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Communist dominated coun-
tries deliberately attempt to use
education as an instrument of so-
cial and political action, Joseph
A. Lauwerys, professor of com-
parative education at the Univer-
sity of London, said yesterday.
Speaking to the Workshop in
International , Education, Prof.
Lauwerys discussed the way in
which a political theory influences
both the administration and aims
of education in the Communist
s * * r
HE ASSERTED that efforts are
being made in all the Eastern Eu-
ropean countries to provide edu-
cation in the villages. This educa-
tion has as its aim the political
formation of the peasants so that
they will be loyal to the Commun-
ist regime. In this way, they are
attenipting "to transform the
composition of the ruling groups,"
Prof. Lauwerys said.
Invited to go as "educational-
ist" on a delegation organized by
a non-political organization,
Prof. Lauwerys visited Yugo-.
slavia last September to find out
whether or not the Yugoslavs
were preparing to attack their
He said that his findings result-
ed in a clear exposure of methods
of Cominform propaganda, be-
cause, in fact, none of the accusa-
tions it made were true.
Prof. Lauwerys has visited about
thirty countries since the war. He
represented UNESCO at the Fun-
damental Education Conference
in Nanking in 1947.
To Free U.S.
WASHINGTON - (P) - Com-
munist Czechoslovakia, yielding to
a vigorous American protest, yes-
terday agreed to release the pilots
of two U.S. jet fighter planes who
made a forced landing behind the
Iron Curtain three weeks ago.
The State Department said the
Czech foreign office gave U. S.
ambassador Ellis O. Briggs a note
promising to free the pilots and
the planes. It did not say when.
The Czech note was in response
to a protest filed by Briggs this
The two pilots are Lt. Luther
G. Roland of Hummelstown, Pa.,
and Lt. Joern Johansen, a Norwe-
gian training with the U. S. Air
Force in Germany.
The State Department said the
pilots had been held incommuni-
cado since they made an emer-
gency landing near Prague, June
8, while engaged in a training
flight in the American occupation
zone of Germany.
MUTE TESTIMONY TO FURY OF WAR-A shattered tree stands like a gaunt sentinel before the war-wrecked remains of a bridge
over this Korean river. Meanwhile fighting virtually disappeared from the Korean front under a mounting wave of cease-fire talk.
Ground action was confined to a fierce fight over a small hill in the northwest front.
New Congressional Actions Put Clamps
On Foreigners, Conscientious Objectors
WASHINGTON-(A') - Congress
has tightened up on two groups of
1) Conscientious objectors. They
must now serve the nation either
in uniform or out.
2. Aliens. It is now much more
difficult for them to be deferred.
* * *
SELECTIVE SERVICE Head-
quarters say 9,037 conscientious
objectors had deferments on May
Unless they're in line for de-
ferment on other grounds, they
now will either have to go into
noncombat training and service
or take 24-month civilian jobs
that their draft boards think
contribute "to the °maintenance
of the national health, safety or
Selective Service is still uncer-
tain how this may be administered
but says it looks as though local
draft boards may take on some of
the functions of employment agen-
PRESUMABLY, says one Selec-
tive Service spokesman, the pres-
ent guides for determining essen-
tial work will be used. These are
the Commerce Department's "list
of essential activities" and Labor
Department's "list of critical oc-
cupations." Both are issued to lo-
cal boairds for their guidance.
In the 1948 Selective Service
Act, Congress sought to protect
the rights of minority groups,
like the Quakers, who had long
held conscientious objections to
military service. But it did not
,want to open an easy escape
The Department of Sociology
announced that the Eita Krom
Prize and $75 will be awarded to
the junior or senior in the literary
college who submits the best pa-
per dealing with "The Analysis of
a Social Group," "The Analysis of
a Sociological Hypothesis", or "A
Case Study of Sociological Ther-
Papers should be between 5,000
and 10,000 words and must be sub-
mitted to the secretary of the so-
ciology department on or before
Feb. 1, 1952.
route for overnight pacifists who
merely disliked the idea of get-
ting bunions in the infantry.
So Congress granted outright
deferments to conscientious objec-
tors but said their objections must
be the result of "religious training
Congress said this meant "an in-
dividual's belief in a relation to
a supreme being involving duties
superior to those arising from any
human relation." It ruled out "es-
sentially political, sociological or
philosophical views or a merely
personal moral code."
