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July 05, 1955 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1955-07-05

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Sixty-Fifth Year
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only. This must be noted in all reprints.
The Draft and the Reserve

"Molotov To Kremlin - Am I Still Defrosting?"

The Democratic Congress
And Pres. Eisenhower


RUMBLINGS from Washington seem to in-
dicate that the long-suffering National
Reserve Plan, sponsored by the Administration,
will receive Its Congressional test very shortly.
With the added stimulus of the President's
intense support for the plan, the bill will
probably pass without a close appraisal of its
various facets.
President Eisenhower last week signed into
law a bill extending the draft for another
four years. The National Reserve Plan, a
separate bill, would not alter the two-year
draft. As presently conceived, it would con-
tinue Selective Service. Additionally, however,
the plan would create a large force- of active
reservists by placing a six-year Reserve. obli-
gation on"all veterans. This is the controver-
sial "back-door universal military training"
feature that would require most veterans to
train with a reserve unit and attend an an-
hual two-week summer training camp.
The rationale for this plan is basically
sound. It would enable the Department of
Defense to cut down on the regular armed
forces, particularly the Army, since it could
always rely on a large back-stop of trained
"civilian-soldiers" that couldbe called up in
the event of a national emergency. It is also
realistically compatible with the notion that
the Air Force, and not the Army, is now the
cynosure of the nation's defense.
There are, however, certain glaring weak-
nesses in NRP that merit closer scrutiny.
For one, the Reserve plan throws upon the
x houlders of veterans continued responsibility
for, the nation's defense. These veterans will
be required to bear this load for six years after
the completion of their regular tour of duty.
It is a long time to be faced with the spectre
of recall to active duty, and it's certainly dif-
ficult to plan for the future under such
. circumstances.
The fact so often ignored is that only a half
of the nation's young men are eligible for
duty. The remainder of the eligible population
is disqualified for both active and reserve duty
by physical or mental inadequacies.
It would seem more equitable, then, if the
reserve obligation for veterans were sliced
down to three years, instead of six. The re-
mainder of the reserve forces could conceiv-
ably be reinforced by those 4-Fs who have
minor disqualifying difficulties. These men
could be placed in non-combat or administra-
E ive positions that, if war came, would not be
hazardous. The administrative occupations of
the armed forces are vast and extensive, and
nost of them do not require perfect health,
.specially in peacetime.
T HE SECOND FLAW in the proposed reserve
plan is its failure to recognize the dual
: ature of the present National Guard-Reserve
program. In each of the 48 states, there is a
para-military National Guard organization,
.nder the wing of the state government but
also responsible to the federal government in
;he event of emergency. There is also in each
>f the 48 states a voluntary' reserve system
;hat is directly responsible to the Department
>f Defense. There are then, two para-military
3rganizations in each state, with similar mis-
ions but with two entirely different chains
>f command. Both are supposedly reserve
forces but are perpetually at odds with each
other in countless ways.
The integration and streamlining of the
Rational Guard and the Reserve program
within each state should therefore be a pri-
:nary objective of any new reserve plan. One
expanded para-military organization, with one
mhain of command, is sufficient for each state.
This newly-amalgamated organization should,
.owever, be maintained under the control of
the state adjutant general, with close liaison
with the federal government.
The important point is that any new para-
nilitary organization should be decentralized.
The military in our society has at times tend-
3d to overextend its influence into civilian
affairs. Decentralization will insure control of
, para-military organization by the civilian

authorities in each state. In any democracy-
)n either the state or national level-subordi-
iation of the military to the civilian is an
indispensable principle.

