LABOR NEWS AN) COMMENT:
Midnight Rides of Terror
Samuel Grafton Is now on his annual vacation.
During this time until he resumes his column with
the fall issue of The Daily, Victor Riesel's labor
column will be run, beginning today.
By VICTOR RIESEL
Edited and managed by students of the University of
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NIGHT EDITOR: NATALIE BAGROW
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
FOR SEVERAL inevitable reasons, mass edu-
cation has been thrust upon us; we are
caught completely unprepared. Returned ser-
vice-men, freshmen, co-eds, and other students
are inundating our campuses throughout the
country. This University alone thinks it will be
able to instruct 18,000 students next semester!
The consensus of opinion of educators is that
there will be no enrollment relief for a decade or
more. The flood is permanent!
Mass education presents an Achilles heel
which the educators would do well to ponder.
This feature is betraying traditional regard
for the individual student. Students who, by
virtue of individual personality, psychological
constitution, personal tastes, courses of study,
and other important considerations, should
have single rooms, for example, are forced in
with other students with whom they have lit-
tle in common. Study becomes impossible.
There is no opportunity for tranquil medita-
tion or reading in the privacy of one's own
room. Everywhere there are crowds! Although
most students are of that "the-gang's-all-here,
good comradeship" clan who can get along joy-
ously with any crowd, there is the converse
also, the person who subsequently is lost in the
shuffle. It is he who is made so miserable that
he cannot study.
The congestion in classrooms is another dan-
ger of mass education; even worse are jammed
laboratories. Fortunately, new construction can
relieve this condition.
Such a program ad captandum vulgus with
subsequent degradation of study conditions and
hence of standards also lowers the prestige and
eminence of the college. The institution loses its
dignity and becomes just another "diploma
factory." The traditional campus spirit of the
"good old days" is defunct. The old-time col-
legiate atmosphere gives way to a mad, big city
scramble for credits, diplomas-and rooms.
Mass production education at the expense of
living standards is to be condemned. Educa-
tion of the qualified masses is highly desirable
only insofar as it does not lower standards in
any way. A "diploma factory" does not turn
out spiritually and scholarly educated leaders
for society; it can not.
The fruits of education are to be had only
through judicious administration and provision
for the personal needs and differences of the
students. Otherwise, we shall witness the rapid
degeneration of the finest universities in the
country. There is no royal road to knowledge.
As Fichte put it:
"We wish to give-society-a leader and we
make a tool; we wish to stimulate originality
and we produce passivity; we destroy the man
within him, so far as we can do so by our ar-
rangements, and are guilty of an injury both to
him and to society ... "
-Richard W. Fink
IF YOU HAVE never gone to bed with the
nerve-burning fear that at midnight, masked
men will knock at your door-or break it down-
and order you to core with them and their
whip-carrying, hooded companions, you can't
MAN TO MAN:
By HAROLD L. ICKES
THE UNITED STATES should do its own
thinking on international policies and stand
on its own feet. Too often in the past have we
allowed ourselves to be put in leading strings
by 10 Downing street. We appeased with Cham-
berlain. We genuflexed with the British in the
direction of both Hitler and Mussolini until our
knees would bend no further. We followed the
British line with respect to Spain and the Argen-
tine and now we are breaking faith as to Pales-
The Anglo-American Commission of Inquiry
that spent four months studying the Palestine
question made a unanimous recommendation to
both London and Washington that 100,000 home-
less European Jews be admitted to Palestine
immediately. Last May, following the report of
this commission, President Truman announced
that this ought to be done.
But this did not suit the British.
understand the fright felt today by men who
lead Southern labor.
Despite the ultra-modern publicity which gives
the nation an impression of irresistible labor
power, Dixie unions just are not strong enough
for the coming showdowns with the Ku Klux
Klan and its nighttime fellow travelers.
Dixie labor needs friends today, among the
public and in the industrialists who want to see
fair play-for that showdown between the hooded
men and unions is coming. Labor men, working
with some of the country's shewdest investiga-
tors, have discovered a 12-year-old Klan plot
against labor in general and the CIO in par-
ticular. Here's part of the record which horriflies
In 1934:-Five men kidnap Frank Norman,
citrus fruit union organizer, in Lakeland, Fla.
