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Michigan Daily, 1954-07-05

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Latest Deadline in the State

CLOUDY

VOL. LXIV, No. 10

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, SATURDAY, JULY 5, 1954

FOUR PAGES

House OK's
Ike's Farm
Legislation
Passes Flexible
Price Supports
WASHINGTON (R) - A compro-
mise farm bill calling for flexible
price supports for major crops and
arming President Eisenhower with
other powers to attack the problem
of mountainous surpluses was pas
passed by the House Friday and
sent to the Senate.
Action was on a voice vote.
The President didn't get all the
authority he wanted to administer
price supports on a sliding scale
ranging from 75 to 90 per cent of
parity.
But the House voted 228-170 on a
f, rollcall to allow the Agriculture
Department to adjust its price
props on a range extending from
82% to 90 per cent of parity.
This was an administration -
backed compromise introduced at
the last minute by Rep. Harrison
(R-Neb.). It effectively blocked a
strong drive by farm state legisla-
tors to continue supports at 90 per
cent of parity through 1955.
Parity is a legal standard for
fixing prices on the six basic crops,
wheat, cotton, corn, rice, peanuts
and tobacco. Adjustments are
made in relation to the cost of
basic' things the farmer needs to
produce his crops.
Provisions
Outstanding provisions in the
bill include:
1. A 2% billion dollar "set aside"
of surpluses from the Commodity
Credit Corporation's stocks for re-
lief, foreign aid, stockpile and
other purposes. It. would also cut
down marketable surpluses, reduc-
ing the "dampening" effect of CCC
stocks hanging over the market.
2. An incentive payment plan
for wool growers, permitting the
secretary of agriculture to support
wool prices as high as 110 per
cent of parity to encourage pro-
duction closer to the level of do-
mestic requirements.
3. A hike in price supports for
dairy proouics from thi present
floor of 75 per cent of parity to
80 per cent. The increase would be
effective until next April 1. This
section of the bill also contains
authority for direct subsidies to
butter producers and processors
r to encourage disposal of dairy sur-
pluses.
But the big issue in the legisla-
tion was flexible price supports.
The administration argues that
a sliding scale would tend to slow
down the accumulation of sur-
pluses-,-6% billion dollars worth-
which are now bulging out of gov-
ernment warehouses.
The idea wopld be to lower sup-
ports in times of plenty to dis-
courage production and raise them
when things are scarce to encour-
age production.
Those who want a continuation
of high, rigid levels contend that
the President's program, coming
on the heels of a 13 per cent ce-
cline in farm prices during the
past year, would be ruinous to
agriculture.
Advocates of 90 per cent were
confident almost to the last that
they could push the high support
t level through over the administra-
tion's objections.
On the roll call, however, 182
Republicans, 45 Democrats and
one independent supported the
compromise proposal. Twenty -
three Republicans and 147 Demo-
crats voted against it.

Quake Rocks
Philippines,

Bored?

-Daily-Mara Crozier
THERE'S NOT MUCH ELSE TO LOOK AT
WITHOUT FIREWORKS
WORKS PLAYED :
Former Students Win
Composition Awards

By DAVE TICE
Three graduates of the Univer-
sity School of Music have won sub-
stantial awards for their achieve-
ments in the field of composition.
The three are: Donald Scavarda,
Robert Cogan, and Donald Harris.
Nixon Lashes
At Democrats'
Foreign Policy
WASHINGTON WP-Vice Presi-
dent Nixon charged Friday that
the Truman administration left be-
hind a foreign "policy of weakness,
a policy of surrender of principle
at the conference table."
He said that Democratic plan-
ners "didn't understand . . . what
the Communist threat really was"
and "failed to recognize that it
was a world trap."
The Eisenhower administration,
he said, has "adopted a policy of
strength-one in which our people
go to the conference table*.
determined not to surrender our
principles but to make them pre-
vail."
The vice president made his sec-
ond blast at Democratic planning
within a week during a television
interview with Rep. Keating (R-
N.Y.) for stations in Rochester and
Buffalo, N.Y.
The program was filmed here
Monday afternoon, and the text
was released Friday w i t h o u t
change, despite a furore overNix-
on's first attack on Democratic
policies.
Dems Hit Back
Democratic congressmen have
strongly criticized him for charg-
ing at Milwaukee Saturday night
that the Truman-Acheson policies
lost China and led to the present
Asian crisis. Democrats said a bi-
partisan foreign policy would be
endangered if Eisenhower admin-
stration men continue to makef
such charges.
The President told his news con-
ference Wednesday that he had
neither read nor cleared the Mil-
waukee speech. He said he assumed
Nixon was speaking on his own
responsibility.

