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July 14, 1955 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1955-07-14

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THURSDAY. 3IJLY 14. 1 95!K




Sixty-Fifth Year
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only. This must be noted in all reprints.
Comment on the Protest

Text of Protest to the Committee
Report on Faculty Rights, Duties


Of a Statement

"maybe We Could Speak To Him Some Other Time"
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"It is by the goodness of God that in our
country we have those three unspeakably
precious things; freedom of speech, free-
dom of conscience, and the prudence never
to practise either of them."-Mark Twain
HE TEXT protesting the report of the Sen-
ate Committee on Faculty Responsibilities
-whieh appears on this page-is an interesting
polemical tract. It was apparently drawn up
by five faculty members whose political bear-
ings are, at best, a little to the left of Ierbert
All, of course, will agree with the gentlemen
that there does exist an international Com-
munist conspiracy and that the American peo-
ple and the Government are perfectly justified
in making every effort to safeguard national
If this means trying and convicting Com-
munist lemers under the Smith Act, if it means
rooting out subversion and espionage, if it
means FBI surveillance of Communist activ-
ities, if it means armed preparedness to coun-
ter Soviet might, then no effort is stringent
enough. Few will challenge the r right of the
government to prosecute criminal acts against
the welfare of the American people. The sur-
vival of our society demands it.
On the other hand, when a government in-
vades the arena of political belief and a con-
gressional committee vilifies a man for his
convictions or utterances, past or present, it is
quite another matter. Such interference is a
direct violation of a man's right to privacy, of
his right to believe or not to believe, of his
right to speak or not to speak-and, as such,
smacks of alien elements.
For this reason, the very report which these
five men praise so highly-the statement of
the Association of American Universities-was
sharply critical of Congressional Committees
probing around educational institutions and
explicitly informed the bloodhounds that .it
was the responsibility of the respective univer-
sities, and not of the government, to handle
such affairs.
The position of most responsible educators
has been that, though we must secure ourselves
against subversive activities, it is absurd to
attempt to insulate ourselves against Com-
munist ideas.
There is, in the statement of the five, the
quixotic suspicion that this University is be-
ing or perhaps will be infiltrated by Commun-
ists, and that there is, alas, no defense. Where
are they? And whose minds are they abscond-
ing with?
There is, also, the underlying assumption
that freedom of speech should be restricted and
that a faculty member should keep his mouth
shut if his opinions, made public, might jeo-

pardize the reputation of the University. "It
seems to us intolerable," they say, "that any
man, under the delusions of academic free-
dom or otherwise, should put his personal
rights above the welfare of the University."
This is the cult of the public relations agent:
please everyone, offend no one.
It is also the cult of the bookburner. Car-
ried to its logical conclusion, the reasoning of
the five would justify the razing of the General
Library, with its hundreds of Communist books.
(That, of course, would be arsony, and arsony
is a felony.)
There is, in this protest, a cynical lack of
faith in the maturity of the university stu-
dent and in his ability to examine Communist
dogma and recognize it for the clap-trap it is.
If this lack of faith is valid, then the univer-
sity student is capable of absolutely nothing
and should be enrolled in a creche-where he
can be carefully nursed along-instead of a
It is also curious to note that the report, in
effect, insists that a faculty member who in-
vokes the Fifth Amendment is thereby a sus-
Certainly complete candor before a Congres-
sional Committee or any other governmental
agency is something that most of us would
strive for if confronted with a subpoena. Dr.
Paton would. Dr. Hatcher would. This writer
But we are not all alike. There are many
educators, haled before a committee, who have
invoked the Fifth Amendment, not because
they were Communists or had anything to hide,
but for a variety of other reasons. Some in-
voked it simply as a form of protest against
often intolerant, unqualified Congressmen pry-
ing into their personal beliefs. Others sincere-
ly objected to the inquistorial nature of some
of the hearings. Others, with moral aversions,
feared lest by their testimony they drag other
names through the mire.
Though we may be critical of them, their
action alone certainly does not justify dis-
missal from educational circles. if such a dras-
tic move is warranted, the burden of proof
should lie with the administration. It would be
folly on our part, as the protest suggests, to
scrap the principle that a man is innocent,
until proven guilty-the foundation of the de-
mocratic process.
As for the protest statement's conclusion
"that this lengthy and somewhat artful work
intends a criticism of the University admin-
istration for its handling of three difficult cas-
es . . ." that perhaps is precisely the point. So
It's unfortunate that the Faculty Senate re-
jected the committee's report, since its tren-
chant insight and courageous position make it
vastly superior to. the AAU statement.

