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July 20, 1950 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1950-07-20

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Scottsboro Case -- Finis

N0 OTHER INCIDENT has better exem-
plified the ultimate justice of democracy
than Governor Williams' recent refusal to
extradite Haywood Patterson, one of the
nine Negroes who were involved in the in-
famous Scottsboro Case in 1931. That case
has often been referred to as color-blind jus-
tice-a euphemism for atrocious injustice.
Williams' decree is compatible with the the-
ory that in America, although justice may
not always accrue immediately, it is certain-
ly imminent and ultimately forces its way
into motivated public action.
The facts show that the 1931 trial was a
blemish upon American justice. On March
24, 1931, a slow freight, bearing a crowd of
young Negro and white vagrants, chugged
its way to the Alabama town of Scottsboro.
Two enticing white prostitutes were also
aboard. An argument started. It soon de-
veloped into a brawl. For nine of the Ne-
groes, the fracas ended in a Scottsboro
jail. The hysterical, sobbing girls claimed
rape to Alabama officials. With a jazz
band incongruously playing in the dis-
tance and a frenzied mob frantically
shouting for blood, the defendants were
tried, convicted, and sentenced to death.
To illustrate the bigoted thought of a pre-
valent attitude toward the case, here is a
March 26, 1931 excerpt from the Chatta-
nooga Times: "And as her (the prostitute's)
story was being unfolded the Negroes were
telling jokes in another part of the bastille.
Nasty jokes, unafraid, denying to outsiders
they were guilty, laughing, laughing, joking,
joking, unafraid of the consequences, beasts
unfit to be called human.
The defendants, however, had the weight
of the evidence on their side. Upon examina-
tion of the girls, a doctor reported evidence
of sexual intercourse, but it had taken place
some time before the train skirmish. Any-
how, the girls were proved to be libidinious
prostitutes who made a living out of de-,

bauchery. It is noteworthy also that the de-
fendants hadn't attempted to escape the
scene of their alleged crime. Nevertheless,
they were all convicted of rape.
Of course, the Communists saw an op-
portunity to capitalize on the results of the
trial. Immediately, they stepped in, sent in-
vestigators to Scottsboro, retained lawyers,
and undertook an appeal to a higher court.
In short, they assumed the role of defenders
of justice. The work in behalf of the ac-
cused-by such notables as Clarence Dar-
row, Dorothy Van Doren, Walter White, sup-
ported by the NAACP, and others-went for
naught under the bombai'dment of the CP
propaganda. The Communist Party opposed
viciously all other efforts to aid the defen-
dants. White referred to the Communist zeal
as "the cynical use of human misery by
Communists in propagandizing for Commun-
ism." At any rate, the Supreme Court finally
reversed the death sentence, and in the
course of time, all but Patterson were releas-
ed from prison.
In 1948, Patterson escaped from the Ala-
bama prison and made his way to Michi-
gan-a fugitive from "justice". Of course,
the iniquitous treatment of the case had
added spicy food to the propaganda line
of the Communists-a tasty dish to be
devoured, digested, and assimilated by the
American people. To them, it was unfore-
seen that an unequivocal refusal to extra-
dite by Williams would partly nullify their
shouts that American courts were grossly
Although Haywood Patterson's unfortun-
ate vicissitudes made him, in a sense, a m
tyr, no one would deny his sacrifice's future
influence upon easing racial tensions. The
just end to the Scottsboro Saga is a com-
mendable tribute to a system which stresses
progress through the ballot rather than
through the bullet.
-Cal Samra