The definition is retained in the
new UMTS law, but Congress still
wanted objectors to give as much
service to the nation as draftees.
It did not want to resort to the
unpopular system of World War I,
when 12,000 objetcors worked
without pay in former CCC camps,
on farms and in mentalhospitals.
* * *
UP TO NOW any alien, even
after he had taken out first citi-
zenship papers, could apply for re-
lief from military service and get
a 4-C deferment. If he did so, he
End Test Run
LAKENHETH AIR BASE, Eng.
-(JP)-Hhree B-36s of the United
States Air Force flew in from
Texas yesterday on a 5-,000-mile
non-stop flight-half the distance
they can carry the atom bomb.
The 10-engine global bombers
came here from Carswell Air Force
Base near Ft. Worth "on a purely
routine training flight," a U. S.
Third Air Force Officer said. The
first plane set down here 221
hours after leaving Texas Thurs-
The flight is the second time
the 180-ton heavies have appeared
Lakenheath is one of the few
bases in Europe with runaways
long enough to handle the B-36.
The Air Force spokesman said the
planes probably will stay in Eng-
land two or three days before re-
turning to the U. S. Each plane
carried a crew of 15. The train-
ing missions are part of the long-
range navigation and cruise con-
trol program of the Strategic Air
was barred from ever becoming a
Selective Service says many of
the 8,002 deferred aliens are dis-
placed persons. Some would not
declare their intention of becom-
ing citizens when they came here
and would not serve in the
Armed Forces. Since they were
stateless persons, they could not
Under the new UMTS law, how-
ever, all draft-age aliens admitted
for permanent residence become
immediately liable for induction.
They cannot apply for relief from
*, * *
ALIENS WHO stay in the Uni-
ted States for at least a year "in
a status other than that of a per-
manent resident," such as stu-
dents and businessmen, also be-
come liable, but they may apply
for relief. If they do, they lose'
any chance of becoming citizens.
Exemption is still granted dip-
lomatic and Consular personnel
and their families. Also deferred
are citizens of nine countries
with which the United States
has treaties exempting each
other's nationals from service,
provided they have not declared
an intention of becoming citi-
(The nine countries are Argen-
tina, Costa Rica, China, Ireland,
Italy, Siam, Spain, Switzerland
CONSCIENTIOUS objectors will
retain their 4-E classifications un-
less they request and are granted
another type of deferment, but
classifications of many aliens will
If you're classified 4-C as an
alien or 4-E as a CO and wish to
avoid being called up, make sure
your local Board has all the facts
about your status in your file. If
you have dependents, make sure
the Board has proof, like certified
copies of your marriage certificate
or child's birth certificate. You
now need more than one depend-
ent to get a deferment unless your
induction would mean severe hard-
ship for your only dependent.
An alien might rate the vet-
eran's 4-A exemption if he
served in Allied Forces during
the war. Send your Board proof
of this, like discharge papers.
If you have a job you think es-
sential, have your boss tell the
Board about it in a letter. If you
can be easily replaced, you do not
rate an occupational deferment.
Get help and advice from your
Government appeal agent. Your
Board has his name and address.
WASHINGTON - (A) - Secre-
tary of the Interior Chapman said
yesterday the nation's output of
strategic and critical metals and
minerals is headed for a "notable
increase" over the next five years.
Chapman said in a news release
that the increase will result from
development by private industry of
new mines, mills, smelters, refin-
eries and other facilities.
He said the Defense Minerals
Administration has recommended
faster amortization, for income
tax purposes, of a part of the
cost of these developments.
Chapman said Defense Min-
erals Administrator James Boyd
estimated the annual increased
production of copper, zinc, and
lead-from the new facilities for
which his agency has recom-
mended accelerated amoritza-
tion-at 139,000 tons, 90,000 tons
and 35,000 tons, respectively.
Boyd said DMA has recommend-
ed to the Defense Production Ad.
ministration the approval of 137
requests for accelerated amoritza-
tion of new facilities.
The amortization benefits allow
companies to depreciate for in-
come tax purposes a designate
percentage of the cost of a new
facility over a five-year period, in
stead of the 15 to 25 year perio
Ferguson (R-Mich.) urged De
fense Mobilizer Charles E. Wilso
yesterday to take another look a
the critical materials situatior
and slow down construction t
boost industrial production.
