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July 30, 1955 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1955-07-30

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TUr £igip# ia.
Sixty-Fifth Year
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only. This must be noted in all reprints.
Communism and Democracy:
Distinct from Totalitarianism

"Take A Letter"

Money-Raising Got
Talbott His Position

IN THE FINAL analysis, the basic difference
between democracy as this country under-
stands it and the dialectical communism pre-
dicted by Karl Marx lies in their opposite
views of the individual's relation to society and
the systems of rewards that proceed from them.
First, a distinction must be made concerning
totalitarianism. Both authoritarian totalitar-
ianism and that with which the Communist
Party is attempting to dominate the world are
based not on a philosophy of the individual's
relationship to society, but on the power of
a few individuals to control society. Power is
primary and ideology is useful only as it might
justify the power to those over whom it is
exercised. Today's Communist Party is a per-
tinent example of this.
The communism envisoned by Karl Marx
was to be void of power relationships. His mis-
take was to think that it could come about
through a temporary totalitarianism of con-
centrated power which in some mysterious way
would abolish itself. He was naive enough to
believe that, given two wrongs, if one should
disappear, the other would also disappear, leav-
ing only right and virtue. But at least he
looked to something without conflict and strife,
but with cooperation.
His underlying theme of cooperation is the
catch. When cooperation must be forced on a
society, it is totalitarianism. Marx' cooperation
was to. be a voluntary one, actually the same
kind that has been preached for centuries by
most of the religions of the world. But com-
plete, voluntary cooperation' within a society
has never been possible. Whether it ever will
be possible is a matter really only of conjec-
ture, though a look at history always forces a
skepticism that denies it ever will. In any
case, it could never be brought by a totalitar-
ianism and revolution such as Marx postulated.
His goal was magnificent, but his method was
utterly destructive of it.
Marx' cooperation also involved a submit-
ting of the individual will to society's well be.'
ing, voluntarily of course. This raises the cur-
ious paradox of caring for a societal welfare
without caring primarily for its components
-individuals. One finds it difficult to define,
let alone advance, the welfare of a society;
yet he can define the welfare of an individual
as that which the individual thinks will make
himself happy and which therefore will make
The Poet
Even If Fra
I[N THURSDAY'S Daily was reprinted, in an
attitude of ironic amusement, a nonsense
poem strung together by Miriam Frazier at
Ohio State University and commented upon
by various faculty members and graduate stu-
dents - as literature.
The source of the amusement is the pedantic
approach of the would-be analyzers. This is
rather unwarranted. The critics are placed in
the position of the psychoanalysist at the cock-
tail party: one of the company approaches him
to tell him a dream that he has invented, pre-
vailing upon him for analysis. Unless he has
better sense and self-control, (and the analogy
is not perfect because the psychoanalyist must
consider his effect upon the patient, while the
critic must consider the poem divorced from
personailty) he will approach it by the conven-
tional means of his profession.
Similarly, the nonsense is set up in a regular
metric pattern as a poem. No matter how Miss
Frazier strained, there will be some connection
between the images she strings together. By
very grammatical structure, almost any sen-
tence with a noun and a verb will mean some-
thing. Being set up as a poem, the work is
expected to observe the normal principles of
the medium. The critics were asked to judge
it as poetry, and they have done so.
PART OF THE amusement seems to rise from
the treatment of the images in the poem
(willow, two blades of grass, eyes of heaven)
Israeli Airli

Points Up Sol
Associated Press News Analyst
THERE ARE= few horrors comparable with a
crowded airplane cabin swept by flame.
Few incidents have occurred in the cold war
The Datily Staff
Managing Editors .......................... Cal Samra
Jim Dygert
Mary Lee Dingier. Marge Piercy, Ernest Theodossin
Dave Rorabacher.... .................Sports Editor