China Deal
WASHINGTON-Coping with the North
Korean Communist aggression is a
United Nations project and clearly so rec-
It must remain a UN pro ject to the
very end. That is, the UN must carry
through its order that the North Koreans,
who committed the aggression, must with-
draw beyond the 38th parallel which sep-
arates North from South Korea, or be
compelled by force, before there can be
any talk of a settlement. The peace set-
tlement, itself, and the deposition of the
whole Korean problem, then muist be
handled also by the UN.
This is emphasized anew because of the
peace mediation proposals by Prime Minis-
ter Pandit Nehru of India which presumably
would call, as a first step, for admission of
Communist China on the UN Security Coun-
cil to replace Nationalist China. This immed-
iately was seized by Generalissimo Joseph
Stalin who would make the seating of Com-
munist China a prerequisite to mediation by
the Security Council which he would sup-
port then under those conditions.
ADMISSION of Communist China is clear-
ly a side issue, a procedural issue for
the UN and within the UN and has nothing
whatever to do with the aggression issue.
Not only is our government not in a
mood to bargain on the basis of China on
such a fundamental matter as is involved
in an act of open aggression in violation
of the UN charter, but it has no authority
to do so as that is for the UN itself.
It is expected, in its reply to Prime Minis-
ter Nehru, to hold that the prerequisite to
UN settlement of the Korean affair, rather,
is withdrawal of the aggressor within his
own borders which is the position that the
UN itself, announced at the outset when it
took responsibility under the charter. We
backed up that position then and will con-
tinue to back it up.I
The question of admission of Commun-
ist China can be settled later and inde-
Our government has taken a very reason-
able position on the seating of Communist
China. That is up to the Security Council,
itself. While we have announced that we
will vote against it, which is our privilege,
we will not use the veto against Communist
China's admission, or "walk out" as Russia
has done so often, and if the council votes
it, it will be accepted by us.,
Russia has abstained from the UN and
its agencies over the seating of Communist
China, and did not take part when the
Korean aggression issue came before the
Security Council, nor has she taken any
part since.
She claims that actions on Korea have
been illegal, but the best authorities hold
differently, hold that the UN had authority
to act and could do nothing else but act
if it intended to live up to its charter and
to survive.
Now Russia is willing to bargain-on her

"No Hitching On!"
kpS CAUSE :'\'

Washington Merry- Go-Round

WASHINGTON - General MacArthur's
banning of newspapermen from Korea
emphasized what the American public prob-
ably has not realized - namely that there
has been virtual censorship over American
newsmen in Japan for some time. MacAr-
thur has constantly rowed with American
newsmen over their right to report what
was going on in his area.
Ongrof the men whonwas at first barred
from the Korean front last week, Tom
Lambert of the Associated Press, previous-
ly had signed a long protest to the Ameri-
can Society of Newspaper Editors com-
plaining of MacArthur's censorship.
Others signing the report included repre-
sentatives of the New York Times, Na-
tional Broadcasting Company, Time and
Life Magazines.
They pointed out, among other things,
that a newsman "who had written stories
which occupation officials considered criti-
cal .. . had -his home raided by the Army's
CID and that he - the correspondent -
was subjected to interrogation and threats."
They also pointed out that whereas "the
government section (of the occupation for-
ces) actively encouraged correspondents to
expose misappropriations of Japanese mili-
tary supplies, G-1 and G-2, which had clas-
sified information relating to the matter,
took exception to the resulting stories and
efforts of reprisal were taken against at
least one correspondent."
"Stories - on the purge," the censorship
protest continued, "including many facts
supplied by G-2, caused their authors to
be branded personally by General Mac-
Arthur as among the "most dangerous
men in Japan."
Observers are now wondering whether
MacArthur's censorship may not have caus-
ed not only the American public but per-
haps the general himself to get the wrong
view of what was happening in Japan and
Korea. It was following MacArthur's as-
surance that he could "guarantee" success
that President Truman made his fateful
Korean decision. Obviously, MacArthur
himself was not fully informed at the time
he said this.
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.

LONG BEFORE the President's message to
Congress, farsighted Senator Lester
Hunt of Wyoming had helped draft 56 emer-
gency laws providing for every type of con-
trol conceivable. These were drafted by a
subcommittee under Senator Hunt, and
were to be rushed through Congress at the
drop of the first Russian bomb.
Despite this network of war controls,
however, nothing has been done about
the basic problem of taking the profits
out of war.
For years, wise old Bernard Baruch has
been urging the control of war profits. If
you conscript men's lives, Baruch has argu-
ed, you must also conscript such less valu-
able commodities as factories, raw materials,
and profits.
However, Congress did not act prior to
World War II, and so far there is no pro-
posed law ready for the statute books which
would conscript profits in case of World
War III.
During World War II, most of the na-
tion's big corporations rolled up terrific
profits, even after deducting the excess-
profits tax. However, Bernie Baruch's sage
advice still is being spurned.
Senator Hunt's committee is also consid-
ering how to replace Congress in case it
should be wiped out by a surprise atomic
The Constitution gives state governors the
right to appoint U.S. senators to fill unex-
pired terms. However, there is no legal way
to replace Congressmen before their terms
expire, except by special elections. In an
emergency, however, the government may
not have time to wait for such elections.
Legislation for special elections is not yet
on the books, though some senators have
urged that it be passed and kept on legisla-
tive ice. The idea would be to stockpile leg-
islation much the same as strategic mater.
ials are stockpiled - to save time in case
of sudden emergency.
However, Stuart Symington, the new
NSRB chairman in charge of mobiliza-
tion planning, is againstthis idea. He
would stockpile the plans, rather than the
actual legislation. Then Congress could
make last-minute changes and keep the
legislation up to date before passing.
Symington, incidentally, is one of the few
who vigorously favor Baruch's propo,3al that
profits in industry be conscripted as well as
men's lives.
(Copyright, 1950, by the Bell Syndicate, Inc.)

