THE MICHIGAN DAILY
FR IL A Y. JULY'' 16, 1954
PAGE TWO TIlE MICHIGAN DAILY FRIDAY, JULY 16, 1954
The Conduct of the Cold War:
Democrats vs. Republicans
"Sometimes We Almost Feel Like Giving
The Kids a Break"
EMERGING FROM VOCAL STAGE:
Appears More Defined
DURING THE 1952 election campaign, Adlai Ste-
venson remarked, "I have always agreed with
Winston Churchill that if the present tries to sit
in judgment on the past it will lose the future. The
important thing is to draw the right lessons from
the past and to get on with the job."
Regretably, the task of drawing the right lessons
from the course of world events during the last 10
years has been considerably hampered by a cam-
paign myth generated by the Republican Party.
According to this view, the Democrats are some-
how responsible for, have condoned or permitted,
or were "blind to" or "bungled," the growth of
A recent editorial in this space, for example, ac-
cused the Truman and Roosevelt Administrations
of "jellyfish appeasement and mismanagement of
Communism." Under this barrage, some Americans
have begun to forget some rather important facts
of recent history.
Just after World War II, many Americans be-
lieved that the Soviet Union was not hostile to
us and did not constitute a threat. They were not
all Democrats, by any means. In November, 1945,
General Eisenhower told the House Military Af-
fairs Committee: "Nothing guides Russian policy
so much as a desire for friendship with the Unit-
In 1945, General Eisenhower also sent a friendly
message to the Council for American-Soviet Friend-
ship, which is now on the Attorney General's list
of'subversive organizations. (By McCarthy's stand-
ards, the President is no doubt a "security risk,"
a "Communist dupe," or worse!)
In 1946, when England was veering towards bank-
ruptcy, she was greatly aided by an American loan.
Despite some recent disagreements with the Bri-
tish, how would the defense of freedom fare today
without a vigorous England as our ally? Wouldn't
the Russians have been happy to "detach" England
from us, or to see her rendered impotent by eco-
nomic weakness? The chief opposition to that loan
came from Republicans, its chief advocacy from
Truman and the Democrats.
In 1947, Secretary of State Marshall-that same
Marshall who was called a "front for traitors" and
a "living lie" by Republican Senators Jenner and
McCarthy, and whom Candidate Eisenhower desist-
ed from defending against these slanders when told
it might lose him votes-developed the plan that
prevented Communism from sweeping to the At-
lantic or dominating all Europe.
The Marshall Plan may well have saved us from
the tragedy of a stand from this continent against
a Communist Eurasia-which Herbert Hoover and
Senator Taft saw as an attractive mode of defense,
just a few years ago.
IN 1947 the Truman Doctrine initiated the "con-
tainment policy" against Russian aggression.
American aid to Greece and Turkey that year con-
tained Communist expansion in that vulnerable
area, and threw it back. Republican orators don't
mention the Truman Doctrine today-perhaps be-
cause too many people might get the impression
that the Democratic Party has the interests of
America at heart.
In 1948, Truman proposed the Point Four plan-
an attack, using our vast national wealth and
skill, on some basic evils that render so many re-,
gions ripe for Communism: poverty, disease, un-
derdevelopment. This was long-range planning for
victory in the Cold War, and humanitarianism of
high merit. But Republican Congressmen never
voted Point Four enough money to function ef-
fectively, and under Eisenhower it has languished
even further. A typical Republican "economy"
According to many Republicans, China went
Communist because of plots in the State De-
partment and the traitorous behavior of Gen-
eral Marshall. The Democrats "gave China away
to the Reds," they insist. But American generals
have testified before Congressional committees
that Chiang did not lose because of lack of
American supplies. What did happen? Michigan's
Senator Vandenburg-a Republican with a dif-
ference-said in December, 1948:
"The vital importance of saving China cannot
be exaggerated. But there are limits to our re-
sources and boundaries to our miracles .. . I am
forced to say that the Nationalist Government has
failed to reform itself in a fashion calculated to
deserve continued popular confidence over there or
over here . .
