TAE MICHIGAN DAILY
FRIDAY, JULY 4, 1952
I m I
Germ Warfare Charges
MATTER OF FACT
By JOSEPH and STEWART ALSOP
UNITED NATIONS (NY)-Up to the be-
ginning of the Security Council discus-
sion of germ warfare Mr. Malik's tack had
puzzled the delegates and reporters. What
was expected was the official Soviet launch-
ing of the latest "big lie," namely that United
States forces had used bacteriological wea-
pons in Korea. What happened was a long
and rather academic appeal for all United
Nations members to ratify the 1925 Geneva
Protocol prohibiting germ warfare.
Mr. Ernest Gross, the United States rep-
resentative, assured the Council yesterday
that nothing would be gained in mercy or
understanding of warfare to-day by arguing
about an old protocol that was of interest
only to historians. The United Nations cor-
respondent of the "New York Times"
promptly dug into the history of the pro-
tocol, and the earlier resolutions against poi-
son-gas warfare offered in the Treaty of
Washington in 1922. He found that the Unit-
ed States had been- "not only the leading
spirit in drawing up the protocol, but made
a sustained effort throughout the twenties to
promote agreements prohibiting poison gas."
Maybe Mr. Malik had found out the same
thing. The Council is unlikely to argue the
point because most of its members do not
want to fall into a Soviet trap. They are not
quite sure what the trap is. But they know
where it would lead to-to a technical dis-
pute over a dead treaty, which would be
tiresome in New York but could be brought
to life in the Soviet and satellite newspapers
and used to horrify the obedient battalions of
The Council members will most likely vote
to refer Mr. Malik's proposal to the Disarm-
ament Commission. The United States said
yesterday that whatever the wrongs and
rights of a quarter-century ago at Geneva
the United States has a firm policy to-day,
and it is to make the banning of bacterio-
logical warfare part of the United Nations
study of international atomic control and
Declaratin of Piety
Some delegates feared, however, that there
is no way-as indeed there never is-for the
Western nations to avoid Russian propa-
ganda traps. Mr. Malik got his plea into the
record. Baldly it can be reported in Moscow
that he appealed to the Americans to agree
to ban germ warfare and the Americans
turned him down. He can add that for 27
years the Americans have refused to ratify
a ban on poison gas. Of course, so did many
other nations. But the word "refused" is a
useful'propaganda weapon in itself.
The Geneva Protocol was shelved in a bored
sort of way in the Senate Foreign Relations
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writer only.
This must be noted In all reprints.
NIGHT EDITOR: MARGE SHEPHERD
Committee; it was 1927, and who was going
to poison anybody just then, in the ripe aut-
umn of the Golden Twenties? Anyway, the
Geneva Protocol at best was a declaration of
piety, taking no responsibility for looking in-
to violations or describing any punishments.
Mr. Gross, speaking for our side, did, how-
ever, get into the record the fact that the
Soviet Union qualified its horror of germ
warfare by saying that it would feel morally
bound to obey the Geneva Protocol only
when it was fighting States that had rati-
This, of course, leads to the logical deduc-
tion thatMr. Malik was preparing, in a,
roundabout way, a moral defense line fromr
which bacteriological warfare could be used,
for instance, against the United States.
If this appears to be a lurid line of thought,
caused by over-attendance at the Security
Council sessions in its formative years, it is
nothing like so horrible as the big article
that has just appeared in "Pravda" and
which was evidently written to explain to
Russians the reasons for Mr. Malik's concern
in the Security Council to have the United
States ratify a ban on germ warfare. The
article, reported here, warns the Russian
people that the United States has plans to
"eliminate" about seven hundred million hu-
man beings in Europe and Asia. The United
States, it says, has adopted the philosiphy
of the Nazi master race and is already em-
barked on a policy of exterminating the "in-
ferior" human strains. It will do this, Mr.