OUR HANDLING of the Indian Prime
Minister's overtures will be courteous and
careful, and appreciative of his concern for
peace which is also our concern. He wields
large influence in Asia, of which we are
conscious. But, likewise, the prestige of the
UN is at stake, and fundamentals must come
first. The UN cannot afford to let the major
issue become confused, nor can we.
At the very outset the UN moved in boldly
and promptly, and assumed responsibility
in the attack on its integrity by the North
Korean aggression.
It has continued to assume responsibil-
ity and to press for its objectives, most
recently in the message by Trygve Lie, to
all member nations except Russia and her
satellites, to provide ground troops to
assist the United States which thus far
has borne the brunt of the fighting with'
the South Korean Army.
It cannot turn aside until it has achieved
the objective set forth when it fulfilled its
duty under its Charter.
(Copyright 1950, by United Feature Syndicate, Inc.)
Wholesome Test
vided an academic-freedom case that is
worth noting for the way it differs from the
usual run of such cases these days.
An economics professor resigned recently,
and his friends charged it was because of
pressure from a dean who didn't like the
professor's economic theories. Hearing that
much of the story, one immediately prepares
for a description of the professor as a radi-
cal, a fellow traveler, a lecturer against pri-
vate ownership and the policies of the Na-
tional Association of Manufacturers. But
quite the opposite picture is provided.
The professor, his friends said, had "free
enterprise" theories that didn't agree with
those of the dean. He was, in other words,
a conservative, and the charge, in effect was
that he was not free to teach his conser-
vative views.
The case was closed with a faculty com-
mittee's report that there had been no viola-
tion of academic freedom and with a tacit
acceptance of that report by the board of
trustees. It is good to know that the univer-
sity administration is absolved of trying to

Publication in The Daily Official
Bulletin is constructive notice to all
members of the University. Notices
for the Bulletin should be sent in
typewritten form to the Office of the
Summer Session, Room 3510 Admin-
istration Building, by 3:00 p.m. on
the day preceding publication (11:00
a.m. Saturdays).
VOL. LX, No. 17-S
College of Literature, Science,
and the Arts, Schools of Education,
Forestry, Music, and Public Health
-Students, who received marks of
I, X, or "no report" at the close
of their last semesteraor summer
session of attendance, will receive
a grade of E in the course or
courses unless this work is made
up by July 26. Students, wishing
an extension of time beyond this
date in order to make up this
work, should file a petition ad-
dress to the appropriate official in
their school with Room 1513 Ad-
ministration Building, where it
will be transmitted.
Edward G. Groesbeck
Assistant Registrar
The Hercules Powder Company
of Wilmington, Delaware will be
interviewing students who will
have either a B.S. or M.S. degree
in Chemistry or Chemical Engi-
neering at the Bureau of Appoint-
ments on July 25 and the morning
of July 26. Please call the Bureau
of Appointments, Ext. 371, for ap-
The Bureau of Appointments
has had a personnel request from
the Los Angeles Laboratories, Inc.
They are interested in young men,
who are interested in pharmaceu-
tical sales. Candidates may be
graduates or undergraduates and
the positions may be part-time or
full-time. For further information
call at the Bureau of Appoint-
ments, 3528 Administration Build-
An examination for Elementary
Teacher in the Bureau of Indian
Affairs has been announced by the
U.S. Civil Service Commission. The
positions to be filled pay $3,100 a
year, and are located in Indian
schools in the Territory of Alaska
and in many western and southern
states. For further information
contact The Bureau of Appoint-
ments, 3528 Administration Build-
The United States Civil Service
Commission announces examina-
tions for Chemists and all types of
Engineers to fill positions in Illi-
nois, Michigan, Wisconsin. There
is no closing date for these exami-
nations. The U.S. Civil Service
Commission also announces exam-
inations for Bacteriologist, Bio-
chemist, Serologist, The Detroit
Civil Service Commission an-
nounces examinations for all types
and levels of engineers, X-Ray
Technician, and Practical Nurse.
The Michigan Civil Service
Commission announces examina-
tions for Student Psychiatric So-
cial Worker and Psychiatric Social
Worker. The closing date is Aug-
ust 9, 1950.
For further information please
call at the Bureau of Appoint-