"If we make ourselves responsible for the army
of the Nationalist Government, we could be in the
China war for keeps and the responsibility would
be ours instead of hers. I am very sure that this
would jeopardize our own national security beyond
any possibility of justification.",
In 1949, Secretary of State Acheson-slandered
by some Republicans as a "traitor" and "appeaser"
-negotiated the North Atlantic Treaty Organiza-
tion, which at the moment is the sole military bar-
rier against a Communist invasion of Europe. Sen-
ator Taft, the leader of halfthe Republican Party
at the time, opposed the treaty.
* * * *
THE REPUBLICANS have made much of Korea,
Here is a typical example, from a recent edi-
torial on this page: "In January of 1950, Secretary
of State Dean Acheson publicly drew the line of
containment in Asia against Communist expansion.
He omitted Korea from this line and six months
later the war started."
The line that Acheson drew was suggested by
American military authorities as feasible and de-
fensible. On two occasions in 1949, Gen. Mac-
Arthur outlined our Pacific defense line in terms
equivalent to those of Acheson.
Further, it was while Gen. Eisenhower was
Chief of Staff of the Army that the combined
Chiefs of Staff, affirming that South Korea was
of little strategic interest to us, recommended
the withdrawal of American soldiers from the
area. There is no record that Eisenhower dissent-
ed on that occasion.
What the Republicans never tell you about that
famous Acheson speech is that he went on to say
that if any country outside the American defense
perimeter were attacked, "the initial reliance must
be on the people attacked to resist it and then up-
on the commitments of the entire civilized world,
under the Charter of the United Nations." And
that is exactly what happened in Korea.
"The true significance of the Secretary's remark,"
Adlai Stevenson said in 1952, "is that the military
situation made it necessary for him to do what he
could diplomatically to give some assurance of our
interest in the security of the Republic of Korea."
But in the matter of Korea, the Republican's
logic defeats itself: two months before the Com-
munist invasion, Congress drastically reduced an
appropriation for military and economic aid to
South Korea. The Republicans were "economizing"
The Republicans have profited from the fact that
the Korean War did not end in complete victory.
A recent editorial on this page described Korea as
"a war which General Van Fleet said could have
been won but wasn't because of political handcuffs
placed on the military from Washington . .
But had those "political handcuffs"-a nasty
phrase for the control of the Army by a civilian
president-been removed, we might well have pre-
cipitated World War III.
Korea was a limited war for a limited purpose,
fought on difficult terrain far from our sources
of supply, against a numerous and determined
enemy. The Republicans came close to demago-
guery in calling for a complete triumph while
failing to acknowledge that atom-bombing Chi-
nese cities-as many of them proposed-might
well have brought down atom bombs on Ameri-
Korea was ugly and tragic enough as it was-
but it was fought to prevent World War III, not
to start it.
*.* * *
LATELY THERE have been cries that Democratic
foreign policy has been the cause of the la-
mentable situation in Indochina. But the agony of
Indochina is ascribable directly to the rigidly un-
thinking colonialism of France. Franklin Roose-
velt understood the Indochinese situation ten years
ago. In January, 1944, he memoed to Secretary of
State Hull that he had "for over a year expressed
the opinion,that Indochina should not go back to
France, but should be administered by an inter-
"France has had the country-30 million in-
habitants-for nearly 100 years," Roosevelt wrote,
"and the people are worse off than they were at
the beginning . . . The case of Indochina is per-
fectly clear. France has milked it for 100 years.
The people are entitled to something better than
Can the Republican Party match this example of
prophetic insight into the nature of the Commun-
ist potential? They cannot.
The picture that emerges from a good look at
the last 10 years is quite different from that sup-
plied by Republican orators. Their party, with a
few distinguished exceptions like Senator Vanden-
berg, has been incredibly slow to recognize and res-
pond to the nature of the global crisis that now
At almost every point, when innovation and bold-
ness based on insight into the course of events were
required, they have displayed appalling inability
to meet the test.
Granted all his shortcomings it was President
Truman leading the Democratic Party who first
perceived and reacted effectively to the realities of
the Cold War. No amount of Monday morning quar-
terbacking and twisted retrospective logic can
alter that fact of history.
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THE JUNIOR SENATOR from
Wisconsin has returned to Wash-
ington, the scene of hi past glories,
only to find a changed atmosphere
-some people, influential ones at
that, are trying to get rid of him.
Opposition to Joe is threatening to
emerge from the vocal stage.