Aleksandrov advises, by bacteriological, war-
fare, by calculated starvation, by sterilising,
and birth control. The Americans, it is now
proper to think in Russia, are "the bloodiest
beasts, the worst enemies of humanity."
What is disturbing about this rubbish is
not its obscene content but the possible mo-
tive for writing it. State Department ex-
perts in Russian affairs simply comment
tiat this new anti-American propaganda
crusade in Moscow "exceeds both in quan-
tity and virulence Soviet attacks on Hitler."
Add to this dour observation the plausible
rumour that Mr. George Kennan, the new
American Ambassador in Moscow, is shock-
ed by the wholly unexpected turn in the
temper of Soviet Government officials; that
while Moscow rages against America it has
become strangely benign towards Great Brit-
ain; that President Truman has lost his
spring buoyancy about the distant pros-
pects of war; that several Government of-
ficials in the Defense Department have un-
willingly changed their minds about the So-
viets' disinclination for a big war soon; that
the 24-hour air alert throughout the sum-
mer, which was ordered by the Eastern Sea-
board defense area, was not wholly a scare-
tactic to improve aid-raid training; add all
this misery together and it can easily be seen
why reporters in the Security Council cham-
ber, for all its cathedral calm and its air-
conditioned coolness, cannot shake off the
sweat and depression of the dog days.
WASHINGTON-The American air forces
in Korea are now receiving massive re-
inforcements of jet fighters and fighter
bombers. The planned reinforcement will
increase the over-all strength by nearly 40
per cent and the strength in jet planes by
an even higher percentage.
This great and painful effort is a re-
sponse to a corresponding reinforcement
of the Communist air force above the
Yalu. Until recently, the Communist air
units in a position to participate in the
Korean fighting were estimated to num-
ber 2,000 aircraft, with a thousand jet
fighters. In recent weeks, at least 200
and more probably 300 new jet fighters
have been added to this Communist force.
Furthermore, the strengthening of the
Communist air force has been accompanied
by other signs even more disquieting, al-
though less clearly defined for public con-
"The Russians," it is said by those who
will discuss the subject at all, "are taking
a far more overt part." Reports are circu-
lating that the Communist Air Force in the
Korean theater now includes Russian units
which have not gone through the significant
formality of having their insignia painted
over. Other reports suggest the appointment
of an over-all Soviet Air Commander. In
any case, while the form of this more overt
Soviet participation is not precisely defined,
the fact is quite undisputed.
* * * *
THERE ARE several different ways to
measure the potential importance of
these developments. The Under Secretary
of the Air Force, Roswell Gilpatrick, the
Acting Chief of Air Staff, Gen. Nathan
Twining, and the Air Force Fighter Com-
mander, Gen. Roger Ramey, have just left
for Korea for a personal inspection of the
front line situation. A party of this char-
acter would hardly have been sent out, un-
less serious concern were felt.
Again, the reinforcement of our Korean
air units has in turn necessitated really
disturbing changes in other priorities. In
order to muster the necessary F-86s and
F-84s, plans for strengthening the Str-
tegic Air Command and equipping the
NATO forces in Europe have had to be
readjusted. Such crucial schedules as
these would hardly have been altered, if
the position in Korea were not causing
All this does not mean, of course, that
new trouble in Korea is now to be regarded
as a certainty, or even as a probability. For
one thing, so far as is known, the reinforce-
ments of the Communist air power do not
yet include jet fighter bombers. With really
fast fighter bombers (which one must re-
member could be sent into Manchuria at the
last minute), the Communists could make
a pretty fair stab at neutralizing the Amer-
ican forward airfields in the Seoul area.
But with the obsolete medium bombers
which they now possess, the Communists
will have the odds heavily against them in
any such attempts.
While we occupy the Seoul airfields,
the Communist air units will find it very
difficult to prepare and use their own
airfields in North Korea. And without
these forward air bases of their own, the
short range Communist Migs cannot
easily challenge our supremacy in the
air over the battle lines.