He is not seen again a Klan Kleagle is charged
with the crime, but a frightened Grand Jury
refuses to indict,
1935:-The KKK warns "we shall fight horror
with horror" when the new CIO announced it
will unionize Southern industries.
1935:-A few months later, Joseph Shoe-
maker, a Florida union organizer, is mutilated,
flogged and tarred in Tampa. He dies. Some of
those arrested admit they are Kluxers.
1937:-KKK leaders report the largest mem-
bership in 15 years resulting from the Ku Klux
fight on the CIO's textile and steel workers' or-
ganizing committees which are led by Jews and
Catholics, respectively. Crosses are burned; un-
ion organizers flogged; and new union members
whipped. Posters reading: "CIO is Communistic.
Communism will not be tolerated. KKK rides
'again" spring up overnight throughout the
1938:-New union mill workers in Atlanta are
flogged by Klansmen.
1939:--Imperial Wizard Hiram Evans at his
National headquarters (Atlanta) warns -
"Henceforth the Klan will devote its efforts to
fighting Communism and the CIO."
1940:-The more subtle new Wizard Colescott,
writing in the KKK's newspaper, the Fiery Cross,
says: "I call upon those (Klansmen) affiliated
lith labor organizations to organize themselves
in groups and take over active leadership."
1942:-After weeks of terror the Klan burns
crosses in front of Phil Murray's. steel workers'
union hall and homes of his lieutenants in Holt,
Fla. In Decatur, Ga., Kluxers drive around a CIO
meeting hall, like warring Indians around covered
wagons. "We've given you your last warning;
we mean for you to get out and stay out."
1943:-Soldiers, off duty, stop carloads of
Klansmen going to an anti-union demonstration
in Apopka, Fla., and warn them to "take those
damned hoods off."
1944:-Kluxers in Orlando, Fla., send a squad
of 100 hooded men to intimidate employees at
plants where the CIO is about to negotiate new
contracts. Management as well as labor is an-
1946:-The nations' key Klan unit, No. 1 den
in Atlanta, which sets the pattern for Kluxers
everywhere, meets Apr. 8, and is told "something
will have to be done to nip the CIO's Southern
organizing drive in the bud."
Georgia's Green Dragon, who is about to be-
come one of the country's most publicized man,
sets, the tone for the KKK showdown with la-
bor, when he advises his lieutenants:
"The CIO is for the Negro and Jew. The KKK
is declaring open war on the CIO."
(Copyright, 1946, N.Y. Post Syndicate)
V _ '. Reg. U. S .Pst. 011-A'l ,qhf" ',,,,,d
"Vighty nice of Brother Jenkins to lend us his store,"
T HE DECISION of the utility in-
dustry to launch a widespread
expansion of power lines in rural
areas indicates that business leaders
believe an extensive market is waiting
on the more than 50 per cent of the
nation's 6,000,000 farms which do not
have electric power. Recently electric
light and power companies met with
representatives of the American Farm
Bureau Federation, the largest farm
group in the country, to map plans
for extending service to rural areas.
The research staffs of such com-
panies as the Westinghouse Electric
Corporation and the General Electric
Company had compiled findings
which decided the industry to go
ahead. Irrespective of plans of the
Rural Electrification Administration,
the private utility companies have
set up a budget of approximately
$300,000,000 to cover construction
costs of lines in country sections.
Many farm leaders and many ex-
perts in farm economics and rural
sociology believe that electricity is
the kingpin of a better farm econo-
my. The extension of power to 3,-
000,000 more farms naturally means
added revenue for the utility com-
Electricity for every farm in the
nation is a logical goal. It means more
business for manufacturers and a
higher level of employment. It also
means a 'higher standard of living
for farmers plus more efficiency in
many farm operations. As electricity
supersedes human muscle for power
it will make farming more satisfying
to able and ambitious young people.
From every angle, electricity on all
the farms means a better nation.
