VOL. LIV No. 12-S ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN THURSDAY, JULY 20, 1944
PRICE FIVE CENTS
Breach Doubled in Enemy s Eastern Normandy Line
Byrnes Pushed Out
Of Race by Roosevelt'
Wallace Refuses To Withdraw from
Fight Despite Advice of Party Leaders
By The Associated Press
CHICAGO, July 19-Democrats whooped into their first wartime con-
vention in 80 years tonight while President Roosevelt thumbed war mobi-
lizer James F. Byrnes out of a torrid vice presidential tussle and party
leaders tried-and failed-to wave out Henry A. Wallace too.
"I am in this fight to the finish," Wallace declared.
But politicos from the metropolitan organizations set up as their goal
a first ballot nomination of Senator Harry Truman of Missouri for second
place on the 1944 slate.
And party leaders were reported turning on the heat to get Wallace
to withdraw, as Byrnes had done earlier in the day.
Mr. Roosevelt, refereeing the squabble over a running mate from afar,
gave a measure of substance to a Truman drive by listing him, behind
Wallace, as acceptable for the vice-presidency.
The vice president had been in a long huddle with labor leaders
and with Attorney General Biddle and Secretary of the Interior Ickes.
It was to National Chairman Robert E. Hannegan, by telephone, that
Mr. Roosevelt reportedly communicated his views on the runner-up race.
Word of this action raced through the convention crowd.
These were the key developments as delegates swarmed out to bunting-
bedecked Chicago Stadium for a prosaic first-session performance devoted
mostly to organization formalities :
Byrnes announced that, "In deference to the wishes" of President
Roosevelt, he did not want his name placed in nomination for the
Operating from a long-range observation post, Mr. Roosevelt reput-
edly lined up his preferences for second place on the ticket in this order:
incumbent Wallace; Senator Truman, the Missourian who runs the Senate
War Investigating Committee and Oregonian Douglas, the youngest man
ever to sit on the United States Supreme Court bench.
Evidently Wallace advocates were worried over the pace being set
by the 60-year-old Missourian. They began sniping at him, recalling that
he came to the senate under the sponsorship of Thomas J. Pendergast,
the Kansas City boss who served a term in Leavenworth penitentiary on
an income tax charge.j
Anti-New Deal southerners were bent on preventing Mr. Roosevelt's
renomination unanimously, and apparently they had enough strength to
toss some 125 votes to Senator Harry F. Byrd of Virginia. They said he
would be nominated by one of, four Florida delegates pledged to Byrd,
probably former congressman Mark Wilcox.
* * * o -
Nazis Hurled From
11 French Towns
By the Associated Press
SHAEF, Thursday, July 20-Gen.
Sir Bernard'L. Montgomery's British
and Canadian forces more than
doubled their breach in the Germans'
eastern Normandy line Wednesday
and in the second day of a roaring
offensive drove their armor inland
almost to Vimont, eight miles south-
east of Caen on the main road to
Shattering Nazi Marshal Erwin
Rommel's last fixed defense line
short of the Seine River 40 to 60
miles eastward, the Allied troops
hurled the Germans from 11 towns
and progressed well into a new phase
of their break-out from the invasion
British armor supported by infan-
try battled its way into the outskirts
of Troarn seven miles due eastward
from Caen, but in the thrust toward
Vimont, 112 miles from Paris, the
Nazis erected a strong screen of anti-
tank guns to stem the Allied tide,
Associated Press correspondent Rog-
er Greene reported from the front
Gen. Montgomery reported steady
progress in the face of the best re-
The' word SHAEF used at the
beginning of this story on the
fighting in France is a condensed
form of the Supreme Headquarters
Allied Expeditionary Force, the
center of operations and informa-
tion on the invasion front. As an
added aid to speed in reading, the
abbreviation SHAEF will be used
in all future stories.
sistance Marshal Rommel could mus-
ter with strong infantry reinforce-
ments and SS armored divisions, the
flower of the Nazi war machine.
After an original breakthrough on
a front of slightly less than three
miles, launched from the wedge
across the Orne River north of Caen
and Vaucelles, the second day's bat-
tle widened the breach to six miles.
