zealot permits nis zeal to becloud
his perspective and harm his
cause. We hope the Daily's editor
does not find himself in such a
predicament during his tenure. As
a case in point we cite his rather
headlong condemnation's of the
administration's fiscal policies.
We agree that more coordina-
tion within the executive branch
might prove beneficial to the na-
tion, the administration, and
quite possibly to the President's
party. However, past perform-
-ances of both parties fail to guar-
antee such benefits.
During the last quarter cen-
tury many of us have heard vari-
ous descriptive phrases applied
to that rarely attained goal (3
times between 1931 and 1956) of a
balanced budget. We were under
the illusion that it was a laud-
uble objective, supposedly cov-
eted by Democrat as well as Re-
publican. Now 'we have had two
consecutive balanced budgets and
surpluses and a third is in pros-
pect. But 10 and behold, what do
we find in your editorial of Satur-
"The announcement that the
Administration balanced the bud-
get last year-and made a little
surplus-comes merely as another
complication in the growing con-
fusion in Washington over the
Federal government's spending."
The laudable goal is reduced to
a 'complication'. Fie on those
wretches! As if our poor Congress-
men were not beset with enough
complications already. To horse
men! Chase the rascals out! Un-
balance that budget.
As for the contention that "the
amount of skulduggery and throat-
cutting in Washington is nearing
an all-time high," some of us

loves - well, you know -- the poor
guy of course.
The poor guy however would like
to go to Europe to study but he
hasn't the money. Through some
reasoning, utterly beyond me, Miya
(with the help of her parents) de-
cides that she can get the poor
fellow enough money if she marries
the rich one, Tomiyama.
IT JUST so happens that Miya
is engaged to Kan-ichi though.
Kan-ichi, moreover, does not seem
to understand her reasoning any
better than I did. So the engage-
ment is broken.
You can imagine what happened.
The poor fellow' is obsessed with
making money. He becomes a kind
of Shylock or Scrooge. Only he is
better looking. Meanwhile Miya,
married to the millionaire's son
by now, pines over her mistake. .
Naturally Kan-ichi who is also
Innocent as a lark meets a way-
ward, heartless, female fatal, who
plans to entice him. Well, you can
fill in the rest. Or you can see the
movie. I think you'll enjoy it.
If not for the plot, which is a
rather poetic and romantic dish
to digest with modern day cyni-
cism, then for the superb acting
and simply beautiful color photo-
FOREIGN FILMS are especially

beneficial though because they
satisfy certain curiosities. For
instance, Japanese shoes have
always appeared to be so awkward.
In this film however I noticed
no one had the slightest difficulty
moving around, gracefully too. And
yet I didn't see any of the women
walking as if they were tip-toeing
on hot coals which seems to be
the stereotype I see in plays over
It's refreshing to see color used
once again as if it were a con-
tributor to the art form ind not
merely the verification fact, such
as a tree's leaves are green. In-
stead.it was used to create atmos-
phere: to mold the story into
color-poetry. Rather like the
ballet expresses a story in move-
There was an especially good
use of solen blue-violet, smoky,
grays and browns. Color was used
symbolically; and although this
is necessary (to express joy say,
with bright yellow), such an ex-
pression lifts a somewhat tired
situation into a much higher realm
of experience.
Music, which in recent American
films has almost taken over the
dialogue, is used to provide this
lift too. At any rate such experi-
mentation with color is definitely
in the right direction.
-William Hawes

W ASHINGTON - When Presi-
dent Eisenhower appoints mili-
tary men to high office, he seems
to have a propensity for appoint-
Ing the wrong man to the wrong
place at the wrong time.
His first military appointee,
West Point classmate Gen. Joseph
Swing as commissioner of immi-
gration, became famous for using
government'automobiles to go
hunting in Mexico, using his per-
sonal, privileged position to obtain
a Mexican maid at low wages, and
using government airplanes for
political purposes.
On top of this, Gen. Herbert .
Vogel, appointed to be chairman
of the Tennessee Valley Authori-
ty, has proved himself a Prima
donna reminiscent of the days
when Washington fought over the
question of whether Dolly Gann,
half-sister of Vice-President Cur-
tis, should be seated at dinner
ahead of Alice Rosevelt Long-
worth, wife of the speaker.
Invited to attend a dinner by the
Junior Order of Mechanics hon-
oring AFL-CIO President George
Meany last month, General Vogel
refused to go in to the dinner be-
cause he wasn't seated at the head
General Vogel found himself
seated with a group of distin-
guished industrial and labor lead-
ers. but this did not please him.
He aptually threatened to leave.
Finally, it was learned that
Congressman Howard Baker of
Tennessee would not be able to
attend because of a death in his
family, and to keep the peace,
General Vogel was waltzed up to_
the speaker's table to take Baker's
AGAIN, the general was invited
to a meeting of the Delta Council
in Cleveland, Miss.' Speakers at
the meeting were Harvey Fire-
stone, head of the well-known rub-
ber company of that name, and
chief of army engineers, MaJ. Gen.
F. C. Itschner.
Once again, when Vogel was
not invited to sit at the speaker's
rostrum, he refused to attend the
General Vogel milled around
outside, showing his disgust fo~
the activities, then drove back to
On another occasion, President
Diem of the friendly country of
Viet-Nam, was visiting the Ten-
nessee valley.
General Vogel conducted Presi-
dent Diem on the tour, but, re-
turning to Knoxville, the Gener-
al switched the motorcade through
residential Knoxville so he could
stop off at his home. The general
got off, left the motorcade, sent
the president on to his hotel.
It is strict protocol that a for-
eign visitor be delivered to his
destination before the American
host leaves the entourage. State
Department officials were red-
faced, but found it impossible to
give orders to the grandstanding
general whom Ike appointed head'
of the Tennessee Valley Authority.
EISENHOWER now faces trou-
ble with another appointee to the
TVA-Arnold R. Jones.
Senators probing Jones's back-
ground have found that he a-
cepted fees as a lawyer while sup-
posedly serving the people of Kan-
sas on the State Corporation Com-
Since Eisenhower has appointed