--The New York Timies
The British appear to have two definite ob-
jectives with respect to the land that had been
promised as a national Jewish homeland. It
is understood that the British strongly desire
to fortify Palestine and make it their military
base on the southern shore of the Mediter-
ranean in the Middle East. The second appar-
ent objective of the British is to divide Pales-
tine into three separate areas-a small area of
1500 square miles for the Jews, a larger strip
for the Arabs and still another for the British
themselves. Instead of sovereignty for either
the Jews or the Arabs, according to dispatches
from London, political powers would be granted
no greater in extend than those possessed by
a county in the United States. All of the real
powers would be held by the British.
Both the Arabs and the Jews will resist to the
utmost any proposed solution which solves noth-
ing. It is unthinkable that the United States
should be willing to postpone action with res-
pect to these 100,000 homeless Jews to force a
surrender by Jews and Arabs alike of the right
of self-government in Palestine.
.. The Jews and the Arabs ought to be per-
mitted to settle their own difficulties. I am
confident that they could do this, especially
if the United States and Great Britain should
advance a reasonable sum of money for the
physical development of Palestine for the,
benefit of both races. The Jews and the Arabs
could learn to live together if Great Britain
and the United States could bring themselves
to an attitude of sympathetic understanding
and a willingness, instead of giving orders and
dictating policy from the outside, to help these
two people to help themselves.
(Copyright, 1946, N.Y. Post Syndicate)
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
tteri tLO the &Iit O
Publication in The Daily Official Bul-
letin is constructive notice to all mem-
bers of the University. Notices for the
Bulletin should be sent in typewritten
form to the office of the Summer Ses-
sion, Room 1213 Angell Hall by 3:30 p.m.
on the day preceding publication (11:00
WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 7, 1946
VOL. LVI, No. 25S
City of Detroit Civil Service Com-
mission Announcements have been
received in this office for:
1. Occupational Therapist, $2,591-
$2,936. Closing date is Aug. 9.
2. X-Ray Technician, $2,373-$2-
769. Closing date is Aug. 8.
3. Trained Nursing Attendant, $2,-
315-$2,385. Closing date is Aug. 8.
4. Nutritionist, $2,657-$2,930. Clos-
ing date is Aug. 7.
5. St udent Technical ASsistant
Specialties: Engineering, Business
Administration, General Science,
Physical Education, Social Science,
$1,928-$2,080. Closing date is Aug. 7.
6. Student Social Worker, $2,109-
$2,295. Closing date is Aug. 6.
7. Social Case Worker, $2,475-$2,-
835. Closing date is Aug. 6.
For further information call at the
Bureau of Appointments and Occupa-
tional information, 201 Mason Hall.
The Board of National Missions of
the Presbyterian Church in the Uni-
ted States of America has teaching
vacancies in Alaska, New Mexico,
Arizona, Utah in the following fields:
English, Home Economics, Music,
Mathematics and Science, Social Sci-
ence, Commerial, Arts and Crafts,'
Manual Arts, Elementary, Physical
Education. Salaries consist of cash
stipend, maintenance, and traveling
expenses to field. Full details may be
had at the Bureau of Appointments
and Occupational Information.
Notice to Veterans: All veterans
training under Public Law 346 (GI
Bill of Rights) in order to protect
their future training rights must re-
port to the Veterans Administration,
Rm. 100, Rackham Building, accord-
ing to the following schedule:
Students in the term ending Aug-
ust 9: Report Aug. 5-9.
Students in the term ending Aug-
ust 23: Report Aug. 712-17:
Students whose term ends after'
August. 23: Report August 19-24.
Veterans' presence is necessary to
fill out a training report and to in-
dicate whether leave is desired.
The office of the Veterans Admin-
istration is open from 8 a.m. to 4:30
p.m. daily and from 8:00 a.m. to noon
The Ballroom Dancing Class that
regularly meets on Tuesday night
at 7:30, will meet on Wednesday,
City of Detroit Civil Service An-
nouncements have been received in
this office for:
1. Junior Architectural, Civil, Elec-
trical, Mechanical, or Structural En-
Closing Hours ,. ,
To the Editor:
THE GENERAL LIBRARY is the only place
many of us have to study. Its many rooms
should meet our varied needs and preferences.
The only trouble is that they do not. It is through
no fault of the equipment which is (lighting
excepted) very good.