Many hundreds of prisoners were
being taken, and one Canadian unit
reported capturing so many Nazis
that its progress was delayed, cor-
respondent Greene reported.
ROME, July 19-(AP)-American
troops, who have slashed their way
250 miles northward in Italy in just
over two months, drove the Nazis out
of the big port of Livorno today a
few hours after Polish infantry had
seized Ancona on the Adriatic coast.
Capture of the two ports gave the
Allies valuable supply bases for their
forthcoming onslaught against the
enemy's heavily-fortified Gothic line.
Engineers moved in swiftly to begin
reconstruction of wrecked dock fa-
cilities while infantry and armor
After fighting desperately for days
on the hilly approaches to Livorno,
the Nazis pulled out hurriedly last
night after an American flanking
column had driven to Pontedera on
the south bank of the Arno river be-
tween Pisa and Florence. No attempt
was made to defend the city street
MUNITIONS BLAST WRECKS NAVY PIER-Ruins of the navy pier, under construction, show the terri-
fic farce of the blast when two munitions ships exploded at Port Chicago, Calif. The scene is made
from the approximate location of the ships, looking toward Port Chicago.
Hailed by Kerr
By the Associated Press
CHICAGO, July 19.-Gev. Robert
S. Kerr-of Oklahoma hailed the party
of Franklin Roosevelt tonight as the
party of achievement and of power,
and stormily assailed the Republi-
cans and their youthful standard-
bearer Thomas E. Dewey as untried
and untested, broken by disunity,
having "no program excelt to op-
Kerr Clarifies Stand
The world, Kerr said, has a right
to ask "where we stand." He de-
"Our aim is complete and speedy
"Our goal is a just and abiding
"Our promise to a world of peace
is responsibility and cooperation."
"Our pledge to America at peace is
a government responsible to the
needs and hopes of every citizen,
even the humblest; a government
which will not shirk or fail, but will
fulfill with gratitude and fidelity,
our sacred obligation to our return-
ing servicemen and women."
Says Willkie Was Snubbed
The G.O.P. convention, Kerr asser-
ted, "snubbed and sidetracked Wen-
dell Willkie," and thus "the last ves-
tige of liberal leadership of the Re-
publican party was buried under an
avalanche of reactionary sentiment
from which it cannot soon emerge."
Dewey, he said, received a mantle
from former President Herbert Hoo-
ver. America, he said, will see "that
the mantle has become a shroud."
'Learned Ladies' To
Be Presented Today
The second performance of "The
Learned Ladies," a witty satire by the
French playwright, Moliere, will be
presented by the Michigan Repertory
Players of the Department of Speech
at 8:30 p. m. today "in the Lydia
T 1 ...-.-1,.- 1rr,.- m.
By the Associated Press
LONDON, July 20, Thursday-Rus-
sian troops smashed ten miles across
the 1941 German-Soviet frontier on
the Bug River north of by-passed
Lwow yesterday, and for the first
time in three years of war were
attacking on soil which Germany
seized in the conquest of Poland.
Opening a new offensive along the
north Latvian border the Russians
also hurled back the enemy 25 miles
on a 43-mile front in two days,
Muscow announced last night.
The Bug River, from which the
Cermans attacked Russia June 22,
was crossed on nearly a 16-mile
front north and south of Sokal above
the imperiled German stronghold of
Lwow, a communique recorded by
the Soviet monitor said.
It came three yearsrand 28 days
after Hitler's legions broke the Ger-
man-Russian non-aggression pact by
attacking the Soviet Union.
Lwow, one of the largest rail junc-
tions in Europe and fortress city
guarding the open plains leading into
German Silesia, is now only eight
miles from the advancing Red forces.
Seven powerful Russian armies
now were hitting the reeling Germans
on a 700-mile front in the greatest
combined attack ever launched in the
Kleshcheli, a junction of the Brest
Litovsk-Bialystok and Warsaw-Bar-
anovichi lines, was captured.
'Tag Day' Drive
Contributions Will Be
Solicited by Campers
Every citizen of Ann Arbor will
have an opportunity to help under-
privileged children spend a month at
the University of Michigan Fresh
Air Camp for Boys' on the Camp's
'Tag Day' tomorrow.