Again, there is the curiously conflicting
character of other evidence. Take, for ex-
ample, two reports sent in recent months
by the recently transferred Indian Ambas-
sador to Peking, Sardar M. Panikkar. In
one, he quoted a high Chinese Communist
official as saying that "when the tigress has
its paw in the trap, you do not let it go."
The implication was, obviously, that the
Chinese Communists feared the United
States and thought it wise to keep this
country continuously involved in Korea.
This would rule out both a Korean settle-
ment and a risky intensification of the Kor-
* * * *
ON THE OTHER HAND, when the truce
negotiations broke down for the last
time, Panikkar sent another and seemingly
contradictory report. It will be recalled that
the cause of the breakdown was the unex-
pectedly large number of Chinese and North
Korean voting against repatriation.
When the breakdown happened, Panik-
kar relayed a seemingly authoritative Chi-
nese suggestion that we compromise by
keeping the North Korean prisoners and
sending back the Chinese. As the Chi-
nese prisoners had voted almost 3 to 1
against going home, forcibly driving them
back to their fate was rather too steep a
rise above principle. Yet the Chinese
proposal looked like proof of a genuine
desire to end the Korean hostilities.
In short, anyone who seeks to forecast
/ettP TO THE EDITOR
The Daily welcomes communications from its readers on matters of
general interest, and will publish all letters which are signed by the writer
and in good taste. Letters exceeding 300 words in length, defamatory or
libelous letters, and letters which for any reason are not in good taste will
be condensed, edited or withheld from publication at the discretion of the
South Africa .. .
To the Editor:
IT IS TRUE that whatever is
written about South Africa
nowadays raises the self-righteous
cry of "biassed! emotional! parti-
san! "--since the prejudices in-
volved run deep and opposition to
then seems to be almost a crim-
inal offense. But the basic facts
cannot be denied; the prejudices
are there. The suffering is there.
Thus Mr. Quirk's somewhat un-
fair criticism of what he 'emotion-
ally' calls "pretentious, emotive
and partisan," article of Mr. Ojeh-
omon (South African Crisis, Daily
June 29) requires a brief rebuttal.
After a blanket accusation of
misrepresentation of facts, Mr.
Quirk says that Ojehomon failed
to mention two points; namely,
the role Britain has played in
granting independence to some of
her African possessions and that
South Africa is not 'possessed' by
a foreign power! As to his first
point, the attitude of Mr. Quirk
seems to be that there is noth-
ing wrong with colonial rule but
is rather the Africans' fault for
failing to adjust it. For this he
mentions nothing less than 'world
opinion' to support his position.
As regards Nigeria and Ghena
(Gold Coast), Mr. Quirk must sur-
ely know that the fitness to rule
oneself is the result ofapractice
and experience. How can then
those people achieve democratic
perfection when there is no chance
for such self-rule?
As to the second point of Mr.
Quirk, I fail to see any justifica-
tion for the human folly and
mounting bitterness in South Af-
rica in his denial thatthe country
does not exist under a foreign
aegis. The principal point of ar-
gument of Mr. Ojehomon was the
problems arising out of the dom-
inance of one people over another.
Mr. Ojehomon's allusions to the
imperialistic expansions of last
century were only to show the
events which have made the "Af-
rican so completely an alien and
a prisoner in his own land." Be-
sides, the distinction maintained
in South Africa between "Euro-
pean and "Natives" is an unwit-
ting admission that they are in
fact intruders in the land. But
even conceding the point that Mr.
Quirk makes, the internal policies
of South Africa could not be justi-
fled by ardent exponent of im-
perialism as they are opposed to
even the most primitive concepts
of human rights.
Mr. Quirk also indicts the writ-
er of the article for sensationalism,
but then isn't that an accepted
standard for present day report-
ing? But these only deflect our
attention from the main problem.