him happy. Perhaps societal welfare means or-
der-complete harmony between individuals
on a voluntary basis either for the unselfish
purpose of societal welfare (order), or under
the unselfish realization that such is better for
the individual in the long run. If this is so, then
that is what most of the world's religions have
been unable to accomplish in centuries.
THIS IDEAL SET-UP would also involve a
system of rewards opposite of that inher-
ent in capitalistic practice. Communistic co-
operation would mean that a man would be
rewarded on the basis of his effort, with the
results important only as an indication of
whether or not he had done his best. Unless
man became suddenly very virtuous, or very
intelligent, this would mean individual lazi-
ness and no progress at all for the society.
In a capitalistic society, on the other hand,
a man is rewarded on the basis of the results
he can effect, regardless of the effort involved
as long gas it does not include methods deemed
illegal or immoral by the society. Yet, because
the results are of primary importance, the
methods are often very easily illegal or im
moral. The long-run effect of the system, as
history has shown, is progress.
The democratic ideology involved is the pri.
macy of the individual, with society and its
order being used only to keep one individual
from destroying the life, liberty, property and
pursuit of happiness of any other. Such an
idology cannot be confined only to the area of
politics, ,or of economics, or of social living.
It must underly every aspect of life in the
society. Then each individual's welfare can
be advanced by himself, and society's welfare
can be advanced by his conforming to rules
while advancing himself.
An increase of virtue and intelligence is
necessary to make either communism or capit-
alism work for the benefit of all. The difference
is that capitalism can benefit many by em-
phasizing freedom, while communism canno,
benefit any until men become completely vir-
tuous or very intelligent, because it will need
totalitarianism until then. Because it is highly
unlikely that communism will ever have the
ideal'conditions it needs for success, capitalism
and individual freedom (freedom even to ad-
vocate communism) are vital to retain, for
they put individual selfishness and incentive
to some societal good.

- S_ _11
N -
~ ,'.~mp..4 ,. ~ , -5

WASHINGTON-The real story
of Harold Talbott goes deeper
than his own difficulties with a
Senate committee over using his
official position to get business for
his company. It goes deep down to
the roots of the American political
system whereby a few wealthy men
are called upon to raise money for
the mounting cost of electing a
Talbott was one of Ike's big
money-raisers. He was also one of
Tom Dewey's. He raised so much
money for Dewey that he was all
set to become U.S. Ambassador to
the Court of St. James. The Tal-
bott daughters had even picked
their gowns to appear in court-
when the news came on that gray
November dawn in .1948 that Dew-
ey wasn't president after all.
Talbo.tt happens to be a likeable,
dynamic, rough-and-tumble spark
plug who has made a crusade of
building up the Air Force and es-
pecially the Air Force Academy
at Colorado Springs.
But he also happens to belong
to a little group who helped found
the General Motors empire and
who made a fortune outif air-
planes that never flew in World
War I
He was not a man Ike should
ever have appointed to a defense
Cabinet-position. But because the
Roosevelt Administration had fir-
ed him from the War Production
Board Aircraft Division in World
War II, Talbott wanted to stage a
comeback. So, with the party ow-
ing him a big debt as GOP money-
raiser, Talbott was made Secretary
of the Air Force.,
There was some argument
amongeEisenhower advisers as to
the advisability of* his appoint-
ment, as I reported in a column
Dec. 15, 1952.
Warned of Talbott's Record
IT HAPPENS thatI followed the
Talbott appointment rather
closely and called the attention of
certain highly placed individuals
to the report on him prepared by
Charles Evans Hughes at the re-
quest of President Woodrow Wil-
son. Among those I talked with
were Senator Russell of Georgia,
ranking minority member of the
Armed Services Committee, and
Senator Kefauver of Tennessee,
also a member of that committee.
Both studied the Hughes report
and ,asked Talbott penetrating
questions that should have put the
Eisenhower Administration furth-
er on notice.f
Hughes at that time had been
governor of New York and a Su-
preme Coudt Justice, having re-
signed to run against Wilson in
1916. Because of the seriousness
of the airplane scandals, Wilson
appointed his own opponent, the
top Republican of that period, to