Scavarda, who graduated in 1953,
has won a $2,000 first prize in the
Student Composers Radio Awards
contest, probably the largest and
most coveted award of its sort in
the country.
Premiere
The work which won the SCRA
contest was his Fantasy for Violin
and Orchestra, composed while he
was a student here. It will receive
its premiere late this year by the
Montreal Symphony Orchestra.
Scavarda, who was music editor of
Generation, campus literary mag-
azine, for one year, has spent the
past year studying at the Hoch-
schule fur Musik in Hamburg on
a Fulbright scholarship.
Cogan, a graduate of 1952, has
been awarded one of the two 1954
Chopin Scholarships, in the
amount of $1,000. It has also been
announced that famed conductor
Leopold Stokowski will perform his
Fantasia for Orchestra with the
Cleveland Symphony sometime
this year. Cogan composed this
work while a student at the Uni-
versity, and it received its first
performance in 1951 by the Uni-
versity Symphony Orchestra di-
rected by Wayne Dunlap.
Fantasia
The Fantasia also received an
honorable mention and publica-
tion in the SCRA contest of 1953.
Cogan was awarded a Fulbright
scholarship for one year's study in
Brussels, 1952-53, and on return-
ing to the U.S. did postgraduate
work at Princeton, where he has
received a teaching assistantship.
Harris' ballet score, "The Leg-
end of John Henry," has received
a $500 cash prize and a perform-
ance, awarded by the Louisville'
Philharmonic Orchestra. The work
will also be performed in Cincin-
nati this month at a national con-
vention of Phi Mu Alpha, music
fraternity.
The Cincinnati performance will
be with University dance students,
and will be under the direction of
Thor Johnson. The ballet, with
ichoreography by Robin Squier,
'54 LSA, was first performed last,
winter, with music directed by3
Richard Thurston, '54M.
It was also performed on the

Senator Asks
Review of
U.S. Policies
Johnson Warns
On Red China
WASHINGTON (P) -- Strong
pressure for a reappraisal of Amer-
ican foreign policy developed in
the Senate Friday, with members
of both parties expressing uneasi-
ness about the course of world
events.
"Our basic foreign policy is at
the crossroads," Sen. Lyndon John-
son of Texas, the Democratic lead-
er, declared.
He told the Senate the Ameri-
can people will refuse to support
the United Nations if Communist
China becomes a member.
"The American people want no
appeasement of the Communists,"
Johnson said.
The Eisenhower administration
has taken a stand against U.N.
membership for the Red Chinese,
but Johnson and Sen. Knowland of
California, Republican leader, say
some of American's allies are en-
couraging admission of the Reds.
New Direction
It may be necessary to "start out
in a new direction" on foreign pol-
icy, Johnson said, and in any event
the nation must decide "what we
will defend, where we will defend
it, and how we will defend it."
The deteriorating situation in
Indochina is one cause for con-
gressional concern. Only Friday
the StatedDepartment reported it
has asked France to explain a
withdrawal of French forces which
has left about 60 per cent of the
rich Red River Delta in Indochina
in Communist hands.
Many senators are determined
to block Red China's admission to
the UN as long as possible. But
there were two schools of thought
about the course the United States
should take if China gets in.
Sen. Morse (Independent-Ore.)
said Friday, however, that this was
an attitude of, "If I can't have my
way, I'll pick up my marbles and
go home."
Such an attitude, he went on,
would turn the world against this
country and probably start World
War III.
U.S. Starts
Suit Against
iited Fruit
WASHINGTON ()-The feder-
al government filed an anti-trust
suit, yesterday, designed to break
up United Fruit Co.'s banana em-
pire and, incidentally, to spike
Communist propaganda guns in
Guatemala and the rest of Latin'
America.
The Justice Department an-
nounced the suit- - a scant 48
hours after Secretary of State
Dulles had declared the Commu-
nists were trying to "obscure the
real issue" of Communist imperi-
alism in Central America, by
charging that the United States
is only interested in protecting
American business.1
Atty. Gen. Brownell announced
that the suit, charging United I
Fruit with monopolizing and re-
straining trade in bananas, was
filed in New Orleans Federal Dis-
trict Court. He said it was brought
under the Sherman Antitrust'
Act and the Wilson Tariff Act.
The action alleged the company
had gained control of nearly allĀ¢