Although I agree with him that
we should show a restraint in our
exposition of world problems, we
cannot always feel detached when
the lives and liberties ofmen are
involved . . . Nor can we disclaim
the responsibility whentheie n-
humanities mentioned are perpe-
trated in the name of western civ-
--Taffara De Guefe
with DREW PEARSON
WASHINGTON-One year ago today, Americans in two widely se-
parated parts of the U.S. showed a shocking lak of knowledge-
even fear-of the Declaration of Independence, signed by the found-
ing fathers in Philadelphia 176 years ago.
In Madison, Wis., John Hunter, a reporter for the Capital
Times, asked 112 people attending a 4th-of-July celebration to
sign a petition embodying the wording of the Declaration of In-
dependence and the Bill of Rights. Only one out of 12 was willing
In New Orleans, Allen Johnson, a reporter for the Item, had
somewhat the same experience. Only 12 out of 36 people were willing
to sign. The reaction of those approached was that "the stuff sounds
Russian," that it ought to be "narrowed down," that the man cir-
cularizing the petition was a "Communist."
Subsequent editorial reaction was that "McCarthyism" has
instilled such fear of any free doctrine or belief, that people were
afraid to sign anything having to do with freedom.
Yet freedom was the founding principle which the nation fought
for on the anniversary we celebrate today.
* * * *
NEW COPIES OF DECLARATION
FOLLOWING THIS woeful lack of understanding of the Declara-
tion of Independence, this columnist suggested to a printer in
Virginia, birthplace of Thomas Jefferson, that he print several hun-
dred thousand copies of that document for distribution to schools,
veterans' posts, and business offices.
So August Dietz of the Dietz Press, Richmond, patriotically
did so. He not only prepared a decorated copy of the Declaration
for five cents, including mailing charges, but he went further. He
arranged with the Sertoma (service to mankind) clubs, of which
he is a member, to circulate about one million copies of the De-
claration to schools all over the nation.
The Bank of America in California did the same thing, and this
distribution of the Declaration is continuing. However, one million
copies of Jefferson's stirring words, signed in Philadelphia July 4,
1776, is a mere drop in the bucket among a population of 150,000,000.
And this 4th of July might be an excellent time to begin a new
drive with the cooperation of additional organizations to study the
precepts of the founding fathers and their effort to make democracy
**. * *
176 ARMY VS. 1952 ARMY
THE CONTINENTAL ARMY which opposed the well-equipped Brit
tish and Hessians 176 years ago was a bobtail array of militiamen,
farmers, and city riff-raff, carrying rifles, pitchforks, and anything
else they could lay their hands on. They ate off the land, had a bi-
zarre assortment of uniforms, and not only during the historic winter
at Valley Forge, but at other times, many did not have shoes.
This week a senate report is being readied by Sen. Lyndon
Johnson's preparedness committee which will shock many Ameri-
cans. It will show that, in contrast to the days of the tattered
continentals, the American armed forces are the best-equipped,
the lushest, the costliest, and least combative per man in the
It will show that, whereas every man in the Continental army
carried a gun and could account for himself, today few American
troops carry guns. Furthermore, the Russians with less equipment,
less money and less fat, have ten times the fire-power per man as
the American Army.
In other words, most of the Red army is trained for combat. Most
of the American Army, on the other hand, is trained to be cooks,
orderlies, personnel experts, chauffeurs, mechanics, mailmen, grave-
diggers, behind the relatively few men who carry the guns and do the
Illustrating the "fat" in the American army, the Johnson
Committee points out:
"At one point in the (Korean) campaign, the enemy enjoyed a
numerical superiority in the theater of three to two. But this im-
balance-unfavorable as it was-was a minor factor as contrasted to
the numerical superiority of the enemy in the front line. At the point
of contact-the actual area of battle-the enemy superiority was five
to one. The Communists were capable of putting about four-fifths of
their theater strength into the front line while the best the United
Nations could do was about one-fifth.