The Daily welcomes communications
from its readers on matters of gen-
eral interest, and will publish all let-
ters which are signed by the writer
and in good taste. Lettersexceeding
360 words inelength, defamatory or
libelous letters, and letters which
for any reason are not in good taste
will be condensed, edited or withheld
from publication at the discretion of
the editors.
Modest Proposal ...
To the Editor:
chapter of the Young Pro-
gressives of America at its mem-
bership meeting July 12 voted
unanimously to endorse the Mod-
est Proposal on the Korean war
offered on the editorial page of
The Daily the same day. We feel,
however, that the American peo-
ple have not received all of the
background leading up to the war.
It is our hope to supplement The
Daily article with pamphlets and
forums to bring out many of the
facts hidden by our commercial
-Gordon MacDougall,
Chairman, Young Progressives
of America,
ments, 3528 Administration Build-
Seminar in Applied Mathema-
tics: Thursday, July 20, at 4 p.m.,
Rm. 247 W. Engineering Bldg.
Prof. Sydney Goldstein will speak
on "Diffusion by discontinuous
movements and on the telegraph
Thursday, July 20
Education Conference. 'Atomic
Energy in Peace and War." Ralph
A. Sawyer, Dean of the Horace H.
Rackham School of GraduateStu-
dies. 4:00 p.m., University High
School auditorium.
Contemporary Arts and Society
Program. Panel discussion, "The
Arts and Society." Participants:
Professors Henry Aiken, John Ci-
ardi, Ross Lee Finney, Edward W.1
Rannells, Charles Stevenson, and
Curt Sachs. 4:15 p.m., Rackham
Lecture Hall.
Lecture. "The Magna Charta,"
T. Richard Milford, Chancellor of
Lincoln Cathedral, Oxford, Eng-
land, and Custodian of the Magna
Charta. 4:15 p.m., Rackham Am-
Symposium on Physiology and
Chemistry of the Cell. "The Anti-
genic Constitution of Paramecium
Cells in Relation to Determination,
Transformation and Inheritance."
T. M. Sonneborn, Proffessor of Zo-
ology, University of Indiana. 4:15
p.m., Auditorium, School of Public
Linguistic Institute. "Cultural
Implications of Some Navaho Lin-
guistic Categories." Professor Har-
ry Hoijer, University of California
at Los Angeles. 7:30 p.m., Rack-
ham Amphitheater.
Student Recital: Elmira Koeh-
ler, Pianist, will be heard at 8:30
p.m. Thursday, July 20, in the
Rackham Assembly Hall, in a pro-1
gram of works by Bach, Beethoven,c
Schubert, Schumann, and Debus-
sy. It is presented in partial ful-

Bone of Contention
AP Foreign Affairs Analyst
HISTORICALLY, wars have not ended in Korea until one side is
crushed, or until settled elsewhere on a higher level.
Korea long has been a crazy-bone of power politics. It is so
placed that neither Japan, China, nor Russia has ever been able
to feel safe as long as there was a possibility that one of the others
might use Korea as a stepping stone to conquest. If it is true that
Russia and China at the moment have buried their ancient conten-
tion over Korea, it is also true that America has replaced Japan
in the Korean power-picture. This ancient unease about Korea
is partly - though only partly - behind the Russo-American
deadlock over Korea since 1945.
Korea began living dangerously as soon as her neighbors found
out her small size, and the great size of what lay beyond her. China
first moved in, long ago.
Then in 1592 the Japanese conqueror Hideyoshi invaded with 250,-
000 men. The Koreans crushed him, with some ironclad warships they
In the 1890's the Japanese came back, fighting a war with
China over Korea. The Chinese lost. Czarist Russia sought to nul-
lify this Japanese gain, and in 1904-5 fought a war with Japan,
partly over Korea. President Theodore Roosevelt helped settle this,
but at:the expense of giving Japan a free hand in Korea. In 1910
the Japinese annexed Korea outright, and left only when crushed
in World'War II.
Even little wars drag out in Korea. In 1938 I watched one along
the Korean-Siberian border. The Japanese garrison was fighting Rus-
sia's Far Eastern army. The terrain was pretty worthless, but a political
boundary and army prestige were at stake on both sides. It took Tokyo
and Moscow more than a month to get this thing stopped, and both
were trying because they had bigger fish to fry. At the front, far from
both capitals, there was notthe slightest sign the fighting would ever
end if local commanders had anything to do with it.
IN KOREA TODAY the real protagonists are America and Russia.
Both are under double - probable triple - compulsion. Neither
side can risk the political cost of a Bataan in Asia as the cold war
stands now. For America to let Korea slide would be to risk a series
of defections among Asian powers who have no stomach to be on the
losing end of a third world war.
Russia may not be able to permit a Communist defeat in Korea
- unless she is prepared to risk satellite defections, possibly in
Europe as well as in Asia. The least she could expect in Asia, par-
ticularly, would be a rash of Titoistic "independence" movements
as satellite leaders scuttled for safety. Russian failure to back them
up would throw them back on pure nationalism for survival.
Strategically, America considers Korea in Communist hands a
dagger pointed at Japan. Russia considers Korea in American hands
a capitalist dagger under her Siberian ribs.
Whether valid or not, this concept is politically exploitable in both
America and Russia.
Possible meeting grounds to resolve this triple-plated stand-off
are the United Nations, and direct negotiations.
With the United Nations arrayed against Russia, a solution to the
Korean problem that would not be considered prohibitively expensive
in Moscow is obviously going to be hard to find.
Direct negotiations may offer some quiet way out if both powers
get scared enough of a third world war. If so, there is no hint of what
it might be.
In the meantime, both the Americans in South Korea and their
Russian-supported foes from north of the 38th parallel are slugging
it out - in a setting where slugfests never have been easily stopped.


