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July 20, 1950 - Image 1

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Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1950-07-20

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SCOTTSBORO CASE-FINIS
See Page 2

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Latest Deadline in the State

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SHOWER

VOL. LX, No. 17-S ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, THURSDAY, JULY 20, 1950

President Authorizes

.Yank
Americans
Kill 7 Tanks
With Rockets
But U.S. Forced
To Fall Back
TOKYO-(AP)-Armor-led North
Koreans launched their first ma-
jor attack south of the Kum Ri-
ver yesterday.
The American defenders of Tae-
jon, using 3.5 inch rockets for the
first time, knocked out all seven
of the Communists' spearheading
tanks.
With the Western front sudden-
ly aflame again after a three-day
lull, two divisions of American
troops, newly landed in Korea,
rushed west and northwest from
the east coast to safeguard Allied
supply lines to the front.
** *
THIS QUICK deployment of
major units of the U.S. Eighth
Army, General MacArthur said
yesterday, has ended "the chance
for victory by the North Korean
forces." The Americans, the United
Nations Commander said in a spe-
cial communique, have wrecked
the Communist hope which de-
pended upon quick conquest of all
South Korea.
Praising the holding actions
by the Americans already in
g combat, MacArthur said: "Our
casualties, despite overwhelming
odds, have been relatively light."
He said future developments
could be predicted and 'that mili-
tary strategy will involve "plan-
ned withdrawals as well as local
advances," but that American
strength will increase and Com-
munist strength will reduce."
THE ENEMY "has had his great
chance but failed to exploit it,"
he said. "We are now in Korea in
force, and with God's help we
are there to stay until the consti-
tutional authority of the Repub-
lic is fully restored."
The fresh Communist attack
was against the new positions
of the U.S. 24th Division north
and west of Taejon. Exactly
where the Communists hit was
not disclosed in field dispatches.
This was the first tank attack
the Communists had been able to
mount since they forced across
the Kum Sunday night: The river
defense line was overwhelmed in
this thrust and shoved back to
new positions nearer Taejon.
I * s
SOUTH OF TAEJON, abandon-
ed emergency capital of the South
K o r e a n Republic, infiltrating
Communists struck from both sides
of the highway. This highway
leads to American rear positions,
to the communications hub of
Taegu, 70 miles southeast of Tae-
jon, and on to Pusan, U.S. supply
port at the southeastern tip of
the peninsula.
Even as the attack broke, two
reinforcing divisions of U.S.
troops moved west and north-
west from east coast landings
to protect these vital supply
routes.
It was reported at Lake Suc-

cess yesterday that United Na-
tions Forces fighting Communist
aggression in Korea are growing
slowly, but no combat troops have
been formally pledged so far to
join American GI's on the battle-
field.
UN Secretary-General Trygve
Lie dispatched an appeal last Fri-
day to 52 of the 57 UN members
for all help they could give. To
date, he has not been pledged one
soldier. Only one power, Britain,
appears or. the verge of commit-
ting troops.
Last Arts Panel
ScheduledToday
5' f n i fnr

T

*

*

Slow-

New

Drive

Calling
Truman Asks
Tighter Belts,
No Hoarding
Reassures Nation
In Radio Address
WASHINGTON-(Y)-President
Truman told the American people
last night they are in for some
belt tightening because of the Ko-
rean battle and world conditions
but said that scare buying and
hoarding are foolish and selfish.
The chief executive gave to the AFTER A B'
people in short and simpler lan- adrstoC
guage much the same reporthe address to C
made earlier in the day to Con- National Gu
gress. broadcast tot
* * * for some "be

Guar
AlsoI
ActiV
Draft
Be U
WASHING
ed services w
ordering lim
servists to a
There wa
when Nation
be called in
PRESIDED
day authoriz
servists anc
with free u
build up figh

* * * *

of Reserv

IUSY DAY - President Truman yesterday sent an
ongress, authorized the calling of the Reserves and
ard for the fight in Korea, and spoke in a national
the American people, warning them that they are in
elt tightening."

KUM RIVER BRIDGE BLASTED-Retreating American forces send one end of the Kum River
bridge up in smoke to prevent crossing of North Korean tanks. Later, however, the Communist
forces crossed the river elsewhere, forcing defending American troops to fall back toward Taejon.

