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August 09, 1950 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1950-08-09

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WASHINGTON-This is more of the story
of one of the organizations surveyed by
the House Select Committee to Investigate
Lobbying Activities-the so-called Founda-
tion of Economic Education-of the sort fi-
nanced by big corporate interests that dis-
tribute pamphlets and booklets by the hun-
dreds of thousands with New Deal-Fair Deal
objectives among their targets.
The fact that they are not now regis-
tered under 'the lobby law, with the result
that the public is not informed of who is
back of them, has raised the question as
to whether they should be included when
the law is revised.
Correspondence submitted to the commit-
tee by Leonard A. Read, energetic president
of the Foundation for Economic Education,
a blue-stocking, slick paper outfit, reveals a
good deal about its purposes, among other
ways through its contacts. Included is the
National Association of Real Estate Boards,
powerful in the real estate lobby here, which
distributed 500,000 copies of the Foundation's
pamphlet "roofs and ceilings" against fed-
eral rent control.
* * *
in a 'Dear Herb" letter to Herbert U.
Nelson, chief factotum in this real estate or-
ganiation, wrote, "There is one paragraph
in this whole thing that worries me, as well
as the rest of us here," referring to the pam-
phlet. While objecting to rent control, the
two authors-Milton Friedman and George
J. Steigler-argued in the offending para-
graph that what is fundamental is "long-
term measures to reduce the inequality of
income and wealth," saying, in part:
"For those, like' us, who would like even
more equality than there is at present, not
alone for housing but for all production, it
is surely better to attack directly existing in-
equalities in income and wealth at their
source than to ration each of the hundreds
of services and commodities that compose
our standard of living."
Mr. Read asked the authors to delete
that paragraph. They refused. So he fixed
up an editor's note in the effort to take
out the sting which said, among other
. things, in explanation: "It means that,
even from the standpoint of those who
may put equality above justice and liberty,
rent controls are 'the height of folly!"
This footnote, he said, would appear in
the pamphlet "and in your 500,000 copies."
Then he concluded to Mr. Nelson:
"This information is passed on to you now
to take care of any criticisms should they be
aimed at you. lJo one except a sharp, free
enterpriser economist would catch the of-
fending paragraph but, then, our works are
supposed to be above criticism by a free en-
T HE FOUNDATION, which stresses "edu-
cation," did come under criticism from
another quarter, in fact by an educator, Dr.
Royal Wilbur France, president of Rollins
College. The files show a letter he wrote to
Prof. Fred R. Fairchild of Yale saying he was
"puzzled" that Dr. Fairchild was secretary
and a trustee of the Foundation.
"I have no special quarrels with the pur
poses of the organization. and certainly con-
cede its right to carry on propaganda in be-
half of the beliefs of its members; but there
is a wide difference between propaganda and
education," Dr. France wrote to the distin-
guished economist. "It is the use of the word
education in the title of the organization
that I am questioning."
He suggested that the Foundation be
made "a truly educational institution of
the American people" by broadening it to
have others of different viewpoint also give
their views on each subject in the pamph-
lets put out by the Foundation, so that
th si Ie vwtold be covered ,0r. Fairchild,
in' -o"i'erI reply,.did not see the validity
of this suggestion and concluded that the

Foundation was not interfering with "the
fair field of argument" as those with dif-
ferent views had available avenues through
which to express them.
One of the most active spirits in the
Foundation, continually alert with sugges-
tions, as the correspondence shows, is Char-
les M. White, president of Republic Steel-
"Dear Charley" to "Leonard." He revealed
his proprietary interest in a letter to W. Tre-
vor Holliday, president of Standard Oil of
Ohio, saying "we are giving them $10,000 per
year and I think they are doing the best job
of its kind anywhere." he said, "this is not
a Leonard Read individual undertaking, this
is a great big organization which is growing
and expanding and covering the country,
with the best material available today. I
think when you get more information from
Leonard Read you are going to go in this
thing on the same basis we are."
Mr. Holliday's company contributed $2,000,
the record shows.
(Copyright 1950, by United Feature Syndicate, Inc.)
Study in Black
IT WOULD BE pleasant to be able to forget
all about Joseph McCarthy, whom, un-
fortunately, one has to call senator. But is is
instructive to keep one ear cocked for his
further utterances, because he so clearly
exemplifies the American form of the "big
lie" technique.