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Although this report has good
points, it tends mainly to con-
fuse the issue. There are those of
us who are persuaded that it does
not express the thought and the
conviction of the majority of this
This report came into existence
because tenure cases involving
communist issues had arisen here.
That is precisely why we have this
report. Yet nowhere in it does the
word communism appear; nowhere
are the issues fairly discussed. In
nature it is a lecture, not a state-
ment of responsibilities. In fact,
it attempts to impose ideas that
would limit the freedom it pro-
fesses to defend. It is an evasive
document; and so dialectically skill
ful that were we to accept it we
should thereupon have no defense
against communist infiltration of
our University.
We find in this report continual
emphasis upon the point that we
"must assume innocence until guilt
is proved." But since a conspirator
can hide behind this assumption
as well as an innocent man take
refuge in it, and since the means
we have as a University of estab-
lishing proof are at times inade-
quate, we have had to rectify the
assumption. The corrective is pre-
cisely this: if a faculty member
called before a lawfully appointed
investigative body refuses to an-
swer pertinent questions, he shall
be held suspect. If he shall refuse
"on the ground that his answers
might tend to incriminate him,"
that person - according to the
Trucks Act - shall be held to be
a communist "or a member of a
communist front organization." In
this connection we are fortunate
in having a statement by E. Blythe
Stason, Dean of our Law School,
quoted as follows:
"The faculty member is, like all
other members of society, subject
to its laws and under a duty to
comply with the obligations of
citizenship. Among other duties is
the obligation to testify when call-
ed upon by lawful subpoena to do
so. If the subpoena is issued by a
lawfully constituted tribunal, it is
the duty of the citizens to testify
truthfully and .candidly, even
though he may disapprove the tri-
bunal or the end which it is seek-
ing to attain, subject, of course,
to the privilege against self-in-
It is our belief that this state-
ment expresses the judgment of
this faculty. However, the report
not only lacks such a statement
but asserts that a faculty member
has no such duty, but that he alone
has the right to determine when he
should remain silent. His motive
is inviolate.
The report has much to say
about candor. We welcome the
quotation on page three from a
statement by the Association of
American Universities.
"As in all acts of association,
the professor accepts conventions
which become morally binding.
Above all, he owes his colleagues
in the university complete candor
and perfect integrity, precluding
any kind of clandestine or con-
spiratorial activities. He owes equal
candor to the public. It he is
called upon to answer for his
convictions it is his duty as a
citizen to speak out. It is even
more definitely his duty as a pro-
fessor. Refusal to do so, on what-
ever legal ground, cannot fail to

reflect upon a profession that
claims for itself the fullest free-
dom available in out society. In
this respect, invocation of the Fif-
th Amendment places upon a pro-
fessor a heavy burden of proof of
his fitness to hold a teaching posi-
tion and lays upon his university
an obligation to re-examine his
qualifications for membership in
its society."
Unfortunately the report goes on
to undermine this statement by
saying that under certain cfrcum-
stances complete candor should not
be required and that the individual
should be the sole determinant of
these circumstances. It is our con-
sidered opinion that whre the
University's welfare is concerned,
the University should determine
whether complete candor' is re-
quired. The report also goes on to
imply that the individual is being
completely candid if he gives a
reasonable explanation for not an-
swering questions candidly. We
might ask here if it is a reasonable
explanation to say, "It is none of
your business." It is our opinion
that a refusal to answer reasonable
questions manifests an entire lack
of candor and throws doubt on the
individual's integrity. Such doubt
cannot help but reflect on the rep-
utation of the University as a
whole. In this connection the re-
port states on page two:
"A state university . . . cannot
reqtire its teaching staff to sur-
render any of their rights as men
or citizens, for it is not the organ
of any religious or industrial grpup,
nor even of a government, but of
society," and on page five, "It
follows that a professor may on
occasion have not only the right,
but the duty, to take a position or
to speak out even when doing so is
embarrasing to his university -
and the administrative officers of
the university have a duty to de-
fend and protect his freedom a-
gainst encroachment from any
source, whatever, even from so-
In brief, if words mean anything,
these words state that a professor
is not only beyond the laws of gov-
ernment, but beyond the restraints
of society itself.
We particularly object to these
two statements as it is our convic-
tion that every tacuty member has
a responsibility to the University
and to society, and that these two
responsibilities should be placed
above his personal privilege. It
seems to us intolerable that any
man, under the delusions of aca-
demic freedom or otherwise, should
put his personal rights above the
welfare of the University.
We disagree with the repudia-
tion of the AAU document found in
the closing section of the report
and we particularly object to the
statement that "it casts a shadow
of authority and intimidation."
In conclusion, we feel that this
work intends a criticism of the
University administration for its
handling of three difficult cases
and moreover appeals for and de-
clares a complete justification of
the attitude of the individuals in-
volved. We therefore hold that this
report is not satisfactory and that
it should not be adopted.
-Frederick A. Coller
Ernest Boyce
W. A. Paton
E. C. O'Roke
E. N. Goddard