investigate them. Hughes spent
weeks digging into the reasons why
airplanes were not produced in
World War I, and, among other
things, made some scathing refer-
ences to Talbott, then president
of a war profiteer company form-
ed to make liberty motors.
With Talbott in the company
were his father; Charles Kettering,
later vice-president of General
Motors, and Edward A. Deeds,
head of Delco Battery which be-
came a General Motors subsidiary.
Hughes in his report charged
them with "conduct of a repre-
hensible character," but said they
could not be prosecuted under ex-
isting law. But he went on to re-
commend a court-martial for E
A. Deeds, their former partner.
Deeds had been made a colonel
in the Army in charge of aircraft
procurement, from which inside
position he proceeded, according
to Hughes, to "convey information
to Mr. Talbott in an improper
manner with respect to the trans-
action of business between that
company and the division of the
Signal Corps of which Col. Deeds
was the head."
Talbott's Pattern
helped set a pattern even that
early in life for inside profiting
on war contracts.
Senator Russell bluntly asked
Talbott about this during the Sen-
ate confirmation hearing on his
appointment to be Secretary of
the Air Force.
"This company," said Russell,
quoting the Hughes report, "'was
launched about the same time of
our entry into the war manifestly
with the expectation of obtaining
government contracts.'
"It was charged that Colonel
Deeds, who had been associated
with your father or Mr. Kettering,
went into the War Department to
aid the company in obtaining con-
"That is not correct, Senator,"
replied Talbott.
Beyond that fiat denial, howev-
er, he had no explanation of the
harsh findings of the Republican
who later became Chief Justice of
the United States.
When the vote came on Tal-
bott's nomination, R e p u bli -
can Senators were so anxious to
confirm Ike's new Cabinet regard-
less of the record, that only one
vote in committee was cast
against, him-Kefauver of Ten-
Later, Kefauver asked Chair-
man Saltonstall of Massachusetts
to call Talbott back for further
committee questioning regarding
the Hughes report, at which time
Kefauver inserted in the record
some amazing telegrams sent by
Colonel Deeds to Talbott regard-
ing airplane contracts.
(Copyright, 1955, Bell Syndicate, Inc.)


44 f arSR,13 A ..?A<roA I> WK
'Marty of Summer's Movies


[as Intent
izier Doesn't

N OW THAT the Summer Session
is fast approaching its close,
one can easily realize that Ann
Arbor has had little in the way of
worthwhile :film material within
the past few months, the most
singular exception being Paddy
Chayefsky's "Marty," a little, low-
budget film that has achieved an
importance seldom bestowed on
its more expensive brothers.
What distinguishes "Marty"
most is that it focuses its atten-
tion upon a group of unglamorous,
highly commonplace people and
that , it smoothly and skillfully
grasps a complex inter-personal
ordering of its characters. Like
another work local residents have
had an opportunity to view within
recent weeks, Tennessee William's
"You Touched Me!," "Marty is
principally concerned with the
problem of an individual growing
old in a lonely and solely self-
inhabited world.
Williams has presented this
problem rather consistently in
such dramas as "The Glass Men-
agerie" and "Streetcar Named De-
sire." But the answers he pro-
vides for his characters, such as
the frustrated aunt in "You
Touched Me!" are quite opposed
to the romantic spirit of "Marty,"
where resolut4on is achieved
through marriage between two
individuals whose basic needs are
very similar.
Marty is a butcher, thirty-four
years old, afraid of women, lonely,
insecure: he finds his feminine
counterpart in a plain, honest
schoolteacher who gives his life
some meaning. One may disagree
with the solution that Writer

Chayef sky presents, but, it is
nonetheless, one solution, and a
solution which the scripter has
refrained from making all too
Moreover, "Marty" is also a
social document, in its presen-
tation of the difficulties encoun-
tered by a small, minority na-
tional group living in a large,
cosmopolitan atmosphere. Here,
the requirements are those of
retaining the spirit and color of
life in the old-country, while ad-
justing to a new environment.
Again, too, the problem of loneli-
ness is mirrored in the life of
Marty's mother and aunt, the lat-
ter having lost her husband
through death, her family through
marriage, and the former at-
tempting to adjust to the reali-
zation that she will soon encoun-
ter the same life.
OPENING on so many levels at
once-as a social document,
a presentation of important emo-
tional problems, a picturization
of young, married life - "Marty"
comes to the inevitable point of
what to do with all of these fac-
ets: resolving all of them is almost
impossible, resolving any of them
in a believable manner is even
more so.
Only its central character is
given the promise of a more
satisfactory life, but its other
characters never achieve any kind
of crystallization, they are left,
for the most part, entirely alone
by the writer.
That it does not resolve all of
of the problems it presents is not
a fault in "Marty": that it is able
to present any of them so real-
istically is indeed a virtue. If