"Ain't It Terrible How We Lost Out In China?"

ick Muehl. J ohn Day Co., New York, July,
1950. $3.50. 310 -pp.
IN AN AGE when we must courageously
look for, and face clearly, the basic issues
of any problem, daring no longer to be satis-
fied with superficial judgments and to ac-
quiesce in misunderstandings, it is truly
heartening to find the complexity of prob-
lems that is India, treated in the vigorous,
outspoken and sympathetic manner of Mr.
Muehl's "Interview with India."
In this book, at the same time dexterous
of style and fervently confident of mood,
Mr. Muehl lays bare before our eyes the
real India, as he found it in his remark-
able six-month journey from village to
village, sharing all the while the every-
day lives of the unsung common people
of the land.
The author's course of "interview" began
in northern Kathiawar, proceeded in a zig-
zag fashion south thru Gujarat and Ma-
harashtra to the dense Mysore forests; after
struggling thru the tropical jungle he struck
out west to the Kanara coast, sailed south
to Calicut, thence back east to the State of
Madras. For twenty-three hundred miles
Mr. Muehl wandered according to a most in-
formal plan, by whatever means of trans-
portation were available - by foot, on horse
or camel-back, by tedious bullock-cart. At
every step he recorded the details of his
conversations and observations, and from
these on-the-spot notes the "Interview" was
Mr. Muehl's journey was confined to most
of the length of the West coast and across
the southern part of the peninsula, and, as
such, the validity of an "interview with In-
dia" may be questioned. What about the
other discrete cultural areas of the North
and East? How can one talk in terms of In-
dia without touching upon Bengal, Pan-
jab, and the whole Gangetic plain? True, in
terms of material culture, literature, region-
al temperment and history, this criticism
would be justified. However, in terms of the
basic conflicts and tensions stemming from
the transitional political situation, from the
post-war economic disequilibrium, and most
of all from the fact that "the whole village
society was old and tired and terribly sick,"
Mr. Muehl ably speaks for all India, from
Kashmir to Cape Comorin, from Kathiawar
to Assam. He undertook a tremendous task
in trying to feel the pulse of India at one of
the most critical and difficult moments in
her long history, but in this task he has been
eminently successful.
In order to get across the fundamental
political and social issues to the reader,
and yet maiutain an essentially lively
readability, the author has expertly
handled a combination of narrative, dia-
log, and expository material. Thus, as
introduction, the significance of the inde-
pendence movement and its realization are
reviewed, and it is with this background,
and in terms of the great variety of per-
sons met and places visited, that Mr.
Muehl analyzes what he found in the rural
India of 1947-48.
On August 15, 1947, India became free,-
but divided. The British had left, leaving
the essential parts of the empire behind-
"all the component parts of the reactionary
old order were intact, in perfect working
order." Freedom had been won, and the In-
dian National Congress assumed leadership
of the Central Government. But in place of
the promised sweeping reforms in land ten-
ure, administration and the like; the im-
mediate pressing problems of-communali vioq
gen e,-of migration and rhabiitation in
Panjab and Bengal, absorbed all the ener-.
gies of the new government. Repercussions
were felt throughot the urban areas of the
country. Postponement of reforms was ex-
plained in the cities on the basis of preoc-
cupation with the results of partition. But
the villages in the greater part of the country

did not feel the insanity of the divided prov-
inces. Independence came and went. "Swar-'
aj"-self-rule-was meaningless. The same
old conflicts persisted between high-caste
Brahman and low-caste Shudra; between
money-lender and laborer; between land-
owner and cultivator; between prince and
peasant. The inflexible caste structure of
the villages, and the strangle hold of in-
debtedness, both militated against any con-
crete benefits for the villager from national
As Mr. Muehl reports, while the now
unwieldly, heterogeneous Congress is ab-
sorbed in its new task of administration
from above, attempting to maintain order
at the cost of hoped-for reforms, all is not
quiet in the villages. Various forces, bit-
terly and actively critical of Congress, are,
and have been for some time, at work.
These mutually opposing forces, operating
largely according to regional backgrounds
and needs, are mainly three: the Hindu
Mahasabha ("Greater Hindu Organiza-
tion"), the Communist Party of India, and
the Socialist Party..
While traveling thru Maharashtra, Mr.
Muehl came across what htalls "_ - - +hp