Dixon-Yates and the Pentagon k

A Judge

CROSSING THE border into Hong Kong,
last Sunday afternoon, three men came
back. And, probably more than the rest of us,
they are wondering to what.
The other two American soldiers who return-
ed before them are now serving prison terms.
Seventeen more of the original 23 prisoners
of war who refused repatriation at Panmunjom
still remain behind the Bamboo curtain. One
died in Red China.
"Brainwashing" and "turncoats"-these are
the labels that have found their most valid
meaning in the minds of those who have under-
gone the horrible reality of their implications.
The rest of us can only sit by and hazard a
guess at some semblance of a definition. It is
one thing to be gored by a bull, and quite
another to merely sit on the sidelines as a
But, to whatever else these men might be
returning, we can be quite sure that the one
most certain thing is judgment. Almighty God
-in creating all men in His Image-seems tQ
have, inadvertently, created most of them in
His Role. There are more judges in this world
than cigarette butts, and every other citizen
seems to have pursued jurisprudence as an
avocation. It will be easy fob these men to
find both sympathy and condemnation.
Lest they be judged too hastily either way, it
might be well to remember that their acts
were committed under the impact of great emo-
tional and mental pressure. It is difficult to
The Daily Staff
Editorial Board
Jim Dygert Pat Roelofs Cal Samra
Mary Lee Dingier, Marge Viercy, Ernest Theodossin
Dave Rorabacher..........................Sports Editor

hold a man, who has undergone the brutal
brainwashing ordeal, accountable for his ac-
tions. These men have admittedly made a mis-
take under unusual circumstances, and they
should be judged accordingly. Perhaps they are
entitled to another chance.
It might be safe to wager that they have
learned more about the true meaning of free-
dom than most of us will ever know. Their com-
ing home could be a tribute, both to themselves.
-and to America.
--Roy Akers

WASHINGTON--A Congression-
al investigation into the man-
ner in which retired military of-
ficers use their Army-Navy ca-
reers to get into big business, then
use big business to influence gov-
ernment, has been long overdue.
Various Senators have talked
about such a probe, and one might
now be held in connection with
How much did certain high-
ranking Army-Navy officers have
to do with trying to kill off the
Tennessee V a11e y Authority
through Dixon-Yates? How close
were they to the first Boston Cor-
were they to the First Boston Cor-
close were they to General Eisen-
hower? These are questions a Con-
gressional committee might well
The facts go back to Pearl Har-
bor days when Frank Denton, pre-
sident of the Mellon Securities
Corporation, came to Washington
as a colonel working for the late
Gen. B. B. Somervell.
Colonel Denton in turn brought
George Woods, president of the
First Boston Corporation, to the
Army as part of Somervell's en-
tourage. It was General Somervell
who pushed Denton for promotion
to Brigadier General and, after
the war, General Denton, head of
Mellon Securities, in turn got Gen-
eral Somervell made President of
Mellon's Koppers Company.
Also after the war, George
Woods of the First Boston and
Denton of Mellon Securities mer-
ged their two companies; so that,
after 1946, Dick Mellon and his
sister, Mrs. Allan Scaife, control-
led the First Boston Corp., which,
it's now revealed, put Adolphe
Wenzell inside the Budget Bureau
to concoct the Dixon-Yates as a
means of blocking TVA.
THE STORY, however, does not
stop there. After the war,
another high -ranking officer,
Adm. Ben Moreell, was picked by
the Mellons to become head of
their Jones and Laughlin Steel Co.
And the other day, Admiral
Moreell, as a member of the Her-
bert Hoover task force on public
utilities, wrote a lengthy, highly
technical recommendation that
TVA be turned over to private
companies. Admiral Moreell, a fine
Naval officer, knows almost noth-
ing about public utilities, and it
would be interesting to ascertain
who wrote the report for him.
A Cnnof onmm -fc micr ^IV