fillment of the requirements for
the degree of Master of Music in
Music Literature, and will be open
to the public. Miss Koehler is a
pupil of John Kollen.
Carillon Recital by Percival
Price, 7:15 Thursday evening, July
20. Program: Andante, from the
"Surprise" Symphony by Haydn,
five Schubert songs, Fantaisie 6
by Percival Price, five Canadian'
airs, and Weinbergre's Perpetuum
mobile and Polka, from Schwanda.
General Library, main lobby
cases. Contemporary literature
and art (June 26-July 26).
Rackham Galleries: "Contem-
porary Visual Arts" and "Ameri-
can Painting Since the War,"
July 3-22.
Museum of Archaeology. From
Tombs and Towns of Ancient
Museums Building. R o t unda
exhibit, Fossil Flora of the Mi-
chigan Coal Basin. Exhibition
halls, "Some Indian Cultures of
North and South America."
Law Library. History of Law
School (basement); classics for
collectors (reading room).
Michigan Historical Collections.
160 Rackham Building. Tourists
in Michigan, yesterday and today.
Museum of Art.. Oriental cera-
mics (June 26-August 18). Mo-
dern graphic art (July 2-30).
Clements Library. American
Colonial Culture. (July 5-August
Events Today
Community Center, Willow Vil-
lage: Thursday, July 20, 8 p.m.,
U. of M. Sailing Club: There

will be a meeting Thursday, 7:30
p.m., Room '11 West Engine.
Deutsches Haus, 1101 Church St.,
will again hold open house Thurs-
day, July 20, 1950, from 7:30-10
p.m. Everyone is again cordially
invited to join in the games and
singing. Refreshments will follow.
Reports on past gatherings are
very favorable, and the remark of
many guests is that the departure
time comes much too soon.
French Club: Meeting today at 8
p.m. in the Michigan League. Two
French films will be shown, one
on Paris and the other on the
(Continued on Page 3)



Fifty-Ninth Year
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Control of
Student Publications.
Editorial Staf
Philip Dawson......Managing Editor
Peter Hotton.............City Editor
Marvin Epstein......... Sports Editor
Pat Brownson.......Women's Editor
Business Staff
Roger wellington....Business Manager
Walter Shapero... Assoc. Business Mgr.
Telephone 23-24-1
Member of The Associated Press
The Associated Press Is, exclusively
entitled to the use for republication
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Subscription during regular s pool
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At The Michigan.. .
Hutton and Howard Keel.
ern fairy tale about a real lady sharp-
shooter, Annie Oakley, comes to the screen
in technicolor and Betty Hutton. No gram-

Hutton and Berlin's songs, is another slick
expensive Hollywood musical extravaganza.
But, since it is the nature of musicals,
stage or movie, to be as spectacular as
possible, the torrent of Indians, show horses
and stuffed-shirt cowboys is, for once, ac-
cording to Hoyle.
Hero Howard Keel is stiff, pompous and
tasteless. A strong suspicion is aroused that


Ynw what Bigie.said?

I m

Business ought to get


I "

You mean they are going

C O 69C-ktloap .Rt. U S .B N.On,4.
__ _ BCyr/ay



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