doctrine of Hindu-Muslim unity. Crying for
recapture of the great Hindu past, with its
traditions of holiness, duty, and its concern
with the spirit, the Mahasabha and the
R.S.S. use religion as a potent political wea-
pon. Making India safe for Hinduism is the
cry of this militant group. Deriving inspir-
ation from the seventeenth- and eighteenth-
century might of the Maratha empire which
almost succeeded in ousting the foreign
Muslims, the Mahasabha has easily built up
a powerful and passionate following, both in
the Maharashtra countryside, as well as
throughout its towns and cities and those of
the North and Bengal. In pointing out the
real and potential dangers of such an or-
ganization, crystallized in the assassination
of Gandhiji, Mr. Muehl presents the reader
with the stern realities of a fast-growing re-
actionary force,tup to now little-known and
appreciated in the West.
The second force of increasing importance
for the Indian village is that of the well-
organized Communist Party of India. With
its master minds in Bombay, the C.P.I. in
recent years has extended its influence over
large portions of rural India. This is par-
ticularly true of South India, as we may
readily realize upon reading Mr. Muehl's
competent report and analysis of the Com-
munist-controlled area he was venturous
enough to penetrate. As the author. writes,
the hammer and sickle chalked on rocks and
temple walls in the vicinity of Madura was
"not just a symbol of protest, but a genuine
assertion of-Communist strength." From my
our journey thru Travancore and Madras in
1948, I also can testify to the widespread
and aggressive use of this sign.
For Mr. Muehl, South India is "the arena
where all the forces of history would be
brought together, the spirit of tradition and
the spirit of change appearing in their most
dramatic and most violent contrast." South
India is the center of orthodoxy and at the
same time the center of rebellion; with the
tensions of high- versus low-caste greatest
here, it is the natural breeding-ground, and
proving-ground, for the Communist Party
of India. Even if the present dictatorship of
the Brahmans and landlords were replaced
by a dictatorship of the proletariat, the
peasant masses would have nothing to lose,
and everything to gain, in terms of a more
dependable food supply. Mr. Muehl found
that his own aversion to Communism in
terms of loss of freedom and ignoring of the
individual, was really meaningless as far as
the impact of a collective government on the
Indian cultivators was concerned. As he
says, "The desire for freedom and for self-
expression is probably much less basic than
sheer physical hunger."
Legislation from Delhi, or the state capi-
tols, will not alone solve the village prob-
lems; the major effort has to come from
the villages themselves, and, as the C.P.I.
has seen, basically the program has to
be one of education. With a small, well-
trained corps of leaders, the C.P.I. has
been able to spread its message of hope
thru the villages, and, as the author re-
ports, this has been understandably suc-
The Socialist Party, wavering in its loyal-
ty to Nehru and Congress liberals, is also at-
tempting to present solutions to the rural
problems, but, apart from idealistic state-
ments and resolutions, it has been unable to
meet the practical needs of the villagers;
where it is of any consequence Mr. Muehl
found that it was, somewhat lamely, using
the Communist Party, or being used by it,
the latter being mor often tl*e vase w.s,
Before conluding, and mA Ii fairi ess t
those Indian -authors and publishers whose
misprints, misspellings and minor factual
inaccuracies are constantly pointed to by
hawk-eyede Western critics, I fear it is
necessary to indicate the presence of simi-
lar shortcomings in this book. Misprints and
misspellings are too frequent, as for example

on p. 65 "impassible" for "impassable." As
for factual inaccuracies, on p. 17 it is stated
for example, that there are "six million vil-
lages" in India, whereas six "lakhs" (600,-
090) would be more correct. Again, on p.
138 "the Mogul empire, in the tenth or elev-
enth century to be exact," is hardly correct,
for the Mughal (or Mogul) rule began in
1526 A.D. under Bahar.
"Interview with India" is important for
the essential humanity and sensitivity of its
author. In reflecting the basic political and
social conflicts in rural India, Mr. Muehl has
done a great service to the cause of under-
standing independent India. Although, of
course, the author would not claim that lhis
book is a definitive statement of the course
of Indian society and politics, yet "Inter-
view with India" serves to highlight the
main trends in the new nation, especially as
they impinge upon the life of the villager.
Mr. Muehl found laughter and sadness,
hope and deep despair in the men and
women whose lives he shared for a brief
moment. His sympathy is genuine and in-
fectious. Perhaps my own four years in
India, close to her people and appreciative
"f +. .;- , - ,- 4 - ... ...... .1,x .,, _