Central American land used for
growing bananas.
The court was asked to order
United Fruit to get rid of, or di-f
solve, such properties as may be
necessary to "establish effective;
competition in the banana indus-1
try."

4

OPPENHEIMER BOARD - The five-man Atomic Energy Commission. From left are Commission-
ers Thomas E. Murray, Henry D. Smyth, Joseph Campbell, Eugene M. Zuckert and Chairman
Lewis J. Strauss.

Senate Approves

AEC FINDINGS DISCUSSED:

Faculty Views Oppenheimer Case

"The Oppenheimer decision is
like barring Sir Isaac Newton from
government information on gravi-
tation."
This was history professor Pres-
ton Slosson's comment on the re-
cent Atomic Energy Commission
ruling that physicist Robert Op-
penheimer is a security risk and
must be barred from government
secret atomic information.
Prof. Slosson went on to say
"the trouble with lowering an iron
curtain between Oppenheimer and
atomic information is one won-
ders on what side of the cur-
tain there will be the more know-
ledge."
Physics Teachers
Several members of the physics
department also expressed opin-
ions on the Oppenheimer case.
Prof. George Uhlenbeck said he
concurred in the opinion of AEC
commissioner, Henry D. Smyth.
Smyth cast the one dissenting vote
in the Oppenheimer decision.
"The reasons for finding Oppen-
heimer a security risk were not
convincing," Prof. Uhlenbeck com-
mented.
"While some students in physics
might hesitate now before going
into government work, I do not
think it will affect their future
plans very much one way or an-
other," he added,
Eugene Turner, also of the phy-
sics department said "there is no
question as to Oppenheimer's loy-
Detroit Teaehers
Appeal Dismissal
DETROIT W)-Two former De-
troit school teachers appealed to
Circuit Court Friday to overrule
the Board of Education's action in
dismissing them for refusal to say,
whether they were Communists.
The pair, Harold Rosen, 41, and
Sidney Graber, 32, had been under
suspension since they claimed Con-
stitutional privileges and refused
to answer questions at recent De-1
troit hearings of a House Un-
American Activities subcommittee.
The Board of Education fired
the two teachers Thursday night.
Circuit Judge John V. Brennan
set July 27 for a hearing on the
petition of the teachers for rein-
statement.{