F ifield Says
Global War
No'tPlannted
MANILA - Russia was not pre-
pared for a global war when the
Communists crossed the 38th pa-
rallel in Korea, according to Prof.
Russel H. Fifield of the political
science department, who toured
Korea two weeks before the war
broke out.
Prof. Fifield explained this
theory, pointing out that the war
is localized in Korea, and that
there are no Communist attacks
in other parts of the world as yet.
* * *
"RECENT developments in Ko-
rea indicate that the Soviet Union
will use a frontal attack under two
conditions: (1) if guerrillauactivi-
ties fail in the desired country,
(2) if the risk of provoking a third
world war is not too high," the
political scientist declared.
Prof. Fifield is currently in the
Philippine Islands, where he is
studying conditions. He was in-
terviewed by the Department of
Foreign Affairs of the Philip-
pines in Manila.
The attack on South Korea was
an acknowledgement by Russia of
the strength of the Republic of
Korea, Prof. Fifield said.
* * *
"THE COMMUNISTS would not
have invaded South Korea if the
government of President Syngman
Rhee could have been overthrown
by boring from within," he added.

REVISION NEEDED:
Retirement Plan Called
Unsound' byMeriam

By PAUL MARX
Our programs of Old-Age As-
sistance and Old-Age Survivors
Insurance are socially and finan-
cially unsound and should be rad-
ically revised and consolidated, ac-
cording to Lewis Meriam, vice-
president of the Brookings Insti-
tution.
Speaking at the third session of
the summer series on "The Quest
for Social Security," Meriam at-
tacked the universal retirement
system that is in present use and
proposed adoption of a pay-as-
you-go plan which imposes taxes
only to insure the citizen against
current need.
THE ACTIVE WORKER should
extend to the dependents of his
day reasonable and adequate pro-
tection, the costs of which should
be borne immediately, Meriam de-
clared.
The exponent of the "Floor of
Protection" plan asserted that
there should be a balance between
taxes for the social security fund
and the benefits paid out, with
both the benefits and the taxes
frequently changed to meet al-
terations in economic, social and
political conditions.
Adoption of this system would
allow as low a tax rate as pos-
sible to be consistent with pay-
ments of reasonable, but mo-
dest benefits, Meriam said.
"Then tax rates should not rise

to a level that would threaten
incentives."
Formal social security systems
as ours and risk-taking, which is
essential for an expanding pro-
productive capacity, are antitheses,
but an expanding productive capa-
city is the basis of true social se-
curity, the economist asserted.
,. * *
MERIAM EXPLAINED that the
necessary funds for employment
of the "Floor of Protection" plan
would be raised from a personal
income tax which would prevent
a wage price spiral that destroys
the value of formal social security
systems to the dependent whom it
seeks to benefit.
IAU Festival'
Will Feature
Student Music
A program of student.music will
be performed at the Inter-Arts
Union Summer Art Festival at 8
p.m. tomorrow in Assembly Hall
of the Rackham Building.
Opening the program will be
Leslie Bassett's "Brass Overture,"
which will be performed for the
first time by the brass ensemble
under the direction of Prof. Wil-
liam D. Revelli.
* * *
THE SECOND FEATURE will
be four songs by Bob Cogan, mu-
sic written to the poems of Cam-
pion, Blake, Joyce and Spender.
The numbers will be sung by Les-
lie Eitzen, soprano, accompanied
by Digby Bell at the piano.
Cogan's songs were first per-
formed at the Composer's Fo-
rum last week.
Dean Nuerenberger's "Quintet
for Piano and Strings" will close
the program. The number will be
performed by John Wheeler, piano,
Alfred Boyington, violin, Andrew
Lisko, violin, Emile Simonel, viola,
and Joan Lewis, cello.
The Quintet was first presented
at a composer's conference in Cin-
cinnati. This is its first Ann Ar-
bor performance.
Service Physicals
To Begin Monday
By The Associated Press
Pre-induction physical examina-
tions will begin Monday in army
and air force recruiting stations in
Detroit. for lower Michigan. and

ALL AMERICAN radio and tele-
vision networks carried his words
and the voice of American and
British Broadcasting CorporationF
arranged to beam them around the
globe.
The President said reports
from the nation's top generals
are reassuring but also show the
job ahead of us in Korea is
long and difficult as the result
of "an act of raw aggression"
by Communist forces.
As an extra safeguard against
inflation and to help finance de-
fense needs, Mr. Truman told his
countrymen, "it will be necessary
to make substantial increases in
taxes."
HE SAID he will lay a balanced
fair tax program before Congress
as soon as it can be worked out,
with the major aim of eliminating
profiteering.
Some 60 or 70 people, includ-
ing cabinet members and other
government officials, were in-
vited to the White House movie
room to hear the President make
his broadcast.
There was nothing vitally new
in tonight's speech, beyond what
he already had told Congress. But
he did include part of a report that
came in within the last few hours
from Gen. Douglas MacArthur in
Tokyo. The general said our hold
on Southern Korea is "a secure
base" and we are there to stay
until "the constitutional authority
of the (Korean) republic is fully
restored."
THE PRESIDENT also read part
of another report from General
J. Lawton Collins, Army Chief of
Staff, who returned Saturday from
a Korean inspection trip. It said
our forces are "giving a splendid
account of themselves," the task
before them is no easy one, "but
I am confident of the outcome."'
In his speech to Congress ear-
lier in the afternoon President
Truman called for a $10,000,000,-
000 down payment on a vast
mobilization drive to win the Ko-
rean war an combat any Com-
munist aggression elsewhere on
the global front.
More military manpower, anti-
inflation controls, a swift step-up
in war production, additional huge
sums to arm non-Communist na-
tions and - later - a sharp boost
in taxes were among the salient
recommendations the chief exec-
utive made to Congress.
See TRUMAN, Page 4