A great many students use the facilities offered
in the Library and the great majority are con-
siderate of their neighbors especially in regard
to talking aloud. Why can't the librarians and
other custodians of these sacred portals observe
the same rules of conduct and whisper as they
expect (and insist) that students do? Is there
any need for them to engage in loud conversa-
tion if only to attempt to- locate a book or to
provide some gem of knowledge pertaining to
the Library which only they possess?
The Library is supposedly open until 10 o'clock
which means, as far as I can see, that it should
be quiet there until 10 o'clock so that eager
students may utilize every minute of their pre-
cious time. Is it necessary for the custodians to
start closing windows, fixing shades, pushing
chairs in place at nine-forty as was the case last
night in the study hall? When a department
store is open until six o'clock the employees are
alert until that hour when they begin to clear
up for the night. Aren't the employees of the
University paid to do the same. We all realize
they're anxious to get home. But we students are
supposedly entitled to, the privilege of using
the Library until 10. (We're paying for this
privilege, too.) As far as I can see our privileges
are not that numerous that we can afford to
have them misused.
To the Editor:
CONGRATULATIONS, Tom Walsh. Your ar-
ticle in The Daily (July 31) on the cyclist
menace was a most welcome one. The only hitch
(the inevitable one)-haven't I heard that song
before? Yes, last spring several of our student
government representatives mentioned the cor-
rection of that menace as a plank in their plat-
forms. Was I naive enough to vote according to
a candidate's platform?
Since nothing has been done about this
cyclist menace as yet, and since the need for
the alleviation of this menace is not dimin-
ishing I propose we work right now, immed-
iately for its removal. Being so naive, how-
ever, I would not know where my work starts.
Do I tell my friends to walk to class, do I peti-
tion to the Board of Governors for the removal
of the bike racks which Mr. Walsh suggested,
or do I sit and pray that some student gov-
ernment representative will read my letter?
My nose is peeling from sunburn and I can't
quite appreciate the thought of its possible,
skinning and bruising as a result of being pushed
fiat on it by some eager cyclist-eager to get
to his one o'clock by one-thirty, eager to avoid
a possible collision, and eager to get out of class
so he can cycle on his merry way.
-Gerald St. Clair
2. Assistant Architectural, Civil,
Electrical, Mechanical, or Structural
Closing date is August 22, 1946.
For further information, call at
the Bureau of Appointments, 201
The Chicago and Southern Airlines,
Inc., are now taking applications for
the September training class for
stewardesses. Any girls who are in-
terested in stewardess training for
the airlines should call at. the Bur-
eau of Appointments, 201 Mason Hall.
State of Michigan Civil Service An-
nouneements have been received in
this office for:
1. Industrial Inspector I, $200-$240.
2. Dietitian A through II,$185-$290.
3. ' Addressing Machine Operator
4. Blind Transcribing Machine Op-
erator Ci, $135-$155.
Closing date is August 21.
5. Architectural Engineers II, III,
Closing date is August 28.
For further information, call at the
Bureau of Appointments, 201 Mason
Lecture: T. Luther Purdom, Direc-
tor of the University Bureau of Ap-
pointments and Occupational Infor-
mation today, August 7 at 4:05 p.m.
in the University High School Audi-
torium. The topic will be "Saturday's
Eleven-fifty-fivers." The public is
invited to attend.
Lecture: Ralph C. Wenrich, Assist-
ant Superintendent of Public Instruc-
tion in Charge of Vocational Educa-
tion, Thursday, August 8 at 4:05 p.m.
in the University High School Audi-
torium. The topic will be "Current
Philosophy of Vocational Education."
Lecture: E. Blythe Stason, Profes-
sor of Law and Dean of the Law
School, Thursday, August 8 at 4:10
p.m. in the Rackham Amphitheatre.
The topic will be "Technology, Law,
George N. Shuster, President of
Hunter College, will give a lecture
on "Good, Evil, and Beyond," Thurs-
day, August 8 at 8:10 p.m. in the
Rackham Amphitheatre. The public
is cordially invited to attend.
Professor Kenneth L. Pike, of the
Summer Institute of Linguistics at
the University of Oklahoma, will
speak under the auspices of the Lin-
guistic Institute on the subject:
"American English Vowels," on Thur-
sday,'August 8 at 1:00 pm. in Rm.