and for Dixon-Yates. Why was it
that Ike picked this particular
army officer? Who recommended
him and why? Was he picked for
the special purpose of gradually
liquidating TVA and how close
was he to the first Boston-Mellon
was he to the First Boston-Mellon
A great many retired generals
have been appointed to high po-
sition of late and they should be
scrutinized carefully if we are to
safeguard our tradition of being
a nonmilitary nation.
LAST WEEK, Congressman Dew-
ey Short, Missouri Republican,
denounced as "terrible" the fact
that the Air Force had hired ano-
ther retired General, W. W. White,
Vice-President of Esso, to nego-
tiate oil and gasoline agreements
for the Air Force.
On Feb. 26, 1954, one year and
four months before the investiga-
tion by the House Armed Services
Committee, this column revealed
that Brig. Gen. White had been
hired by the Air Force for the
very dubious job of negotiating a
$30,000,000 agreement to sell avi-
ation gas to the Air Force over-
This, according to the column
of Feb. 26, '54, "constitutes about
tors," this column reported. "As
will be used by the Air Force over-
seas during the current fiscal year.
C o n g r e s s men investigating
White's analagous position on July
7, 1955, elicited the fact that he is
still drawing pay from the Esso
Export Corporation while working
for the Air Force.
want to be polite about it,
but they intend to tell Adft. Rich-
ard Byrd, the famous polar ex-
plorer, that they don't want him
to head then upcoming Antarctic
explorations. They favor a junior
officer, Capt. Finn Ronne, instead.
The Navy, however, is still back-
ing Byrd. He also has strong po-
litical support in the Senate where
his brother, Virginia's potent Har-
ry Byrd, and his in-law, Massa-
chusetts' long-faced Sen. Leverett
Saltonstall, can block funds for
the Antarctic expedition.
This presents a vexing problem
to the interdepartmental commit-
tee of the Antar'ctic, which in-
cludes such big names as Secre-
tary of the Interior McKay, Un-
dersecretary of Defense Anderson,
Assistant Secretary of State Liv-
ingston Merchant Weather Bureau
Chief Francis Reichelderfer and
TT .q Tfrmo-n- h r 'anir

increase U.S. knowledge of this
last great unexplored continent. A
Norwegian by birth, Ronne is now
a naturalized . citizen living in
Maryland. He accompanied Ad-
miral Byrd on two early Antarc-
tic expeditions and led his own
successful Navy expedition to both
the Arctic and Antarctic in 1946-
Last year, Sen. Francis Case,
South Dakota Republican, intro-
duced a bill authorizing govern-
ment aid to the nonprofit, sci-
entific American Antarctic Asso-
ciation. If this had passed, Ronne
would have headed up a civilian
Antarctic expedition. The bill was
blocked, however, by brother Har-
ry Byrd and Saltonstall, whose
daughter Emily married Admiral
Byrd's son.
The Navy also quietly let Ronne
know that, as a reserve officer, he
would be called to active duty and
shipped as far from the Antarctic
as possible if the bill passed. Ad-
miral Byrd, though retired, is a
flag officer and member of the
Annapolis clique. He is also still
the Navy's adviser on polar mat-
ters. That's why the backstage
battle is so intense.
(Copywright, 1955, by Bell Syndicate)