THE DAY of world peace, when military
problems will be poorly understood topics
in history books, has not yet arrived. Neither
has the day of completely push-button war-
fare with its limited manpower needs.
The United States, therefore, has the choice
of two methods of establishing and maintain-
ing a reserve pool of trained man power
necessary to preserve national security. The
first choice, a large standing army, is con-
trary to American tradition and is impossible
to support in an economy geared to peace-
time needs. The only other alternative is to
establish a strong reserve force that can be
called upon in an emergency.
Recently, there .has been an attempt in
Congress to clarify the badly-muddled re-
serve situation, though with little success. The
members of Congress have allowed political.
considerations to come before the security
of the country. By having to insert an amend-
ment that would have made segregation ille-
gal in the National Guard, certain members
of Congress succeeded in pigeon-holing the
bill. Many congressmen seem to be afraid to
vote on a bill that might be opposed by the
short sighted "mothers" of America.
The isolationist element showed that they
still are capable of gaining their ends. By
inserting an amendment that would have
made it illegal to station our troops in na-,
tions where military personnel can be tried.
by local courts, they would. have completely
crippled the reserve bill. Only by adroit man-
euvering were the leaders in Congress able to
remove this amendment without having to
vote against the entire bill.
The first fact that Congress must recognize
is that the reserve program is going to hurt a
lot of people. The failure of the voluntary re-
serve program in recent years proves that it
needs some- form of compulsion. However, dis-
agreeable as the idea of attending a reserve
meeting once a week may be, it is much more
desirable than having a small bomb dropped
on the family hearth.
In order that the load of the reserve pro-
gram may fall on everyone, not just a few, it
must be a part of a system of universal mili-
tary training, whether it goes under that name
or some other name, that doesn't carry the
same semantic stigma.
A year of active duty, preferably at the age
of 18, devoted to basic training and introduc-
tory training in military specialty, followed by
six years of further training and practice inj
the reserves is the minimum requirement for
maintaining a strong reserve force.
Though the reserve program must be re-
garded as a stop-gap measure until world ten-
sions ease, it must be well-planned to present
the best reserve force in the world until that
time arrives.
-Ken Johnson

UNTIL VERY recently Mr. Eis-
enhower has acted like a man
who, knowing his duty, is deter-
mined to grin and bear it. But in
the past weeks he has been talk-
ing and acting with a kind of
ease and good humor which no
one can put on if he does not feel
them. I would not suppose that
this is due to his having reached
a decision, say about 1956, which
takes a load off his mind. For the
position of being able to take i
or leave it in 1956, with so many
begging him to take it, is a pleas-
ant one for any man to be in.
It is also a position of maximum
political strength. It compels all
the Republicans, except the Mc-
Carthy splinter, to toe the line,
and it keeps the Democrats off
balance for the Presidential con-
The most probable explanation
of why he is enjoying his office is
that, like the rest of us, he likes
his work when things go well. He
liked his work least, so it appeared
to me, just before he extricated
himself from the dilemma into
which he had been maneuvered
over those wretched off-shore is-
And ever since the Austrian
treaty, there has been no mistak-
ing his feeling that while Mr. Dull-
es, with his sterner conscience,
still won't let him hope for much,
he does not now have to fear the
himself to be drafted, the most
interesting question about 1956 is
whether the people will vote to
keep the present combination of
Eisenhower and a Democratic
I do not think it is any exagger-
ation to say that Mr. Eisenhower's
success as President began when
Republicans lost control of Con-
gress and of the standing com-
mitees. In his first two years he
suffered an almost unbroken re-
cord of frustration and of domi-
nation by the senior Republicans,
and particularly the Republican
committee chairmen, in the Sen-
They invaded, knocked about,
infiltrated, smeared and terroriz-
ed the Administration's personnel
to the verge of paralysis and de-
moralization. Worse than that,
they terrorized some of the high-
est officials of the Eisenhower
Cabinet into countenancing, and
indeed participating in, acts of

injustice-as in the Oppenheimer,
Davies, Ladejinsky cases-which
will not soon be forgotten.
Most dangerously of all, they
held the President and Secr'etary
Dulles captive and on so short a
string that the effective control of
foreign policy was in the hands of
a few Senators.
The reaction of these dark do-
ings set in before the Congress-
ional election of 1954. But the de-
feat of the Republican chairmen,
and the demotion of Senator
Knowland from the post of leader
of the Senate, have been decisive
in making it possible for Mr. Eis-
enhower to be a successful Presi-
The President has recovered the
control, or at least the right and
power to control, the integrity and
the security of the executive de-
partment. The injustices that have
been done have not yet been right-
ed. But there is a disposition to
think twice before heading into
any more big witch hunts.
Since the new Congress came to
.Washington, the President has
slowly but surely recovered con-
trol of the conduct of foreign
policy. With all the Democrats
and about half the Republicans
behind him, there has been no
chance for Senator Knowland, or
for the China war party, not to
speak of Senator McCarthy, to
dominate the President - no
chance, that is to say, unless Pei-
ping did something sufficiently
provocative to give Chiang the op-
portunity to entangle gus.
This did not happen. An im-
portant reason why it did not
happen was that the Administra-
tion had recovered control of for-
eign policy and was able to use
diplomacy in Peiping and in For-
mosa. I do not think they could
have used diplomacy of this kind
in 1953 and 1954.
If Mr. Eisenhower decides to
run again, one of his big head-
aches will come from the fact that
as party leader he must work for
a Republican Congress and frown
upon the Democrats. Yet as Pre-
sident he needs a Democratic Con-
For in his second term there
would be a long and hard Repub-
lican struggle for the succession
in 1960, there being no obvious
candidate to follow Eisenhower.
The senior Republicans in the
Congress, who are the great pow-
ers in the Republican party organ-
ization, are opposed to the general
tendency of the program of the
Eisenhower wing of the Party.
(Copyright, 1955, N.Y. Her. Trib., Inc.)