Campers, age nine to 13, will be
brought from the camp on Patterson
Lake near Pinckney, to solicityrcon-
tributions at their stations in town
and on the University campus. In
previous drives University students
The Fresh Air Camp is supported
by social agencies, by gifts of patrons
and by such contributions as those
received on 'Tag Day,' Prof. F. N.
Menefee said. Tomorrow's solicita-
tion is expected to add $1,000 or
$1,200 to the fund, he added.
The camp, which has been in exis-
tence for 24 years, is designed pri-
marily to give underprivileged boys
from the city streets the opportunity
to play together, acquire camping
skills, make new friends and to enjoy
themselves. It also serves as a train-
ing project for University students in
sociology, education and psychology
so that they may study the behavior
of boys first hand.
BRETTON WOODS, N.H., July 19
-(AP)-The death knell of the Bank
of International Settlements was
sounded at the United States Mone-
tary Conference today through com-
mittee approval of a resolution aimed
at liquidating the institution.
This proposal, introduced by the
Norwegian delegation and supported
by the United States, would make it
mandatory that any nation belonging
to the International Monetary Fund
and.the Bank for Reconstruction and
Development must take "steps to fos-
ter the liquidation" of the institution.
The Norwegians charged that the
bank is dominated by the Nazis,
through control of the Board of
The "GI Bill of Rights" became ef-
fective Wednesday with the Univer-
sity authorized to accept qualified
veterans of the present war as stu-1
dents subsidized by the government.
Major qualifications for accept-
ance into the new national program
have been listed by the Veterans
Service Board of the University and
applications may be turned in im-
Applications Through 'U'
Veterans may apply either through
the University or through the Dear-
born division of the Veterans Admin-
istration, Clark Tibbitts, director of
the Veterans Service Board, said, but
if possible applications should go
throughthe University first.
To be eligible for one year of
education or a lesser period re-
quired to complete a course vet-
erans must have served 90 days or
more after Sept. 16, 1940, in other
than an ASTP or NCTP which was
a continuation of his own civilian
If the applicant is more than 26
years old he may be accepted only if
his civilian education was interrupt-
ed or if he needs a refresher course.
Veterans discharged for service-in-
curred disability are eligible, but
those dishonorably discharged will
not be accepted.
Service and Training Periods Equal
Eligibility for benefits of the gov-
ernment program continue for a
period equal to the time in service if
the first year was not a refresher
course and if the first year was com-
pleted satisfactorily. The maximum
amount of training is four years.
Training must begin within two
years after discharge and must be
completed within seven years after
the end of the war.
Veterans may elect to attend all
institutions on state lists and oth-
ers which may be added by the ad-
ministrator. Elementary schools,
high schools, colleges, industrial
schools and graduate schools are
among those included under the
Veterans may elect any course and
are allowed to change their course,
but will be required to discontinue if
work is unsatisfactory.
G.I. BILL OF RIGHTS:
Veterans To Be Sent
To U'WBy Government
Students will be paid $50 per month
and $75 if there are dependents with
lesser sums provided in case of part-
time attendance. In case of dis-
ability, veterans may elect to re-
ceive training either under previous
special legislation or under the "GI
Bill." Supplies such as books will be
released to accepted students. j
The government will reimburse the
institution for tuition and reasonable
fees not to exceed $500 per ordinary
school year, but there will be no pay
to the institution for board, lodging
Billy Layton and his orchestra
will play at outdoor dances to be
held Friday nights at Palmer
Field for the rest of the Summer
Outdoor dances are an innova-
tion at Michigan although at-
tempts have been made previous-
ly to conduct them, Layton said.
The Bomber Scholarship com-
mittee will be in charge of the
refreshment concession at which
dancers may purchase cokes and
other soda pop.
The-Union and League are also
cooperating to make the outdoor
dances a success.
The regular Saturday night
dances at the Union will continue
New Group To Be
Named by Hirohito
By the Associated Press
The government of Gen. Hidei
rojo resigned collectively as part of
Japan's drastic overhauling of her
political and military commands in
the face of mountain disaster, Tokyo
announced Wednesday night, and
Emperor Hirohito ordered Marquis
Koichi Kido, home affairs minister,
into an audience with a view to
forming a new cabinet.