"Marty" falters anywhere, it is
in its editing and its abrupt end-
ing. The latter portion of the'
picture seems unnecessary, since
the outcome has already been
established. And the ending is al-
most too quick a one to fit in
with the early scenes where detail
is closely documented.
Like many another outstanding
picture, "Marty" mixes irony with
tragedy, and in so doing it makes
its point more powerfully, for its
indirectness is its greatness, an
indirectness that never allows the
character's difficulties to over-
whelm the audience in waves of
pity. They are real difficulties
and their naturalism makes them
embarassing for the audience (as
in the early scene between Marty
and his mother, where he explains
his horror of his own fat physical
nature .
"Marty" has overtones of warm
glowing sentiment, of good, clean
American humor; beneath, it is a
depressing tale, one that bitterly
pinpoints much of the loneliness
and frustration encountered in
life by so many. In many ways it
is even cynical, but writer Chay-
efsky has dressed his piercing pic-
turization in a clock of laughs: in
this way he can say almost any-
thing he wishes.
-Ernest Theodossin
THE RUSSIAN Government does
not depend on votes and the
good feelings brought about by
Russians visiting America could
have little effect on Russian lead-
-Harold E. Stassen
in Detroit Free Press


as presenting something. In -any poetic struc-
ture, images are used with relation to a whole
and in further relation to the. essential sym-
bolism of the culture. Being placed in such a
position, the images are "loaded."
It is hard to see exactly what Miss Frazier
was trying to prove. It's similar to a joker
submitting to an exhibit of modern art a canvas
painted by a donkey's tail. It wins a prize:
ergo, modern art is a fraud. One wonders how
many people submit abstracts by their dog
which do not win prizes. The case of nature's
conforming to the principles of art does not
destroy these principles. In this case, the poem
can hardly be said to have won a prize.
This version of art as a colossal fraud is Pn
intoxicating two-in-the-morning type of
thought, essentially attractive to those who
feel rejected or deposed by the education given
them in a university English department.
Pedantry is amusing - and the professor is a
stock character in comedy - but the conclu-
sions can be dangerous. This is one emperor
who normally wears clothes.
The attack here is on method: the rational
analysis of imaginative literature by any other
than a he-who-runs-may-read basis. It is an
attack on the whole idea of art as intentional
ad ordered. This attitude, and not the critic's
overreaching of themselves, are what would
make poetry a Jaberwocky of pleasant sounds
and absolute irrelevance.
-Marge Piercy



ner Incident
viet Savagery

The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the University
of Michigan for which the Michigan
Daily assumes no editorial responsi-
bility. Publication in it is construc-
tive notice to all members of the Uni-
versity. Notices should be sent in
TYPEWRITTEN form to Room 3553
Administration Building before 2 p.m.
the day preceding publication (be-
fore 10 a.m. on Saturday). Notice of
lectures, concerts and organization
meetings cannot be published oftener
than twice.
Late permission for women students
who attended the Speech Department
production "The Happy Time" at the
Lydia Mendenssohn Theater on July
27 and 28 will be no later than 10:50
A representative from the following
will be at the Engineer School: Tues.,
Aug. 2.
Westinghouse Airbrake Co., Union
Switch & signal Div., Pittsburgh, Penn.
-B.S. or M.S. in Elect. E., other
programs alseo considered. Some engi.
neeringtexperience required, as well
as ability to speak Turkish, Turkish

Nat'l Gypsum Co., Detroit, Mich., of-
fers a position to Salemen to work
in the Muskegon district.
Wright Air Development Center,
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio,
is looking for Research Historians.
For further information contact the
Bureau of Appointments, 3528 Admin.
Bldg., Ext. 371.
Department of Chemistry Lecture,
Prof. Harry Irving of*,Oxford University,
England will speak on "Complexones
andl their Application in Analysis."
4:10 p.m., Mon., Aug. 1, in Room 1300
Chemistry Building.
Special Summer Session on Digital
Computers and Data Processors. "Three
Years of Operation of the MIDAC
(Michigan Digital Automatic Comn-
puter)," Dr. John W. Carr, associate
research mathematician, Willow Run
Research Center; Boyd T. Larrowe,
research associate, Willow Run Re-
search Center; and Ralph W. Johnston,
research assistant, Willow Run Re-
search Center. 7:30 p.m., Tues., Aug. 2,
Aud. C, Mason Hall.
Academic Notices
Doctoral Examination for Russell Ber-