4ef95rTow w6 'sUtA6TO P*4r 'coo


A Young Fellow from Philly


A t the Michigan ...
FOXFIRE, with Jane Russell and Jeff Chan-
THIS picture is all about the troubles which
crop up when Apaches marry rich girls like
Jane Russell, and about digging around under
Arizona looking for gold. For a long, long time
nothing ,happens, and then everything is
straightened out.
Jane Russell's mother owns a New York
newspaper, and spoils Jane. When the girl hap-
pens across Jeff Chandler (who is slowly mak-
ing his way out of Indian-hood-a half-breed
this time) she decides to marry him, and does.
After that she has to change his quaint Indian
ways and make him dependent upon her. This
she accomplishes by skillfully maneuvering her
way through a miscarriage and a mine disaster.
Since the story is by Anya Seton, there are a
raft of pathetic feminine touches, such as Jeff
Chandler's aging Apache mother who is a tour-
guide on an Indian reservation, and has a love-
ly Viennese accent. The Arizona scenery is oc-
casionally impressive, but there are those of us
who would rather see Jane underwater.
At the State...
CHIEF CRAZY HORSE, with Victor Mature
and Suzan Ball.
HERE AT LEAST are Indians with guts. Vic-
tor Mature, in pigtails, is a chieftain with
Messianic tendencies who does away with Cus-
ter at the Little Big Horn. He has a lovely wife
and many Nordic-looking relatives, but his best
friend is John Lund, who portrays a white doc-
+^ mf, tirT~ 1-imyfn ~aaanan9n~iaman

WASHINGTON-A young fellow
from Philadelphia came to
Washington the other day and
held a press conference. His name
is Robert Rosamond and it was
easy to see that he wasn't used to
holding press conferences. He had
no sensational news to give out,.
no exciting story to tell, and he
wasn't well-known enough or im-
portant enough to command an
You could see that he felt very
deeply about his story, but he
didn't know how to tell it, and
being quite young and relatively
insignificant, he laid an egg in the
So I'm afraid Robert Rosamond
went back to Philadelphia a
crushed and disappointed young
Actually he had the greatest
story in the world to tell-peace.
But the story of peace never seems
to arouse any excitement in times
of peace. It's only a big story in
time of war or the threat of war.
So in blase, busy Washington,
Robert Rosamond got nowhere.
However, I would like to report
on his idea, because I think it has
merit, especially on this day when
here at home we celebrate our In-
dependence, and when abroad the
,cold war clouds seem to be break-
ing up a bit and when we need to
encourage the break-up further.
Mr. Rosamond proposes that
since the United States was
founded by a Declaration of In-
dependence, we now go one step
further and- adopt a "Declara-
tion of Interdependence," a state-
ment recognizing the fact that we
have grown while the world has
shrunk and in these days of inter-
continental missiles which may be
shooting from Moscow to New
York in two hours, there just isn't
any independence anymore.
The isolationists may scoff at
this, but unfortunately it's true.
The United States has to be inter-
dependent with the rest of the
world. And the richer we are the
more interdependent we are.
So maybe an inspiring Declara-
tion of Interdependence couched
in the ringing style used by Tho-
mas Jefferson when he spent 18
days in Philadelphia writing the
stirring words of July 4, 17 t.
mighi help to inspire us, and unite
the world as it creeps aloag the
difficult road to peace.
Maybe some&.y the worid will
realize that onely Robert R,)ss-
mond, who held a press '!onfer'-
encedin a blasedbusy city to pro-
mote peace, had the germ of a
real idea after all.
A GOOD MANY years ago when
newspaper editors could still
set up a hand press and a news-
naner on a shoestring in frontier