Perhaps this may sound overly
optimistic, but actions from two
separate quarters are aimed, and
may succeed in, putting down Mc-
Carthy. The most publicized pro-
posal is that of Sen. Flanders of
Vermont, who is attempting to get
the Senate to strip McCarthy of
his chairmanships because of his
shady financial manipulations. Al-
though the GOP and Democratic
Senatorial brass, led by Senators
Knowland and Johnson, are much
opposed to this, Flanders with the
aid of both GOP and Democratic
mavericks, stand a chance to make
the vote close. Senator Flander's
courageous move hardly stands a
chance of going through, however,
not because of the falsity of the
charges (which have been reprint-
ed and repeated countless times
in newspapers, with hardly, the
threat of a law-suit), but Senatorial
courtesy. You scratch my back
and I'll scratch yours.
An action started by the Dem-
ocrats on McCarthys subcom-
mittee, however, may succeed,
where Flander's motion fails.
Thisraction aims for less: mere
ly to get rid of some of Mc-
Carthy's hatchetmen from the
subcommittee payroll. This would
presumably be combined with
changedbstandards of proced-
ure, now being studied by an-
other Senate subcommittee.Chanc
es of success appear good,since
Sen. Potter has joined the sub-
committtee's Democrats in ad-
vocating the change.
Whether or not the success of
any of these ventures will finally
rid the country of the McCarthy
menace is uncertain. Joe made
plenty of headlines before he got
a committee chairmanship, and ap-
pears to be intent on continuing
his demogoguery in order to draw
attention away from the recent
Army, McCarthy hearings, and fur-
ther charges of financial dishon-
esty. Witness his Central Intelli-
gence Agency charges, and de-
claration to continue ferreting out
Reds wherever they may be-and
presumably regardless of whether
they are Communists.
It is unfortunate that President
Eisenhower has not seen his way
clear to condemning-specifically
-the tacts and the person of Joe
McCarthy. If the President did un-
equivocally turn his back on the
Senator, it would, have the effect of
giving the Republicans a choice
between the two. There are few
practical politicos who would side
with the Wisconsin windbag. But,
to date, Ike has been content to
anonymously condemn those who
don't practice "fair-play," so that
McCarthy' partisans still are able
to claim lack of opposition from
the President, who they treat as
an inane old man, under dileteri-
In spite of the fact that no move
against the Senator has as yet
achieved concrete success, judging
by the attitude of even conserva-
tive Republican newspapers, Mc-
Carthyism is declining in popular-
ity. He is no longer respectable,
but merely a fasU talking hood-
wink artist, who can be highly
dangerous. The one way to get
rid of him is for the President to
condemn him by name and for
the Senate to take away his chair-
manship. Then leave him to the
people of Wisconsin.
-By Jerry Helman
By WILLIAM L. RYAN
AP T"oreign News Analyst
There is a good chance the Pre-
mier of France will miss his dead-
line for bringing about an "hon-
orable" cease fire in Indochina.
It depends mostly on the Com-
munist side in the Geneva confer-
ence and what Red intentions are
toward Pierre Mendes - France,
who pledged himself to step down
from the premiership next Tues-
day if he had not achieved some
sort of truce.
The question before the Commu-
nist side is this: If they insist on
driving a hard bargain in Indo-
china, will that increase the pos-
sibility of war on a large scale?
The United States, in pushing its
"united action" program, has
made it plain that Americans will
not intervene alone in Indochina.
America's principal ally, Britain,
is at the very least reluctant. Thus
it has been made plain to the Com-
munists that there is not likely to
be any enlargement of the war at
As a result of the Paris confer-
ence of Mendes-France, Foreign
Secretary Eden and Secretary of
S t a t e Dulles, the Communists
may choose to prolong the Geneva
Secretary Dulles says a formula
for Western unity was achieved at
Paris without abandonment of
U n i t e d States principles. What
were those principles? For one
thing, both President Eisenhower
and Secretary Dulles have declar-
ed that the United States would
not sanction Red conquest of any
area. For another, the United
States not long ago held that Indo-
china is a "cork in the bottle" pre-
venting spread of the Red menace
all over Southeast Asia.
On High Level
Now, however, the United States
has returned to the Geneva con-
ference on a high level. It seems
plain that if any settlement is to
be achieved on Indochina, it will
be at the expense of recognizing
Red conquest of at least the north-
ern partof Viet Nam.