Tax Bill

Turns Down Overall Cuts

alty but the fact that he kept see-
ing Chevalier after Chevalier tried
to get secrets from him was a mis-
take."
"For this reason I think the de-
cision was a fair one," Turner ex-
plained.
"The charge by the Gray com-
mittee that Oppenheimer didn't
push hard enough for the develop-
ment of the hydrogen bomb was
just an excuse that was used,"
Prof. Cyrus Levinthal commented.
"I don't think the decision was
a proper one and I think a great
deal of personal vengence was in-
Fireworks
Outlawed
In Ann Arbor
If the laws of the city are obey-
ed Ann Arbor should enjoy a "safe
and sane" Fourth of July week-
end.
A city ordinance passed in 1937
outlaws the use of fire-crackers.
Violation of the law can mean a
fine of $100 and/or 90 days in
jail.
No public fireworks displays are
planned in the city.
A display of night fireworks is
scheduled for 10 p.m. Monday at
Waterworks Park in Ypsilanti in
connection with the American Le-
gion's Fourth of July celebration.
The University will be closed
Monday in observance of the hol-
iday.

volved," Prof. Levinthal elaborat-
ed.
"The Oppenheimer case repre-
sents a reductio ad absurdum of
security proceedures," he said.
Unfair Procedure
Alfred Hunting, a graduate stu-
dent in physics, pointed to what
he called "the unfairness of the
Gray committee hearings."
"For example," he said, "FBI
evidence was used by the commit-
tee which was never given to the
defense. Also, there were no new
charges over the; ones brought
against Oppenheimer in 1948.'
Hunting added that Secretary of
Defense C. E. Wilson's statement
that whether Oppenheimer is a
security risk or not he (Wilson)
wouldn't want Oppenheimer in the
government "shows quite clearly
that the government was not un-
prejudiced."
HST's Condition
Reported Good
KANSAS CITY (M)-Harry S.
Truman's condition was reported
generally improved Friday, with
his temperature, pulse and respira-
tion normal.
Attending physicians reported
that his intestinal inflammation is
quite apparent, however, but the
aggravation has subsided appre-
ciably.
The former president has been
in Research Hospital since June
20 when he underwent an emner-
gency operation for removal of his
gall bladder and appendix.

Measure
As Asked by
President
Douglas Move
For Cuts Loses
WASHINGTON (IP) - A giant
bill overhauling the nation's tax
structure was passed by the Senate
Friday, 63 to 9, in pretty much the
form that President Eisenhower
asked.
Just before passage, the Sen-
ate rejected for the fourth time
in three days a move to grant a
general income-tax cut.
The bill as it stands provides
about $1,300,000,000 in selected
tax cuts for corporations and in-
dividuals, but changes no major
rates.
The fourth and final turndown
of general tax relief was a 62-to-5
vote against a motion by Senator
Douglas (D-fll.) to instruct the
Finance Committee to rewrite the
bill so as to give a general tax cut
to persons in the middle and low
income brackets.
Douglas argued that the bill
benefited corporations and rich
individuals, but did little for oth-
ers. The majority heeded the argu-
ment that it was a balanced bill
that corrected many inequities in
present law.
The Vote
Fourteen Democrats and Sena-
tor Morse (Ind.-Ore.) voted in
favor of Douglas' proposal, with
21 Democrats and 41 Republicans,
including both Michigan senators,
opposing it.
On the vote on final passage, the
Michigan senators were among the
41 Republicans and 22 Democrats
who favored the bill. Eight Demo-
crats and Senator Morse voted
against it.
It represents the first sweeping
revision of general tax legislation
in 78 years. Mr. Eisenhower has
called it essential to the program
of his administration.
A House and Senate conference
committee must now get together
to adjust differences between the
versions passed by the two branch-
es. There are numerous differences,
but most of them are technical.
The Senate named Senators Mil-
likin (R-Cobo.), Williams (-Del.),
George (D-Ga.), and Byrd (D-
Va.) as its representatives in the
adjusting process.
Several provisions liberalized in-
come-tax allowances.
As passed by the Senate, the
measure would alow working
mothers to deduct up to $600 of
expenses for child care if the fam-
ily income does not exceed $4,500.
Deductibles
Deductible allowances for medi-
cal expenses would be increased.
College students would be permit-
ted to earn as much -as they can
without their fathers losing the
$600 exemption for a dependent.
Most of the benefit provisions
would be effective as of Jan. 1,
1954, thus applying to returns filed
in 1955.
One of the big differences be-
tween the House and Senate is
how to treat income received from
dividends.
The House bill would consider
the first $50 of dividend incoie
tax free, and permit a taxpayer
to deduct from his tax bill five per
cent of his dividend income above
$50 in the first year of the legisla-
tion. In subsequent years the first
$100 would be tax exempt and the
taxpayer could deduct 10 per cent
of dividend income above $100.
The Senate Thursday knocked