Kido was summoned Monday, the
same day Premier Tojo's cabinet ten-
dered its resignation, a Domei dis-
Tojo, who led Japan into war
against the United States less than
two months after his cabinet was
formed in October, 1941, had been
considered his nation's supreme war
Move Follows First Removal
Following a switch in the Japanese
naval command announced Monday,
he was himself removed as chief of
the army general staff on Tuesday
and subsequently presented his resig-
nation as premier and minister of
war, along with the resignations of
his lesser colleagues, to the emperor.
A statement by the Japanese Board
of Information said, "We anticipate
with great anxiety the appearance of
a new, strong cabinet at this time."
The text of the official announce-
"Since the outbreak of the greater
East Asia war the government has
been cooperating closely with the
imperial headquarters as one unit
and exerted every possible effort for
the prosecution of the war.
'Strengthened Personnel' Asked
"At present, in the face of a grave
situation, realizing the necessity of a
strengthened personnel in time of
urgency for the prosecution of the
war, it has been decided to streng-
then the cabinet by a wider selection
of the personnel.
"By utilizing all means available
the present cabinet was not able to
achieve its objective; here, then, the
government has finally decided to
renovate its personnel in order to con-
tinue to prosecute the war totally
and, having recognized the fact that
it was most appropriate to carry out
a total resignation of the cabinet,
Premier Tojo gathered together the
resignations of each member of the
cabinet and presented them to the
Emperor on July 18 at 11:40 a. m.
(Japanese time) when he was re-
ceived in audience.
Jdap Defenses at
U. S. PACIFIC FLEET HEAD-
QUARTERS, PEARL HARBOR, July
19.-(P)-Big guns of American bat-
tleships and carrier planes again
shelled Japanese defenses at Guam
Island in the Marianas Monday and
Tuesday while carrier aircraft added
hundreds of tons of bombs and rock-
Nearby Rota Island also was
(The weight of the bombardments
might be the final prelude to an
actual landing on the former U.S.
Western Pacific base, an Associated
Press Washington dispatch said.)
Meanwhile in Washington it was
announced that American subma-
rines, credited by Navy Secretary
Forrestal with "knocking the props
from under Japan's conquest," have
sent another 14 enemy vessels plun-
ging to the bottom.
Petitions Due Today
For Union Office
Men desiring to be candidates in
the Union's vice presidential election
must turn in a notice of intention to
run for office to the Union Student
office by 3 p. m. today.
Elections will be held tomorrow
with polls open from 9 a. m. to 2 p.
m. Three vice presidents will be
elected, one from the law school, one
from the engineering and architec-
By the Associated Press
CALLS SOVIET PARTICIPATION ENCOURAGING:
Watkins Discusses Russian Monetary Policy
LONDON, July 19.-Climaxing 36
hours of the most terrible air assault
in history, American fleets totaling
3,000 planes converged on Germany
today from Britain and Italy and
brought the attack to a crushing
crescendo at. Munich, shrine of Naz-
ism, where theynconcentrated their
assault on chemical and aircraft
The American planes dropped 5,000
tons of explosives on numerous tar-
gets in the Reich in this second
straight day of coordinated blows
against Germany by the U.S. Eighth
and 15th Air Forces, and brought to
about 19,000 tons the total bomb
weight loosed against the continent
since dawn Tuesday-more than half
of it on the German homeland.
Some 1,700 Liberators and For-
tresses roared from the north and
south against Germany, accompanied
S ahn+iit 1 300 fiahtev 'Thev am.
By MYRA SACKS
"Russian participation in the plans
to rebuild world trade along liberal
lines gives sound grounds for opti-
mism for future trade and financial
a ..... F T - A __.t m ai: ~
with the proposed international bank
which is designed to supply long-
term reconstruction credits in cer-
tain cases, and which is still the
subject of discussion.
"The international fund has two
trade position without having re-
course to exchange control and
other forms of trade restriction
which were so widely employed in
the 1930 era.
"Naturally the size of the quota
gard to her own situation, sought a
larger quota for reasons of prestige
and larger borrowing power, and, at
the same time, urged a smaller con-
tribution on the part of war-devas-
"She nhiAMted al oit furnishing