The other day in Fort Worth,
Amon Carter died. Silliman Evans
went to his funeral. There Evans
suffered a heart attack and went
to join his old friend and boss.
Thus passed on a pair unique
in American journalism. Amon
Carter was best-known for giving
five-gallon hats to distinguished
visitors. He was "Mr. Ft. Worth."
He built up that city, gave it the
finest airport in the U.S., made
the rivalry between Dallas and
Fort Worth a very personal mat-
But not all that Amon Carter
did got into the newspapers. When
we organized the friendship train,
he quietly gave 14 carloads of
flour-which is a lot. I remember
delivering it to Premier Alcide
De Gasperi of Italy in Rome in
person. Ironically, Internal Reve-
nue tried to tax him for it on the
ground that this was a gift to
satisfy his ego. It was just the
opposite and Internal Revenue
eventually backed down.
SILLIMAN EVANS was proud of
the fact that his father, a
Methodist minister, was once run
out of a Texas town because he
crusaded for the clean-up of the
red-light district. Silliman was al-
so a crusader. He led the crusade
against the poll tax and abolished
it in Tennessee. He picked a young
Davy Crockett type of Congress-
man named Kefauver and beat
Crusty, Crochety Kenneth Mc-
Kellar. Later he almost nominated
Kefauver for President.
He battled Boss Crump of Mem-
phis and when Crump wrote him
scurrilous, libelous letters, Evans

published the letters in paid ads,
wiring other newspapers that he
absolved them from libel.
When one of the biggest de-
partment - store advertisers in
Nashville told Evans to take my
column out of the paper and run
Pegler more often, Silliman re-
"I've been thinking for some
time that I ought to raise your
lineage rate. I'll do it tomorrow."
And he did.
When he came to Washington,
Silliman Evans would hire a car
and chaffeur and take the Ke-
fauver children out to the zoo.
Sometimes he went himself. Some-
times when he was too busy he
sent the chauffeur. And when
word that this sometimes hard-
boiled, sometimes kindly crusad-
ing newsman had died, the Ke-
fauver children cried and cried.
"We won't see Uncle Silliman any-
more," they said, "he'll never +ake
us to the zoo anymore."
lIRECTOR Allen Dulles, of the
CIA, is furious at Herbert
Hoover for his report blasting the
intelligence agencies. Dulles says
privately the survey is a distorted,
biased account of his operations,
arc; is urging the President to ig-
nore its recommendations-es-
pecially the one setting up a joint
Congressional committee to keep
closer tabs on all intelligence ac-
tivivies. Congress, however, is like-
ly to accept Hoover's suggestions,
regardless of White House oppo-
sition, and will set up a committee
to check eIA spending and opera-
tions .
(Copywright, 1955, by Bell Syndicate) "_

Ignorance of East
Dangerous to West


The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the University
o\ Michigan for which the Michigan
Daily assumes no editorial responsi-
bility. Publication in it is construc-
tive notice to all members of the Uni-
versity. Notices should be sent in
TYPEWRITTEN form to Room 3553
Administration Building before 2 p.m.
the day preceding publication (be-
for 10 a.m. on Saturday.) Notice of
lectures, concerts and organization
meetings cannot be published oftener
than twice.
Applications for Fulbright Awards for
graduate study or research abroad dur-
ing the 1956-57 academic year are now
available. Countries in which study
grants are offered are Australia, Austria,
Belgium & Luxembourg, Burma, Ceylon,
Chile, Denmark, Finland, France, Ger-
many, Greece, India, Italy, Japan, Neth-
erlands, New Zealand, Norway, Philip-
pines, United Kingdom. The grants are
made for one academic year and in-
clude round-trip transportation, tuition,
a living allowance and a small stip-
end for books and equipment. All grants
are made in foreign currencies.
Interested students who hold an A.B.
degree or who will receive such a degree
by June 1956, and who are presently en-
rolled in the University of Michigan,
should request application forms for a
Fulbright award at the office of the
Graduate School. The closing date for
receipt of applications is Oct. 31, 1955.
Persons not enrolled in a college or
university in the spring or fall of 1955
should direct inquiries and -equests
for applications to the Institute of In-
ternational Education, U.S. Student Pro-
gram,gram, 1 East 67th Street, New
York 21, New, York. The last' date on
which applications will be issued by
the Institute is Oct. 15, 1955.
Applications for Buenos Aires Con-
vention Awards for graduate study or
research in Latin America during the
1956-57 academic year are now available.
Countries in which study grants are of-
fered are Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia,
Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic,
Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico,
Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Ve-
nezuela. Grantees are chosen by the host
government of each country from a pan-
el presented by the United States Gov-
ernment. The United States Government
pays travel costs and host governments
pay maintenance allowance and tuition
fees. Grants generally are for one aca-
demic year, but some may extend for
twelve months.
Interested students who hold an A.B.
Degree or who will receive such a de-
gree by June, 1956, and who are present-
ly enrolled in the University of Fichi-