State Region
Prepares for
NSA Congress
(EDITOR'S NOTE: Students from
every corner of the nation will at-
tend the Third Annuai National Stu-
dent congress, Aug. 23-31, at the Uni-
versity. .This is the second article
in a series which will present many-
of the issues they face.)
The Michigan Region of the
U.S. National Student Association
(NSA) held two state-wide confer-
ences during the year on problems
raised by the "Student Bill of
Rights."
The Michigan Conferences in
March and June were to aid stu-
dents in their consideration of the
problem, inform delegates who
would attend the Third Annual
National Student Congress here,
and formulate a regional stand on
the vital issue.
STUDENTS CONCLUDED that
the three year old NSA Bill of
Rights-which is currently under
fire from all sides-is inadequate.
To replace it, they laid down
in clear detail a statement of
conditions, which they felt
should be met-if effective cam-
pus training for citizenship was
to exist.
In justification of the conditions,
their preamble states:
"Stemming from certain funda-
mental aspects of the human be-
ing, the concept of an ideal demo-
cratic society has developed as one
in which each individual as the
basic unit is free to conduct him-
self in such a way that the inter-
ests of the whole society tend to
be fulfilled to a maximum degree.
It is within this type of a demo-
cratic ideal that we define the ex-
istence of the educational com-
munity.
See MICHIGAN, Page 4

Top Communist Leaders
Hold Cominform Meet
BERLIN-(P-Top Communist leaders of Europe and China gath-
ered in Berlin last night for what appeared to be an important Com-
inform discussion.
Ostensibly these Communist representatives from 18 nations came
here as foreign guests for the third annual convention of East Ger-
many's Socialist Unity (Communist) party which opens today.
* * * *
BUT THE PROMINENCE of the visitors and the fact that many
of them were leading lights in the Moscow-directed cominform
suggested that something bigger was afoot.
It was the biggest gathering of Communist leaders since
the outbreak of the Korean war. It came at a time when Comm-

form pressure was being intensi-
fied against Premier Marshall
Tito's Yugoslavia. Westernlead-
ers also have been expecting in-
creased Cominform pressure on
Greece.
Palmiro Togliatti of Italy and
Jacques Duclos of r-ance were
among the arrivals here.
THE SOVIET delegation con-
sists of M. R. Suslov and P. N.
Pospelov. Suslov is Secretary of
LONDON - (P) - Russia an-
nounced yesterday that her price
for Korean peace still is un-
changed-the admission of Com-
musnist China to the United
Nations.
The Moscow radio broadcast a
dispatch from the official Soviet
news agency Tass giving the
Russian version of talks be-
tween Soviet Deputy Foreign
Minister Andrei A. Gromyko and
Sir David Kelly, British Am-
bassador to Moscow.
the Russian Communist party's
central committee and is Russia's
Cominform delegate.
Other Communist notables
were Wang Chia Hsiang of the
Chinese Communist Central
Committee, Premier Josef Cy-
rankiewicz and Jakub Berman
of Poland's Communist Polit-
buro,
The Socialist unity party is not
a member of the Cominform. How-
ever, the Soviet-occupied East Ger-
man Republic, which is ruled by
that party, recently was brought
into close cooperation with the
eastern bloc by a series of treaties
with Poland, Czechoslovakia and
Hungary.I
About 4,000 delegates are ex-
pected to attend the socialist unity
convention, which will end Sun-
day. The party was formed in 1946
by the Russian-enforced merger of
the Social Democrats and the
Communists.