"The American rifle company of 204 men has 39 men who
perform a number of jobs other than shooting at the enemy,"
continues the report. "The Russian rifle company-slightly more
than half this number-has only two men who do anything but
shoot. The American heavy weapons company has 123 men who
are not engaged in direct combat operation. Its Soviet counter-
part has only nine. The American infantry battalion has 100 men
engaged in communications work. The comparable Russian organ.
ization gets along on 23."
The committee blames the traditions and luxuries of the past
for bloating the armed forces with fat.
NAVY AND AIR FORCE
THE COMMITTEE didn't address its stinging rebuke solely to the
Army, but also took a few swipes at the Air Force and Navy.
"We. cannot consider an organization efficient when it requires
1,600 men-plus a supply line tOo
-The Manchester Guardian
Taft in the Second
HICAGO-Taft, nominated on the second
ballot. That's the aim of the Taft stra-
The Senator from Ohio may or may not
r have those 603 votes he talks about so
confidently but one thing he does know.
If his foot slips after the first ballot, when
the favorite sons begin to release their
delegations, he is done for.
Not all the Taft delegates are tied down
to the point where, a large and loyal army,
they will follow all the way. More than the
mere desire to find the winner is involved.
Some important Taft pledges were obtain-
ed before General Eisenhower became a real
Already the Eisenhower forces are claim-
ing a small but significant leakage--a few
votes here, a handful there-in the moun-
tain states and in the midwest, of delegates
supposedly pledged to Taft. They are con-
fident that if they can hurt the Ohioan on
the first ballot they will never look back.
Senator Taft is meeting this threat by
claiming everything in sight, including a
mellow and forgiving nature, in order to
hold his lines and create the psychology
that his nomination is inevitable. If a
man can talk himself into the nomina-
tion, the Senator can make it. He is giving
a great performance, remarkable for the
end of a hard pre-convention campaign
which took him into almost every state.
Here on the home stretch too, with all
the bargains made and the steamroller
safely in the hands of trusted lieutenants,
even to the keynoter, Taft is also striving
to give the effect of generous cooperation.
His claims, however, that the National Com-
mittee will not follow his lead are only put
by reporters under the head of good, clean
Taft is also seeking to disarm the fearful
by an appearance of moderation in the for-
eign-policy field. To those who follow his
senate career, as distinguished from his pre-
sidential campaign, some of his comments
now seem ludicrous.
It is late but General Eisenhower has
decided to lead a fight on the issue of the
contested Southern delegations, yielding
nothing and claiming that morality, ethics
and legality are all on his side. Drama is
also on his side--the contests, especially
Texas, can be built into a great produc-
tion as some skilful and astute operators
There is something very funny about the
Taft reaction to all the furor. The Senator
has behaved in the traditional, time-honor-
ed pattern of dealing with Southern leaders
who can no more carry their states than
President Truman can carry the Union Lea-
gue Club. Any suggestion that they were ex-
pected to was treated as a joke.
To insist, at this late date, that Repub-
licans should take seriously any popular
ferment in the South is viewed by the Sen-
ator and his allies as on a par with eye-
gouging at a tennis match, a plain violation
of all the rules of political sport. To them,
as Bert Lahr used to say, "It ain't right, it
ain't chic, it ain't etiquette."
General Eisenhower will aim the moral
issue squarely at the women delegates and
committee members. There are small signs
already that it is taking hold.
Several committeewomen, hitherto either
docile or sharing the views of their male col-
leagues, broke away from the men on a key
ballot. A good deal of conversation is also
reported among them about "doing what
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the University
of Michigan for which the Michigan
Daily assumes no editorial responsi-
bility. Publication in it is construc-
tive notice to all members of the
' University. Notices should be sent in
TYPEWRITTEN form to Room 3510
Administration Building before 3 p.m.
the day preceding publication (11 a.m.
Scientific computation meeting.
Representatives of the Statistical
Research Laboratory and the Tabulat-
ing Service will discuss applications of,
and programming for the I.B.M. Card-
Programmed Electronic C al c u l a t o r
(CPC) now available on campus. The
CPC is a moderate-speed, moderate-
storage-capacity sequential electronic
digital computer. Detailed problem dis-
cussion welcome. Faculty, research
staffs and graduate students with rele-
vant problems are invited. Tuesday, July
8, 4:15 p.m., Room 4051 (Projection
Room), Administration Building.