graduate student in the School of
Music, a program of compositions for
percussion instruments at 8:30 p.m.
Sun., July 31, in Aud..A, Angeli Hall.,
He will be assisted by Benjamin Gray,
piano, Frank Baird, Jack Snavely, clari-
net, and Burton Jackson, Alfred Marco
and James Salmon, percussion. Gard
studies percussion with Mr. Salmon,
and presents the recital in partial ful-
fillment of the requirements for the
degree of Master of Music (Music Edu-
catiop Instrumental). Open to the
Student Recital. Patricia Ricks, vio-
linist, 4:15 p.m. Sun., July 31, in Aud.
A, Angell, compositions by Corelli,
Mozart, Bartok, and Beethoven, in
partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of Bachelor of Music.
Mrs. Ricks is a pupil of Gilbert Ross,
and her recital will be open to the
Student Recital. Lucille Stansberry,
student of piano with Helen Titus, re-
cital in partial fulfillment of the re-
quirements for the degree of Master of
Music (Music Education) at 8:30 p.m.
Mon., Aug. 1, in Rackham Assembly
Hall. Works by Bach, Beethoven,
Brahms, and Beryl Rubinstein. Open
to the public.
Student Recital. Floy Johnson.

Obscurantism .. .
To The Editor:
Y THANKS for Thursday's
editorial slaying of that mod-
ern poetical dragon: obscurantism.
That so much slush is written
these days isbad enough; that so
many people swallow it is worse.
Miss Frazier's hoax as exposed
should tell so much, yet I fear
that many will remain uncon-
vinced of their folly. As a defense
they will arroganty cite the inter-
national fallacy, the idea that it is
fallacious to assume that we must
perceive the author's "meaning"
in order to appreciate the poem.
These same high priests of modern'
art will also scoff at the belief.
that painting and sculpture should
be representational and that mu-
sic should "sound good."
Perhaps I was born a century
too late. I am a graduate student
in English and quite frankly I
sometimes feel lonely in my re-
actionary little world. When I
admit I do not know what a poem
means the response is always onej
of smug commiseration - not
because I don't understand but
because I expect a poem to "mean"
anything at all. Too many, I
think, have taken MacLeish's dic-
tum literally that "A poem should
not mean But be," a statement
which happens to be very mean-
ingful in the context of his poem
but which, taken by itself, is not
a contradiction in terms but a
manifest verbal impossibility -
excepting always, of course, as
applied to the so-called "modern

vote, in which Senator Langer
was the only man to vote "no,"
July 14, Senator Neuberger (Ore.)
has revealed:
"Before the return to the Sen-
ate of the conference report .,.
I have concluded I voted wrong
when I voted for H.R. 7000 . . . I
have reached my conclusion after
much study and thought during
the week since .u. The normal
time for such study and thought
is before a vote. But . . . the
printed (393 page) hearings and
(33 page) committee report on
the Reserve bill were not available
to Members of the Senate until
noon of the very day when the
vote took place
"At the time of the vote, I tried
to exercise my best judgment in
the light of the discussion . .
Subsequent study of these docu-
ments, and thoughtful considera-
tion ... impel me to state to the
Senate that if theconference re-
port contains a provision for en-
forcing compulsory Active Reserve
duty on future draftees who have
completed 2 years of active serv-
ice, I wish to be recorded in
opposition to final passage of the
Reserve Forces bill . . . It has
been adopted with inadequate
publicity, without real public dis-
cussion and understanding, and
without that kind of protracted
debate in the Senate that the im-
portance of the issue warrants
only a few hours afte' the
committee reported on the bill."
* Will free Americans opposed to
military regimentation now write
the President to veto this bill -
no because he, not satisfied with
it, but because we don't want it!
Otherwise, if he signs, other na-
tions may raise their military
manpower goals. Non-signatures
will be a continuation of the
friendly "at the summit" negotia-
tions and constitute the deed, not
nations that the USA doesn't



which point up so starkly the type of world in
which we live as the shooting down of the
Israeli airliner by Bulgarians.
Few incidents have so emphasized the im-
portance of the peace negotiations now under
The free world and the Communist bloc
stand head to head like great struggling stags,
with antlers apparently hopelesly entangled.
Somebody is certain to get hurt from time to
time as such a situation continues.
The shooting down of an airliner far from
any war area-as differentuated from things

* * *

R. Rogers

Military Law .-.
To The Editor:
TODAY'S VOTE in the Senate,

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