In a qui
President's+
tary strengt
troduced in
gress to "fr
vice for th
persons nom
This mean
listments ar
cept in for
IN HIS ME
gress that a
000,000 shou
then U.S. d
announced t
Secretary o
dip into the
tional Guar
and individu
quired.
The am
promptly a
call of Res
needs of t]
and the Na
lective" ser
The emph
vices was fo
mediately u
electronics e:
The army
ed that sor
reserve unit
reservists, w
said there is
air reserve s
moned into
Marine Cor
mobilize cer
units.
A DECISI
tional Guar
ed until ar
month.
The Def
clined to e
the more th
of the Res
active duty
The late
figures, wh
made public
ed that thes
more than 5
ally authori
882. The de
on June 30
the military
-500 lesst
The June 30
the result o
ordered sine
began, nor t
then in res
due to volun
THE DEl
expected to
mobilize ma
gress to rai
to draft fro
figure of 35
Under th
provides fo
aged 19 thr
have beenc
an initial q

S ENDING
FOUR PAGES'
ists
dsmen
Liable to
e Duty
Law To
sed Freely
TON-01)-The arm-
vill begin immediately
ited numbers of re-
ctive duty.
s no announcement
al Guard units might
to Federal service.
NT TRUMAN yester-
ed the calling of Re-
d Guardsmen, along
se of the draft law to
iting units.
ck follow-up to the
call for greater mill-
th, legislation was in-
both houses of con-
eeze"' in military ser-
e next 12 months all
w in uniform.
is that men whose en-
re expiring could be
another year.
ESSAGE advising Con-
n additional $10,000,-
ild be spent to streng-
efenses, the President
hat he had authorized
f Defense Johnson to
Reserves and the Na-
d for as many units'
uals as might be re-
my and air force
nnounced a "limited"
ervists "to meet the
he Korean situation"
vy announced a "se-
vice callup.
hasis in all three ser-
r individuals with im-
isable skills, such as
xperts.
and air frce.intdlca┬▒
ne of their organized
s, as well as individual
ill be called. The navy
a possibility that some
quadrons may be sum-
service as units. The
'ps said it, too, may
rtain selected reserve
* * *
[ON on calling up Na-
d outfits is not expect-
ound the end of this
ense Department de-
stimate how many of
han 2,000,000 members
erves will be called to
Y.

st available strength
ich the department
during the day, show-
armed services are now
500,000 below their leg-
zed strength of 2,005,-
partment reported that
the total strength of
services was 1,458,500
than a month earlier.
0 figure does not reflect
f stepped-up recruiting
ce the Korean fighting
he slight increase since
ervists on active duty
ateering.
FENSE Department is
take a further step to
npower by asking Con-
se the top age subject
m 25, possibly to a new
i.
ie present law, which
r the drafting of men
rough 25, draft boards
called upon to furnish
uota of 20,000 men.
thods

ROTC MANUEL UNLOVED:

Textbook Sale Draws
Curious Junk' Seekers

By PAULA STRAWHECKER
"Wel-1-1, I was just curious."
That was the standard response
to the question "What interest do
you have in textbooks that are
obsolete in classes?", asked yes-'
terday at the book sale sponsored
by the Textbook Loan Library.
* * *
MOST PEOPLE wanted to "pick
up some reference books - cheap"
or get a background for term pa-
pers.
One man who was "interested
in seeing what's in the junk,"
walked off with an armful of
books. Another, loaded down
with ten books, explained he was
"ine hr...intr rn n . Ge-

cording to the two harrassed mon-
ey-takers.
The largest crowds thumbed
through books at the English
and science tables, but English,
social psychology, history and
political science texts were car-
ried away in the greatest num-
bers, while French, math, chem-
istry and engineering texts fared
poorly.
"Thousands" of ROTC Infan-
try Manuals went untouched.
PRICES ranged from 10 to 50
cents per book, with the average
sale around 50 cents.
The books were donated to
the Textbook Loan Library, and

EDUCATION SHORTCOMING CITED:

Students Shown Job-Hunting Me

By PETER HOTTON
(Daily City Editor)
American schools are on the
wrong track in training men and
women for jobs, because they pay
too much attention on developing
skills and not enough on develop-
ing good personalities, according
to three top officials in Michigan
business.

comings of the schools by citing
a survey of persons who failed
in job-landing and promotions:
Almost 90 percent of the per-
sons polled could not land jobs
because of their personal "disabl-
ing qualities," while only 10 per-
cent failed because of the lack of
necessary skills.
* * *

"It's not a matter of morals
but of good business," he said.
3. Incompetence. But it's not
always inability that causes a per-
son to fail, although sometimes it
is a person's not fitting into a
certain job, Runkles explained.
4. Domestic problems, which ex-
plain themselves.

The business man also cited
several attributes, which might
be called "enabling qualities" in
getting a job or a promotion:
1. Dependability.
2. Drive and initiative, but not
aggression. "Don't go ahead over
the heads of your fellow workers,"
he warned. "This way you lose
valuable headway. he indicated.

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