and the University of Chicago will
speak on "The Shell 'Model of the.Nuc-
leus" Tues., Wed., and Thurs. of each
week during the month of July. Room
2038 Randall Lab., 11:00 a.m.
Academic Notices
Preliminary Examinations in Englisht
Applicants for the Ph.D. in English who
expect to take the perliminary examina-
tions this spring are requested to leave
their names with Dr. Ogden, 1634 Haven
Hall. The examinations will be given
as follows: English Literature from the
Beginnings to 1550, July 15; English Lit-
erature, 1550-1750, Tues. July 19; Eng-
lish Literature, 1750-1950, Fri., July 22;
and American Literature, Tues., July
26. The examinations will be given in
Mason Hall, Room 2407, from 2:00-5:00
Schools of Business Administration,
Education, Natural Resources and Pub-
lic Health, and Music. Students who re-
ceived marks of I, X, or 'no reports' at
the end of their last semester or sum-
mer session of attendance will receive
a grade of "E" in the course or courses,
unless this work is made up by July 20.
Students wishing an extension of time
beyond this date in order to make up
this work should file a petition, address-
ed to the appropriate official of their
school, with Room 1513 Administration
Building, where it will be transmitted.
Seminar in Mathematical Statistics
will meet Tues., July 5, at 1:00 p.m. in
Room 3201 Angell Hall. Prof. C. C. Craig
will speak on "Estimation of Popula-
tion of Flying Insects."r
Facutly Concert: Emil Raab violinist,
and Benning Dexter, pianist, will pre-
sent the first School of Music recital
of the summer session at 8:30 p.m. Tues.,
July 5, in the Rackham Lecture Hall.
Schubert's Duo in A, Op. 162, Sonatina
(1942) by Charles Jones, Sonata (1917)
by Debussy, and Sonata in D, Op. 11,
No. 2 by Paul Hindemith. Open to the
general public without charge.
Student Recital. Harold Ericson, pian-
ist, compositions by Bach, Beethoven, -
and Hindemith, at 8:30 p.m. Wed., July
6, in Rackham Assembly Hall, in' partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the
degree of Master of 'Music. Mr. Ericson
is a pupil of Benning Dexter.
Events Today
Hillel Foundation, Tues., July 5, at
8:00 p.m. Social Hour with dancing,
ping pong, bridge, refreshments.
Aptaneben, Michigan Indian Midsum-
mer Festival, Tues., July 5, 7:30 p.m., in
front of Clements Library, (Aud. A,



EVEN in otherwise highly edu-
cated circles there is a serious
shortage of working knowledge
about the East. Except for a hand-
ful of colleges and universities,
higher education in America has
never gone beyond what are large-
ly empty generalizations about the
majority of the world's peoples.
There is no real depth in the
comprehension of the diversity of
Eastern cultures. We venerate
what we call the 100 greatest
books, but the titles that have the
greatest meaning for more than
1,000,000,000 people are almost to-
tally ignored.
If a nation's language is the
key to its culture, history, and
outlook what do we expect to use'
instead of a key? Ninety-eight
percent of our foreign-language
education has nothing to do with
70 per cent of the world's peoples.

the sources of long-range educa-
tion in the vitals of foreign cul-
tures. Thus, big decisions made on
top Government levels about Asia
and Africa are primarily con-
cerned with strategy rather than
history. Almost every day mem-
bers of Congress have to pass
upon measures concerned with
people and places they have nev-
er seen and about which they have
little real information.
The headlines and stories in our
newspapers can stress the impor-
tance of what is happening in
the East, but there is almost noth-
ing in the way of historical back-
groun dthat can put the news in
focus. Meanwhile we are up to
our hips in the affairs of the As-
ian peoples, as is apparent from
our involvement in the civil war
in South Vietnam. We have com-
mitted ourselves to a certain re-
sult that will affect the lives of

The Daily Staff
Editorial Board

Jim Dygert

Pat Roelofs

Cal samra

Mary Lee Dingler, Marge Piercy, Ernest Theodossin
Dave Rorabacher....................Sports Editor

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