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3 N. 1


Chinese Objectives
AP Foreign Affairs Analyst
"THE MORE IT QHANGES. the more it is the same thing.
Students of the various national foreign policies might well have
the French saying posted over their desks.
The continuity of British foreign policy has long been a byword.
Germany's fight for "living space" for a heavily concentrated popu-
lation has caused bitter wars and nearly as bitter arguments about
For years it has been evident, though many were so confused
by Communist red herrings that they failed to recognize it, that
Soviet foreign policy is merely a continuation of that of the Czars;
that Russian expansionism began in long-dimmed Constantinople
as the capital of the East 500 years ago.
The present American attitude toward tyranny is made inevitable
by its very genes, by its independent location. And by the revolutionary
tendencies that isolation has sponsored. Peoples act, as nation', ac-
cording to where they live and the cultures on which their institu-
tions are based. Ideology plays its part only as it fits into these situ-
WHICH BRINGS US around to today's point, and is itself brought
up by Communist China, which has just announced its intention
of "Marching into Tibet."
In China, Communism is also pressing hard toward Burma,,Siam,
Indochina, Malaya, Formosa and the Pescadores. Sinkiang, Mongolia,
and Manchuria already are in the fold.
All of which reminds that China is China, just as England,
Germany, Russia and the United States go their natural ways re-
gardless of socialism or conservatism, imperialism or fascism,
Democrat or Republicans.
Communism in China reaches for the same territory for 'which
nationalism reached. That Russian Communism taker part of it, as in,
Sinkiang, Mongolia, and Manchuria, and Chinese Communism' seelA
another part, merely represents a division of objectives between tw_
parts of the same Asiatic force.
* *e * *
IN 1943 CHIANG KAI-SHEK wrote a-book outlining his aims for the
future China. It created such a commotion in Western chanctlleries
that he later suppressed it, but excerpts reached this country in 1944
and later the whole text. Chiang said China had to have Tibet. Sian,
Malaya, Burma, Mongolia, Manchuria, Indochina, Formos and the
Pescadores, which he described as inseparable from the natural China
and "no area can become an independent unit." He was even going tb
take Kowloon, Hong Kong's mainland bridgehead, back from the
British.,i 1
Communism has accomplished part of Chiang's program,
promises to fight for the rest.
Ideology may spring from a nation's natural interests, as in
American, or be tied to them like the tail of a kite, but in notional
territorial aspirations it is geography, population pressures and some-
times the naked search for power which direct the course.


*-~ ~'~- -~

,k}ERg ocK..
O sfo -.NE N.qfNWGTaN P0.fT Cw

The Daily welcomes communications from its readers on matters of
general interest, and will publish all letters which are signed by the writer
and in good taste. Letters exceeding 300 words in length, defamatory or
libelous letters, and letters which for any reason are not in good taste will
be condensed edited or withheld from publication at the discretion of the

Molding Manuscripts.. .
To the Editor:
AIL RIGHT, you win. Enclosed
is $1.75 for my subscription,
so cease the postcards, please! And
while I'm spending three cents for
postage, I might as well put in
my two-cents worth to make it an
even nickel.
Speaking of money, I have ob-
served some scenes of construction
on our fair campus of late. Any-
time I see anything going up
around here instead of burning
down, I get all excited and opti-
mistic. But I feel the construction
and repairing is being generally
misapplied and misplaced.
I can't help but think:
1-That there are more import-
ant buildings needed than a la-
vish golf house recently construct-
2-That the main library should
be enlarged to a point of some sort
of sufficiency. Given adequate fa-
cilities, the folding manuscrips
wouldn't have to be housed in a
basement subject to such water
seepage. The money now being
spent to avert this molding mal-
ady by ripping out the library fa-
cade could be applied to positive
construction of space and more
3-That had there been suffi-
cient library facilities the invalu-
able documents of the Bureau of
Government library, in the late
Haven Hall,awould still be in exis-
tence, not a 'smouldering in the
ground. For years. they had been
pleading for different and better
protection lest they should be cre-