308 of the Michigan Union. The
public is cordially invited.
Professor Adelaide Hahn of Hunter
College, President of the Linguistic
Society of America, will speak under
the auspices of the Linguistic Insti-
tute on the subject: "Restrictive and
non-restrictive forms of expression,"
on Wednesday, August 7 at 7:30 pm.
in the Rackham Amphtheatre. The
public is cordially invite.
Seniors, College of Literature, Sci-
ence, and the Arts, Schools of Edu-
cation, Music, and Public Health:
Tentative lists of seniors for Sep-
tember graduation have been posted
Mouse Perormyscus leucopus novebor-
acensis (Fischer)" Wednesday, Aug.
7, at 2:30 p.m. in Rm. 3091 Natiral
Science. Chairman, A. E. Woodwdrd.
Departmental Chairmen, College of
Literature, Science, and the At%
College of Architecture, School of
Education, School of Forestry and
Conservation, School of Music, and
School of Public' Health:
Please send the class lists of classe
having two or more sections to Miss
Marian Williams, 122 Rackham
Building, Wednesday, August 7 so
that printed class, lists may be re-
turned to the instructors on time.
Speech Assembly: Professor War-
ren A. Guthrie, Chairman of the
Department of Speech at Western
Reserve University, will discuss the
practical aspects of public speaking
training at the Speech Assembly
Wednesday at 3 p.m. in the Rack-
ham Amphitheatre. Attendance is
required of all Speech concentrates,
teaching majors and minors in
Speech, and all graduate students
working toward advanced degrees in
Speech. Open to the public.
Mechanical, Chemical and Chemis-
try Students Graduating in August
and February: Mr. C. K. Fossett of
The Proctor and Gamble Company
will interview seniors of above classi-
fication for positions in their or-
ganization, in Room 218 West Engin-
eering Bldg., Wednesday, August 7.
Please sign the interview schedule
posted on the bulletin board at Room
221 W. Engr. Bldg.
Colleges of Literature, Science, and
the Arts, and Archecture and Design;
Schools of Education, Forestry, Music,
and Public Health:
Summer Session Students wishing
a transcript of this summer's work
only should file a request in Room
4, U.H., several days before leaving
Ann Arbor. Failure to file this request
before the end of the session will re-
sult in a needless delay of several
Student Recital: On Wednesday
evening, August 7, at 8:30 in Hill
Auditorium, Phyllis Stevenson, or-
ganist, will present her recital in
partial fulfillment of the require-
ments for the degree of Master of
Miss Stevenson's program will in-
clude: Prelude, Fugue, and Chaconne
by Buxtehude, Two Chorale Preludes
by Bach, and Suite for Organ by De
The public is cordially invited.
Student Recital: Friday evening,
August 9, at 8:30 in Pattengill Audi-
torium, Robert G. Waltz, tenor, will
present a program in partial fulfill-
ment of the requirements for the de-
gree of Bachelor of Music. Mr.
Waltz's recital will include: selections
by Handel, Mozart, Brahms, Franck,
Rachmaninoff, and Hageman.
Student Recital: Samuel P. Dur-
rance, Jr., baritone, will present a
program at 4:15 p.m., Wednesday,
August 7 in the Pattengill Auditor-
ium, Ann Arbor High School, given
in partial fulfillment of the require-
ments for the degree of Master of
Music. Mr. Durrance's recital will in-
clude English, French, Italian, and
German selections by Debussv. Mn-
The Churches United
If all true believers spoke as one, that single
voice would ring out with such force as to be
compelling for the good of mankind. A signifi-
cant step in that direction has been taken in
London, where Protestant leaders of eight nations
I've good news and bad news,
Mr. Baxter. The Town Council
has backed down on its plan
to put teats on the green.
But in tonight's paper there's
a story about a new commercial
building that's to go up. What
about priorities in this case?
Mr. Shultz . . . And
stop it . . . If it
violates the low!
By Crockett Johnson
Note the headline, m'boy. The Fifth
National Memorial Bank is erecting a
new structure. In conjunction with a
skating rink. We're back to normalcy.
Tk-F~tarlY r r~r rft td ! rver l~irr"