As recently as March 29, Secre-
tary Dulles warned that if the
Communists took over control of
any substantial part of Indochina,
"they would surely resume the
same pattern of aggression against
other free peoples in the area" and
menace ultimately the whole is-
land chain of free world defenses.
Now the prospect is that either
the Communists take over a sub-
stantial part of Indochina or there
will be no end to the war there.
By The Bell Syndicate, Inc.
WASHINGTON-Pat Sutton, the
young Tennessee congressman
who a few years ago sold pants
in his congressional office, has
suddenly turned up with a passel
of money at his disposal in his
race for the Senate against Estes
The money has all the earmarks
of coming from the underworld'
which Kefauver fought and which'
has vowed to put him out of the
Senate; with some money also
coining from the Texas oil lobby.
One former associate of Mickey
McBride, head of the racing wire
which linked up the bookies of
the nation and which Kefauver
put out of business, is now tour-
ing Tennessee as Sutton's chief
radio expert. He is Robert Venn,
who organized three big talkathons
for Sutton, costing in the neigh-
borhood of $35,000.
Sutton is also traveling in a heli-!
copter, which takes money to op-
erate. Yet a few short years ago
he was not only selling suits of
clothes in his Washington office
to eke out his salary, but pulled
wires at the Justice Department
to keep his father - in - law from
being prosecuted for income - tax
evasion. In the end, a runaway
grand jury in Lawrenceburg,
Tenn., indicted his father - in - law
despite Sutton's efforts on his be-
During the Kefauver crime
probe, Mickey McBride, operator
of the bookie wire, was one of the
highlighted witnesses in Miami. As
a result of the Kefauver probe,
legislation passed Congress putting
the race wire out of business.
Venn, who is now touring Tennes-
see trying to defeat Kefauver, was
general manager of McBride's ra-
dio station WMIE in Miami.
! Washington Whirl
bottling up a bill which would
make the Senate Small Business
Committee permanent. A majority
of the Senate support t h i s, but
even so, Jenner has blocked the
bill in committee.
The White House has now de-
veloped a far more efficient ma-
chine than either Roosevelt or
Truman for ramming hotly con-
tested bills through Congress.
Roosevelt, in the heyday of Jim
Farley, had one of the best ma-
chines. Jim used his Irish charm,
mixed with the latent likelihood of
postmasterships to switch votes
on Capitol Hill. And he kept a
card index of how congressmen
voted. The Eisenhower adminis-
tration does the same.
Ike's boys, however, have gone
further. During the farm bill de-
bates they not only threatned to
withhold campaign contributions
from reluctant congressmen, but
used an on - the - spot ex-con-
gressman to switch votes right on
the floor of the House.
He was Ross Rizley, former
member of Congress from Okla-
homa, who introduced legislation
favoring the big natural gas com-
panies at a time when his law
firm represented Cities Service,
Republic Natural Gas and Pan-
handle Eastern Pipeline.Last year
Rizley became solicitor of the
Post Office under Eisenhower and
is now Assistant Secretary of Ag-
As such, he sat on the House
floor during the recent farm bill
debate, buttonholing congressmen
so brazenly that Paul Jones of
Missouri protested, and Rizley fi-
nally retreated to the Republican
cloakroom, from which he contin-
ued his lobbying.
Seldom has acWhite House lob-
byist been so active. It was Rizley
Dick Kleberg, millionaire co- who got Congressman Page Belch-
owner of the world's largest er, Oklahoma Republican, to urge
ranch, the King Ranch, ran true flexible price supports in the Agri-
to form when he got $32,585 worth culture Committee. When Belcher
of government cottonseed pellets got too many hostile letters from
supposed to be used for needy Okahoma, Rizley persuaded Con-
farmers stricken by the drought. gressman RoberthHarrison of Ne-
Kleberg, when in Congress, re- braska to lead the flexible price
quired a capitol page boy getting support battle on the House floor.