more conflict-of-interest officials
than Any other president, It's a
safe bet the senators will take a
long look at Commissioner Jones
before they confirm him.
. (Copyright 1957 by Beli Syndicate Inc.)
The Dally Official Bulletin ts an
official publication of the Oniversity
of Michigan for which the Michi-
gan Daily assumes no editorial re-
sponsibility. Noticesshould be sent
in TYPE WRITTENq form, to Room
3519 Administration Building, be-
fore 2 p.m the .day preceding
publication. Notices for Sunday
Daily due at 2:00 p.m. Friday.
General Notices
Applications for Engineering 'Rie-
search Institute Fellowships to be
awarded for the fal semester, 1957-
1958. are now being accepted in, the
office of the Graduate School. The sti-
pend is $1,125 per semester. Application
forms are available from the Graduate
School. Only applicants who have been
empioyed by the Institute for at least
one year on at least a half-time basis
are eligible. Applications and support-
ing material are due in the office of
the Graduate Schol not later than
Public Lecture, 10th Annual Summer
Snti'. to ,'in rv i Research Tecth -

. 'I



asie' Worthwhile


ALL THAT a large, modern jazz
band would seem to require
was brought to focus last night at
Hill Auditorium by William
"Count" Basie and his 15 accom-
plished artists.
His message came from out of
the past, from the Kansas City
school of the 1930's, and with it
came the same driving power, the
same contagious rhythmic quali-
ties of the Basie band of that,
But with it, also, came the con-
temporary harmonies, the fresh,
virile i'deas of this age, the quali-
ties which keep the aggregation
at the same zenith level it en-
joyed before.
One found it difficult to keep
his feet stationery from the mom-
ent the band dove into its first
number to the final trade-mark
rendition, "One O'Clock Jump."
The exciting meld of sounds, con-
veyed with a rapport which practi-
cally identifies Basie, kept the
audience his captive for two solid
News From
MICHIGAN'S Republican sena-
tor, Charles- E. Potter, like
most other Congressmen, sends
out a weekly newsletter. "Senator
Potter Reports . . . the latest news:
from Washington of special inter-
est to Michigan. "'
He concludes his most recent

THERE WAS no program list-
ing the numbers of personnel, but
the Count blurted some of the
numbers and presented his squires
by name sufficiently to keep the
audience satisfied.
Basie fans of any long standing
must have been reminded of Jim-
my Rushing when his widely-
heralded successor, Joe Williams,
strode onto the stage and began
shouting those blues. Williams,
stiff in front of the mocrophone,
didn't require any physical gyra-
tions to convey his melancholy; his
rich, masculine, plaintive vocaliz-
ing spoke quite sufficiently.
Rhythm, a Basie byword,. was
omnipresent. Bassist Eddie Jones
showed amazing fluency on his
cumbersome instrument in his
solos; drummer 'Sonny Payne ex-
hilarated the assemblage with a
three-minute solo as the rest of
the musicians left the stage.
But as a section-therein lies
the importance of these two plus
Basie on the piano, and Freddie
Green on guitar. The bounces, the
relentless drive of the entire group
depends to a large extent on these
AN EXAMPLE of the new con-
cepts was the flute, as manipu-
lated by fiutist-saxist Frank Wess.
This was particularly outstanding
on a sprightly duet-with-rhythm
entitled, "The Midgets," which
Wessand trumpeter Joe Newman
Newman, too, was magnificent.
His facile trumpet drove the brass-
es to their peak and provided a
lively solo medium.
Ballads Bai beA. a nv~rf 'Basie





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