The Artist's Viewpoint including "The
City" (Museum of Modern Art), paint-
ings from the whitney Museum of Am-
erican Art and works from the Perma-
nent Collection. July 8 through 28 at
the Museum of Art Galleries, Alumni
Memorial Hall. Weekdays, 9-5, Sundays,
2-5. The public is welcome.
The Pi Lambda Thetas will have a
dinner meeting July 9th, 6:30 p.m. at
the Michigan Union. The price of the
dinner is $2.25. The speaker will be Dr.
Stanley E. Dimond, Professor of Edu-
cation, University of Michigan. Phone
reservations to Helen Ryder 2-2986 by
July 5th. Presiding officer will be Mil-
dred Loeffler. All members are invited
Lane Hall will be open Monday, Tues-
day and Wednesday evenings for the
Television Broadcast of the Republican
Convention. Any interested Faculty and
Students are invited to drop in.
Jose~h Brinkman, Mr. Popp will play
Bach's Partita No. 6 in E minor, and
Brahms Sonata in F minor, Op. 5. The
general public is invited.
Museum of Art. Sixth annual exhibi-
tion, Michigan Water Color Society.
General Library, main lobby cases.
Books which have influenced the mo-
Museum of Archaeology. Ancient
Egypt and Rome of the Empire.
Museums Building. Rotunda exhibit.
Some museum techniques.
Michigan Historical collections, 160
Rackham Building. The changing Cam-
Clements Library. American books
which have influenced the modern mind
(through September 1).
Law Library. Atomic energy (through
Architecture Building. Student work
(June 11-July 7).
PLAY, presented by the Department
f Speech. Twelfth Night, by William
Shakespeare. 8:00 p.m., Lydia Mendels-
The Intercooperative Council will hold
a picnic on July 4, afternoon, at Bishop
Lake. Everybody is invited. There will
be a charge of 50 cents for food. Leave
at 11:00 o'clock in the morning from
Owen House, 1017 Oakland. All inter-
ested should call 7211 by noon Thursday
and inform the ICC whether they will
need transportation or will be able to
provide an automobile.
Saturday, July 5, PLAY, presented by
the Department of Speech. Twelfth
Night, by William Shakespeare. 8:00
p.m., Lydia Mendelssohn Theater.
Graduate Outing Club meet Sun.,
long to be estimated-to put 75
single-seat aircraft into the air,"
the report fires its barbs at the
other two services. "We cannot
consider a training base efficient
when it requires two men to han-
die every three pupils. We cannot
consider a ship efficiently run
when it is manned by three and
one-half times the number of sea-
men required to conduct a similar
operation in private commerce."
"Victory," says the Johnson-
Committee, "has usually gone
not to the largest army but to
the best-organized army. Mili-
tary superiority has been meas-
ured not by the number of guns
but by the destructive power of
the guns that can be brought to
bear. We face an enemy who
outnumbers our manpower as
the grains of sand on the beach
-whose vast resources have yet
to be encompassed in numerical
terms. Against that manpower
and those resources we must
counterpose our superior ability-
T yrann y
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Control of
Leonard Greenbaum . .Managing Editor
Ivan Kaye and Bob Margolin
. ........Co-Sports Editors
Nan Reganali. . ....Women's Editor
Joyce Pickles.............Night Editor
Harry Lunn .............Night Editor
Marge Shepherd.......... Night Editor
Virginia Voss........,..Night Editor
Mike Wolff.............Night Editor
Tom Treeger......... Business Manager
PROTECTION, therefore, against the
tyranny of the magistrate is not enough;
there needs protection also against the
tryauny of the prevailing opinion and feel-
ing; against the tendency of society to im-
pose. by- other means than civil nenalties.