mated and crinkled away. Lo and
behold, ye prophets of old.
So, in face of inadequate li-
brary facilities, molding manu-
scripts, burning buildings, deplor-
able theatre advantages, crowded
office space for instructors, no lo-
cation for the Student Legislature
to functionproperly, et cetera ad
infinitum, the University will go
money-merrily on its way building
golf club-houses; enlarging sta-
diums; expanding that monoecious
monstrosity of masculinity, the
Union; repairing the Women's lea-
gue so they can always proudly
point to their creed and honestly
believe that "Sanitation is a way
of life;" appropriating immense
sums for a radio station that is ba-
sically ineffectual in an FM sort
of way; squandering much needed
space for plush parlors in the
Kresge - looking Administration
building for Regents and what-
nots who meet rarely-but not
rarely enough to be of much bene-
fit to the University, on the whole;
et cetera ad nauseam.
So I would suggest to the proper
University officials that they re-
appraise the spatial situation and
then apply their efforts and money
measures to worthwhile building
and repairing projects.
Sometimes I think this isn't a
perfect University, and that up-
sets me; 'cause this is a great Uni-
versity-potentially the greatest--
and whenever I see people and
practices running contrary to the
essential welfare and educational
criteria for great universities, I
get upset every time. So, 'til Mi-
chigan soon becomes the finest
University in the world . . . . and
it will ....
-Adele Hager


aion. in The Daily Official
j ulel, I -uiqei ntaice ;tQ -ll
mbers f e iveers iy. Notices
fotheBulletin' should be seni in
typewritten form to the Office of the
Summer Session, Room 3510 Admin-
istration Building, by 3:00 p.m. on
the day preceding publication (11:00
a.m. Saturdays).
VOL. LX, No. 31-S
Recommendations for Depart-
mental Honors: Teaching depart-
ments wishing to recommend ten-
tative August graduates from the
College of Literature, Science, and
the Arts, and the School of Educa-
tion for departmental honors
should recommend such students
in a letter to be sent to the Regis-
trar's Office, Room 1513 Adminis-
tration Building before August 24.
Attention August Graduates:
College of Literature, Science, and
the Arts, School of Education,
School of Music, School of Public
Students are advised not to re-
quest grades of I or X in August.
When such grades are absolutely
imperative, the work must be made
up in time to allow your instructor
to report the make-up grade not
later than 11 a.m., August 24.
Grades received after that time
may defer the student's graduation
until a later date.
Edward G. Groesbeck

:teach in Japanese Universities for
two years beginning April, 1951
Subjects: to be taught are English.
,language, literature, social sci-
ences, natural sciences, physical
sciences, education, music, and li-
brary science. College graduate,
preferably with Ph.D. degree, and
teaching experience in an Ameri-
can college or university. For fur-
ther information please call at Bu-
reau of Appointments, 3528 Ad-
ministration Building.
The Elgin, Joliet and Eastern
Railway Company has an opening
for a graduate civil engineer for
which no}-practical experience is
The Riley Stoker Corporation of
Worcester, Massachusetts, makers
of fuel burning and steam, genera-
ting equipment, have a few open-
ings for mechanical engineers for
their sales training program.
The Colgate - Palmolive - Peet
Company has a few openings for
chemical engineers for their In-
dustrial Engineering Division. Ap-
plication blanks may be picked up
at the Bureau of Appointments.
For further information about
the above positions please call at
the Bureau of Appointments, 3528
Administration Building.
Linguistic Institute. "The Pho-
nemic Structure of Japanese."
Shiro Hattori, Tokyo University. 1
nnm Miehigan Union.