He told the Senate allocation
of critical materials to industrie
have been cutback in favor c
new defense construction projects
These projects "ultimately" wi
be producing defense goods, Fer
"But the important point," he
said, "is that constructionitse
is not production and furnishe
only limited employment."
"Instead of allocating a con
struction project 1,000 tons o
steel over an 18 months period tb
same amount could be allocate(
over a 24-months period.
"The result would be a one.
third saving in steel over the 18.
month period, which could be
allotted to actual productive ac-
The University campus, usually
bristling with campaigns by poli-
tical clubs and other student
groups, is in for a clubless sum-
mer unless some organizations
register before the deadline Fri-
Not one student group has regis-
tered yet for the summer session.
Every student organization plan-
ning to be active this summer
must file a list of their members
and officers with the Office of
Student Affairs, Rm. 1020 Admin-
istration Bldg., to be recognized
by the University.
LAST SUMMER o nl1y eleven
clubs, largely professional groups,
The Young Progressives were
the only student politicos ac-
tive, although the Young
Democrats and Young Repub-
licans worked individually help-
ing candidates in the Congres-
sional primaries. Since this is
an off-election year, they are
expected to lie fallow this sum-
The Young Progressives, who
were put on probation at the end
of last summer for a violation of
University rules, were back in full
standing last semester. However,
Jean Berler, '54, YP president,
said they would probably not be
active this summer.
The University chapter of the
National Association for the Ad-
vancement of Colored People new-
ly organized last semester, also
suspended its activites for the
summer session, according to its
president, Quentin Fulcher, '52L.
WASHINGTON - (P) - Gov-
ernment spending will1exceed $68,-
000,000,000 in the fiscal year be-
ginning July 1, a Budget Bureau
official estimated yesterday, and
may reach $90,000,000,000 in the
Elmer B. Staats, Assistant Di-
rector of the Bureau of the Bud-
get, laid the astronomical figures
- before the Senate Finance Com-
mittee. The committee is holding
7 hearings on the Administration's
_ request for more than $10,000,000,-
000 in new taxes.
By far the biggest item in the
- budget is the amount to be spent
d for military preparedness, Staat
v reported. He said that even after
- the defense buildup is complete
d it may require $40,000,000,000 an-
nually to keep the Defense De
Staats' estimate of spending for
the fiscal year 1952, beginning to
morrow, was $68,400,000,000. Presi"
dent Truman's original budget es
timate in January was $71,600,
For fiscal year 1953, the 1
n months beginning July 1, 1952, h
t figured total spending would ap
KEY WEST, Fla.-()-A Navy
patrol bomber crashed while tak-
ing off on a training flight yester-
day and killed eight of the nine
men on board.
The lone survivor suffered a
broken leg but could not be ques-
tioned immediately because of
* * *
A NAVY CHIEF Petty Officer,
S. Kitching, reached inside the
wreckage and rescued a second
man who died of injuries after
reaching the hospital.
All bodies were recovered.
Three officers and six enlisted
men were aboard the craft, a twin-
engined PBM. The wreckage lay
in 12 feet of water, with a part
protruding above the surface.
Kitching and two sailors watched
the takeoff from the Naval Sea-
plane Base boathouse.
"She was clear of the water
when the left wing suddenly went
high and the plane cartwheeled,"
said Kitching. "We yelled 'crash!'
and got under way in two boats."
The crash scene was half a
mile from the boat house.
The Graduate Outing Club will
start off its program of summer
activites tomorrow with an after-
noon of swimming and outdoor
sports at Silver Lake, Irene Gon-
kowski, Grad., announced.
She asked all members and
other graduate students interested
in the club to meet in the club-
room in Rackham Hall at 2:15 p.m.
An outing for each Sunday of
the summer session is being
planned. A five day canoe trip
down the Au Sable will be the
club's main summer project.
Mary J. McNerney, teacher of
mathematics and Latin by cor-
respondence through the Univer-
sity Extension Service, retired
yesterday after 11 years of ser-
D Miss McNerney formerly taughi
- Latin, German and algebra at the
stimulates the leaf to grow a l
tective coating about the
which later develops into the;
Jumping Bean Mystery
Solved by U' Zoologist
The mystery of tiny jumping beans, 50 times smaller than the
Mexican variety, which had stumped biology experts in western
Michigan was cleared up yesterday by a University zoologist.