t is rather fortunate that Silvana Mangano,
one of Italy's favorite glamous girls, has a
rather strikingly attractive face. For it is this
.face upon which Producer Robert Rossen focus-
es all of his attention in the new "drama with
a different beat," Mambo.
Silvana is one of those Venetian street girls
who works her way up the Terpsicorean ladder
via the Katherine Dunham dance troop. Once
she has achieved stardom, she must choose
between no-good, alley-sneaking Vittorio Gass-
man and kindly, soon-to-die-of-a-strange-di-
sease Michael Rennie.
It does not matter that Silvana really marries
Michael for money to support Vittorio. What
does matter is that she falls in love with
Michael, and when he passes away, she goes
back to her dancing: "In . .. the absorbing
world of Mambo I could find forgetfulness of
the past and in time, peace and happiness."
Silvana, who prepared her musical numbers
with Choreographer Dunham, seems ill at ease
when she is pirouetting, but the cameraman
keeps his eye pointed at her face most of the
time. A very stunning woman .ilvana goes

The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the University
of Michigan for which the Michigan
Daily assumes no editorial responsi-
bility. Publication in it is construc-
tive notice to all members of the Uni-
versity. Notices should be sent in
TYPEWRITTEN form to Room 3553
Administration Building before 2 p.m.
the day preceding publication (be-
for 10 a.m. on Saturday.) Notice of
lectures, concerts and organization
meetings cannot be published oftener
than twice.
Health Service. The Ophthalmology
Clinic closes for the summer Sat., July
30. Summer Session students wishing
refractions should make appointments
well in advance of that time.
A firm in Southern Michigan is look-
ing for a Confidential Secretary for
the Chief Engineer. Girl should be 21
years of age and proficient in shorthand.
A knowledge of Engineering terms is
desirable but not essential.
Y.W.C.A., Nat'l. Board, N. Y., N. Y.,
offers positions to young women with
B.A. degrees or higher beginning Sept.

Canada Life Assurance Co., Jackson,
Mich. Div. - men in LS&A and BusAd
for Sales.
For appointments contact the Bureau
of Appointments, 3528 Admin. Bldg.,
Ext. 371.
Sixth Summer Biological Symposium,
auspices of the Division of Biological
Sciences. "Brain and Behavior II -
Isocortical Mechanisms," Karl H. Pri-
bram, Director of -the Department of
Neurophysiology, Institute of Living,
Hartford, Conn., 8:00 p.m., Rackham
Ampitheater, Thurs., July 14.
Department of Astronomy. Visitsrs'
Night, Fri., July 15, 8:30 p.m. Dr.
Kenneth M. Yoss of Louisiana State
University will speak on "Saturn -
The Ringed Planet." Following the
illustrated lecture in 2003 Angell Hall,
the Students' Observatory on the fifth
floor will be open for telescopic obser-
vation of Saturn and a nebula, if the
sky is clear, and for inspection of the
telescopes, exhibits and planetarium,
if the sky is cloudy or clear. Children
are welcomed, but must be accompanied
by adults.
A cademic Notices
Schools of BusIness Administration,

Seminar in Applied Mathematics will
meet Thurs., July 14, at 4:00 p.m. In
Room 247 West Engineering. Prof. Paul
Naghdi will speak on "The vibration of
Elastic Bodies Having Time-Dependent
Boundary Conditions."
Carillon Recital by Percival Price,
University Carillonneur, 7:15 p.m.
Thurs., July 14. Deyn's Andante Canta-
bile, Van Hoof's Sonata, Nees' Klacht
en Troost over Jef Denyn, 21art's Suite,
preludium capriccioso serenade, dansje
and tocccata, d'Arba's The Cattistock
Suite and Price's Variation for Carillon
on a Chime by Sibelius.
Events Today
The International Center Teas will be
held at Madelon Pound Home at 1024
Hill Street on Thursday from 4:30-5:30
The "Cercle Francais" the' "French
House" will sponsor a celebration in
commemoration of "Bastile Day" at 902
Baldwin, 8:30 p.m., on July 14. Election
of Miss Bastille. Open to public. Charge
per person, $1.00.
Hillel Foundation Thurs., July 14, 8:0O
p.m. Musicale featuring Brahms Double
Concerto in A Minor anr thA rqhai.



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