aiim H. A. El-Abd, Electrical En-1
gineering; thesis: "Analyiss of
Fuel Sprays by Electrical Meth-
ods", Wednesday, August 9, 2511
East Engineering Bldg., at 2 p.m.
Chairman, L. N. Holland.
Doctoral Examination for Clara
Marie Behringer, Speech; thesis:
"A History of the Theatre in Ann
Arbor, Michigan, from its begin-
nings to 1904", Thursday, August
10, East Council Room, Rackham
Bldg., at 1:30 p.m. Chairman, H.
Z. Norton.
Student Recital: Jose Bornn,
pianist, will be heard at 8:30 p.m.
Wednesday in the Rackham As-
sembly Hall, in a program of works
of Bach, Beethoven, and Ravel. A
pupil of John Kollen, Mr. Bornn
will present the recital in partial{
fulfillment of the requirements for
the Master of Music degree. Open
to the general public.
Student Recital: Mary Fowler
Jones, Organist, will present a
program at 4:15 p.m. Wednesday
in Hill Auditorium, in partial ful-
fillment of the requirements for
the Bachelor of Music degree. A
pupil of Marilyn Mason, Miss
Jones will play works by Bach,
Dupre and Messiaen. Open to the
general public, , . .
String Quartet Slass, under the
direction of Gilbert Ross and Paul
Doktor,' will be heard at 4:15
Thursday, August 10, in the Rack-
ham Assembly Hall: The program
will include Haydn's Quartet in G
minor, Op. 74, No. 3, played by
Charlotte Saikowski and Shirley
Sullivan, violinists, Kurt Schuster,
violist, and Donald Carlson, cellist;
Beethoven's Quartet in F minor,
Op. 95, played by Alfred Boying-
ton and James Vandersall, violin-
ists, Emile Simonel, violist, and
George Webber, cellist. The gener-
al public is invited.
Student Recital: Helen Maday
McAlister, pianist, will be heard at
8:30 Thursday evening, August 10,
in the Rackham Assembly Hall,
presenting a program in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for
the Master of Music degree. A pu-
pil of Joseph Brinkman, Mrs. Mc-
Alister will play compositions by
Bach, Chopin, Ravel, and Brahms.
The recital will be open to the
Student Recital: Emma Jo Bow-
les, student of organ with Robert
Noehren, will present a program at
8:30 Thursday evening, August 17,
in Hill Auditorium, in partial ful-
fillment of the requirements for
the Master of Music degree. The
recital was previously announced
for Tuesday, August 15, but has
heen changed to August 17. It will

hibit, "The Coal Flora of Michi-
gan." Exhibition ha~ls, "Jungle
Arts, Crafts, and People."
Law Library. Legal cartoons
(basement, July 24-August 18).
Michigan Wtorical Collections.
160 Rackham Building. "Tourists
in Michigan-Yesterday and To-
Museum of Art. Oriental ceram-
ics (June 26-August 15). Modern
graphic art. (July 2-August 15).
Clements Library. Michigan ar'
ities. (August 1-18).
Events Today
Botanical Seminar: 7:30 p~m.
Wednesday, Rm. 1139, Natural Sci-
ence Bldg. F. D. H. Macdowall will
speak on "Modern Concepts of
Photosynthesis." All interested are
invited to attend.
Geometry Seminar: Wed., Aug
ust 9, 3 p.m., Room 3001 Angell
Hall. Dr. Leisenring will discuss
"A Class of Colliniarities wlichlIn-
clude the Pascal Theorum."
Michigan Christian Fellowship:
Bible Study, "Upper Room" Lane
Hali; ,7;30 Irm. T'aplq :I TX1kesf,,j
oanirdi al iapte t'e,.v esc
17, and chapter three.
"The Great Adventure," last in
the 1950 Summer Season cf Play:
presented by the Department of
Speech, will open at the Lydia
Mendelssohn Theatre tonight and
run through Saturday. The play
is a comedy adapted by .Arnold
Bennett from his novel, Buried
Alive. Tickets for all performances
are on sale at the MendelssohA
box office, open daily from 10 a.m.
until 8 p.m. Curtain at 8 p.pn.
(Continued on Page 3)

Fifty-Ninth Year
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Cotrol of
Student Publications.
Editorial Staff
Philip Dawson........Managing Editor

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