Prof. J. Speed Rogers of the zoology department, and director
of the Museum of Zoology, said the bodies were the galls of wasps,
and the jumping was caused by the larva inside the gall throwing it-
self against the thin walls.
THE GROWTH of the galls is started by the wasp. The insect
"stings" the underside of the oak leaf, and in doing so leaves an egg
-A and a bit of fluid. This fluid
In the meantime, the egg has
reached the larva stage. Soon
the entire gall drops to the
ground and Jumpsdabout untilit
finds a crack or nitch where it
comes to rest.
The remainder of the life cycle
is completed after the larva pass-
es through a pupal stage and la-
ter becomes a new insect.
"A particular leaf may produce
many types of galls," Prof. Rog-
ers said. "It is believed that the
characteristics ofthe galls are due
to the nature of the fluid which
the insects deposit with the egg."
Michigan State College officials
announced yesterday they have
adopted the University of Ryukus
A staff of five Michigan State
teachers will be assigned to the
university, and students will be
exchanged between t h e t w o
Director of' the program, Dr.
Milton E. Muelder, announced that
as many MSC facilities and serv-
ices as possible will be made avail-
able to the new school.
The project, sponsored and paid
for by the United States Army, has
been initiated in the hope that it
will transplant the ideas and pro-
grams of American land grant col-
leges to the Pacific universities.
can fix your old
Factory made parts.
READ and USE
MEN -- WOMEN
BOARD AND ROOM
Lowest rates in Ann Arbor
Openings for summer & fall
Phone 7211 or 5974
July fourth celebrates the day when our country
became free from outside control. But in financial
matters you can celebrate freedom from worry
over the safety of your money every day. Yes,
LUTHERAN STUDENT ASSOCIATION
(National Lutheran Council)
1304 Hill Street
Dr. Henry O. Yoder, Pastor
9:10 A.M.: Bible Class at the Student Center.
10:30 A.M.: Worship Services in Zion & Trinity
Lutheran Churches. Note: Also an 8:00 ser-
vice in Zion.
5:30 P.M.: Lutheran Student Assn. Supper Meet-
ing in Zion Parish Hall-E. Washington St.
Speaker-Dr. Frank Huntley of the English
Dept. "The Situation in the Orient."
4:00-6:00: Tea and Coffee Hour at the Center,
FIRST CHURCH OF CHRIST, Scientist
1833 Washtenaw Ave.
11:00 A.M.: Sunday Morning Services.
9:30 A.M.: Sunday School.
11:00 A.M.: Primary Sunday School during the
8:00 P.M.: Wednesday: Testimonial Service.
A free reading room is maintained at 339 South
Main Street where the Bible and all authorized
Christian Science literature may be read, bor-
rowed, or purchased.
Ths room is open daily except Sundays and
holidays from 11 A.M. to 5 P.M.; Fridays 7-9
P. M., Saturday 3-5 P.M.
FRIENDS (QUAKER) MEETINGLane Hall
11:00 A.M.: Sundays. Visitors welcome.
UNIVERSITY LUTHERAN CHAPEL
AND STUDENT CENTER
1511 Washtenaw Avenue
(The Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod)
Alfred T. Scheips, Pastor
Sunday at 10:30 A.M.: Service, with sermon by
pastor. Sermon, "Job, An Example of Patience
Sunday at 5:30: Gamma Delta, Lutheran Student
Club, Supper and Program. Discussion, "How
Mission Congregations are Started."
THE VILLAGE CHURCH FELLOWSHIP
#Jniversity Community Center Chapel
Reverend Blaise Levai, Pastor
Sunday, June 24th, 1951
10:45 A.M.: Divine Worship. Sermon "The Best
10:45 A.M.: Church School and Nursery.
CHURCH OF CHRIST
Y. M. C. A. Auditorium
G. Wheeler Utley, Minister
11:00 A.M.: Sunday morning service.
7:00 P.M.: Sunday evening service.
MEMORIAL CHRISTIAN CHURCH
(Disciples of Christ)