$50 a week to kick back part of He also induced Congressmen Hill
his salary to Kleberg, a million- of Colorado and Harvey of Indiana
aire .... When this column ex- to switch votes and go along with
posed the kickback, Kleberg's Tex- the administration.
as constituents defeated him .... CAPITAL NEWS CAPSULES
Max Kampelman, assistant to Sen. Advice on McCarthy - President
Hubert Humphrey, sat on the Sen- Eisenhower has asked his close
ate floor for an hour and a half friend, Senator Carlson of Kansas,
to make sur, his boss voted for for advice on what to do about
the Eisenhower tax bill. Humphrey Senator McCarthy. Carlson is
had made a devastating speech chairman of a rules subcommittee
against the bill, pointing out its that is holding hearings on curbing
loopholes, then yielded to Kampel- unfair congressional investigations.
man and voted for it .... Sen. After the hearings, he will draw
Dick Russell of Georgia, a con- up public recommendations, but
servative, couldn't stomach the will carefully avoid mentioning
glaring loopholes i n t h e tax bill, McCarthy's name. However, he
voted against it .... President Ei- will also send his own recommen-
senhower castigated fascism on dations to the White House on Mc-
the 5th of July, then posed for Carthy-- privately.
daughter of the chief Fascist dic- Syngman Rhee's Road - Presi-
tator, General Franco, on the 8th dent Syngman Rhee has been ob-
of July y structing the rehabilitation of South
Housing Headaches Korea by insisting on spending
The graft - ridden Federal Hous- American aid money his own way.
ing Administration has become so He wants to build a superhighway
jittery that it won't deal today from Pusan to Seoul, though few
with even some of the most reput- Koreans own automobiles. Ameri-
able building outfits. The Interna- can advisers think it is more im-
tional Development Corporation, portant to spend the money for
organized by Nelson Rockefeller, food and shelter and, as a result,
a member of the Eisenhower little practically nothing has been done.
cabinet, has been doing a patriotic Meanwhile the Communists are in-
private Point 4 job in Latin Amer- dustriously rebuilding North Korea
ica, but, believe it or not, couldn't as a showcase. This makes it look
get FHA cooperation for Puerto as if the Reds are doing more for
Rico. It's now going ahead any- the people than we are-thanks in
way with 2,000 concrete homes large part to President Rhee.
near San Juan. People there are Ridgway Objects - Army Chief
so eager for houses that 500 down of Staff Gen. Matt Ridgway is rais-
payments have been received even ing cain inside the Pentagon over a
before the units were built . - - new Army reorganization plan that
Edde illemr .. esistant see.- ririz rn i ii rnmnn- r a o
atives in Co
In at least
to the preset
sis:; that of J
1866, and r
Long with F
fears of a ri
gry, the job
in a major d
of issue, U
of state sov
nized as recd
in this respe
against the A
to the peol
tive was the
Of these t
lenge. It is o
interest to A
ment to con
pened to the
vens. The co
1866 was perl
in our histo
of power so
ed by the
head, his p
ces, in dir
of the con
aIDENTS HAVE on the inception of our Government,
had their leadership Americans have regarded the Pres-
enerally by represent- ident's chair as a potential throne
ngress. for a dictator. There has been no
three instances prior strong President from Washington
nt McCarthy dispute, who has not been accused of be-
ges have assumed the coming a tyrant.
f a constitutional cri- Yet the only time in our history
ohn Calhoun with An- never held a higher Federal office
n in 1832, Thaddeus than that of Congressman from
mAndrew Johnson in Pennsylvania.
ost recently, Huey Much as McCarthy has in com-
'ranklrn Roosevelt in mon with Calhoun, Thaddeus Ste-
tressed sectionalism, vens and Long, in his attack upon
e advantages of the the Administration, he differs from
cdvatgesouthed them in one important respect. All
deus Stevens aroused three of his predecessors had a
appealed to thernhre- positive program for political and
lessefearfully caugh social action.
lepression. It is this absence of a positive
plan of action that gives McCarthy
Ihoun, making the his peculiar place in the history
of 1832 his point of political ambition. So far, at
sed the machinery least, he has seen fit to utilize
'ereignty to threaten only one half of the ancient Latin
ation of import du- formula for demagoguery. Perhaps
South Carolina, he believes that if the circuses are
spectacular enough, the people will
Stevens, objecting to not think of bread.
n, used his powerful In his attack upon the Army and
the House of Repre- the State Department, the two
prevent the seating areas over which the Constitution
aen from the southern most specifically delegates control
enJohnmonhad recog- to the executive branch, McCarthy
Johnson ad- has made apparent that he is en-
ost like McCarthy gaged in a major struggle with the
ect, made his appeal Administration for power.