out all of this except the $50
exemption, which would be per-
manent.
Registration For
State Primaries
The final registration date for
voting in the Democratic and Re-
publican state primaries is Tues-
day at 8 p.m.
If registration is not complet-

Crowds Celebrate Close
('.In c UUTu1 Um01

GUATEMALA (-Church bells
clanged, firecrackers popped and
Guatemalans in fiesta mood draped
the streets of their capital with
blue and white pennants Friday
to celebrate the end of Guatemala's
2-week-old civil war.
Peace came just before dawn
at negotiations in neighboring El
Salvador. Two rival anti-Commun-
ist colonels, rebel leader Carlos
Castillo Armas and Elfego H. Mon-

MANILA, Saturday (M) - An The vice president named no University television station, and
earthquake of great violence names in his new charges that the the kinescope was made available
spread terror and destruction "previous administration" lost 600 to educational TV stations all over
through the Central Philippines million people to communism. the U.S.
Friday and left possibly 22 dead-
in the ruins ofhweres and build- rRUSA LEM JURIST COMMENTS:
Sorsogon, a provincial capital of
26,000 about 230 miles southeasti
of Manila, was in ruins. The head a Lw em -
ofte constalarther sadsraeli Law Resem.
"20 persons are believed dead"
and "property damage is enor- By RONA FRIEDMAN
mous." B OAFIDA
Huge cracks opened in the The will and spirit of the Israeli people has been the basic factor
chain of dead volcanoes that gird in the vast progress that the young state has made, commented
Sorsogon. Tremendous landslides Judge Henry Eli Baker, Relieving President of the District Court in
thundred down their slopes in the Jerusalem, who has been visiting the Law School of the University
valleys of the rich agricultural re- for the last few days.
gion. Touring the courts, law schools and prisons of the United States
taThe complete picture of devas- and Canada since April, Judge Baker has come primarily to the Uni-
the istc asemergg slowly from ted States to study our legal system.
mb s fk kFor Israel like the United States has a heterogeneous nonula-

r

S 1VI V! I"d
zon, signed a peace pact estab-
lishing a new five-man ruling
junta pledged to stamp out com-
munism.
Monzon emerged as No. 1 man
in the new regime, but the com-
promise settlement assured him
only a 15-day term. By then, the
junta must choose a "permanent"
chieftain, it includes Monzon, Cas-
tillo, a Castillo aide and two mem-
bers of the Monzon junta which
preceded the new regime.
There was speculation here Cas-
tillo hopes to win a majority to
his side in the next two weeks.
Festive crowds blanketed the
streets of the Guatemalan capital
with flowers, and waited expect-
antly for the arrival df the new
junta leaders from El Salvador.
Spokesmen here of the new gov-
ernment-Guatemala's fourth with-
in a week-held the first news
conference of the regime in the
mirror-lined presidential s a 1 o n.
They assured the country internal
Communist-led peasant uprisings
were being brought under control.
The new government announced
400 Comnmunists-but no leaders-j

bles Ours, Judge Baker Says

5.

vide a safe haven for all Jews who need it or want it. The first fun-
damental law enacted was the "Law of Return," giving every Jew the
right to return to Israel without any restriction.
Born in Glascow, Scotland, Judge Baker lived mostly in England
where he obtained law degrees at the Universities of Oxford and Lon-
don, before he went to Palestine, then under British mandate, in
1933. He states his main reason for going there quite simply-"I was
a Zionist."
The veratile inde hay held manv varied andl iMnortant nosi..

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