kdministration directly The fact that we have a written
ple themselves. But Constitution which specifies how
methods, the objec- power shall be distributed does
same: the seizure of not in itself guarantee respect for
wer. its provisions. It is important for
us to realize that attempted sub-
three, only Thaddeus version of constitutional procedure
successful in his chal- can be of a home-grown variety
f more than historical and does not have to be imported
americans at this mo- from some foreign ideology.
itemplate what hap- -The Washington Post
The Daiiy Official Bulletin is as
official publication of the University
of Michigan for which the Michigan
Daily assumes no editorial responsi-
bility. Publication in it is construc-
tive notice to all members of the
University. Notices should be sent in
TYPEWRITTEN form to Room 3510
Administration Building before 3 p.m.
the day preceding publication.
FRIDAY, JULY 16, 1954
VOL. LXIV, No. 1S
Students, College of Engineering:
The final day for DROPPING COURS-
ES WITHOUT RECORD will be Friday,
July 16. A course may be dropped only
with the permission of the Classifier
after conference with the Instructor.
The University of Michigan Blood
Bank Club has arranged to have a Red
Cross mobile unit at the student Health
Service on August 4, 1954, to take care
of staff members who wish to contri-
bute a pint of blood and thus become
members of the Blood Bank Club with
the privilege of drawing upon the bank
for themselves and their immediate
families in the event blood is needed.
The unit will be at the Health Service
from 10:00 a.m. to 12:00 noon and from
1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Staff members
who are interested should contact the
Personnel Office, Room 3026, Ext. 2619.
The following student sponsored so-
cial activities have been approved for
the following week-end:
July 16, 1954
Alice Lloyd Hall
July 17, 1954
Michigan Christian Fellowship
Phi Delta Phi
Late Permission for all women stu-
dents who attended the Wednesday and
Thursday performances of HAMLET,
July 7 and 8, will be no later than 11:05
Superintendent Clayton of North
Branch, Michigan, has teaching vacan-
cies in the following fields: art, vocal
music, men's physical education, kin-
dergarten, and early elementary. The
starting salary is $3400 for inexperience.
For further information, please call the
Bureau of Appointments, 3528 Admin-
istration Building, telephone NO 3-1511,
structure of our Gov-
Lh the success of Ste-
ngressional election of
haps the most decisive
ry. Stevens, by that
tained more t h a n
orters to give him the
iaJority in both hous-
to override the pres-
moment the balance
yed. The President
d to a mere figure
ower to dismiss ex-
cers disloyal to him
away. He even lost
over the armed for-
ect violation of the
stitution. He could
bill, no matter how
ional, from becoming
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Control of
THE QUESTION OF THE 21-YEAR-OLD:
A Side Glance at Drinking,
Voting and Campaign Promises
Jack Horwitz......Assoc. Sports
E. J7 Smith - A ccr ns
J . ........ ssoc.EportsMitor
CAMPAIGN PROMISES are as dependable as a
shining resident of a used car lot.
President Eisenhower, before he was president,
once mentioned voting for 18-year-olds.
Congress thinks 21 is a nicer number, despite
the president's feelings on the matter.
So, if it's possible, maybe they will compromise.
the day before his 21st birthday and the great day
Can't remember who, but someone once remark-
ed that maturity isn't a matter of age.
Not that it's impossible that personal maturity is
Surely 18-year-olds could elect representatives
as mature and as intelligent as those with whom we
Roaring Brook Inn, Harbor Springs,
And so that there might be no Business Staff# Michigan, has immediate openings for
trouble withthe third branch of Dick Aistroi........Business Manager 6 to 10 waitresses for the remainder of
Lois Pollak...... Circulation Manager the summer. High School or College wo-
the Government, Congress simply Bob Kovaks........Advertising Manager men interested in applying may contact
passed a law forbidding the Su- the Bureau of Appointments, 3528 Ad-
preme Court to review cases that ministration Bldg., Ex. 371.
might arise under the Reconstruc- Telephone NO 23-24-1 A Local Organization has an opening
tion Acts, and to this violation of for a Laboratory Technician who will
eonstitutional procedure the court Member I work rincina with animals. Men or