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July 23, 1943 - Image 1

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Michigan Daily, 1943-07-23

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VOL. LIII, No. 19-S




Weathe r










Allied Drive at Breakneck Speed in North and West

Air Base


125 ROTC Men Will
Be Eligible To Return


Approximately 125 of the 167 ad-
vanced ROTC men who left the Uni-
versity at the end of last semester for
active duty will be eligible to return
to the University to complete their
academic studies under the new rul-
ing of the War Department, Army of-
ficials here stated yesterday.
The return of these students to
continue their academic education
has been authorized as a result of
reduced quotas at Officer Cand-
date Schools.
All second year advanced men were
sent to Camp McCoy, Wis., to await
OCS or to take basic training. Those
who have been graduated from col-
lege are being placed in Officer Can-
didate Schools now, aid all of them
will be assigned by Sept. 30.
Second Year Men MayReturn
All second year advanced men who
were sent to Camp McCoy and who
have not yet received their degrees
may come back to the University
under the new program.
, Of the graduated ROTC students,
i none has been reported in OCS as
Undergo Basic Training
First year advanced ROTC stu-
dents from the University, number-
ing about 40 men, are now undergo-
ing basic military training at re-
placement centers, and will complete
that training before being assigned;
General Upshur,
Paddock Killed
In Plane Crash
WASHINGTON, July 22.- (A'-]
ThIe fiery crash of a naval plane near
Slitka, Alaska, has claimed the lives
of Maj.-Gen. William P. Upshurr
veteran hero of the Marines, and,
Capt. Charles Paddock, Olympic
track star of the twenties who oncel
was acclaimed as the "world's fastest
The Navy Department reported
late today that Upshur and PaddockE
and four other persons were killed1
when the plane crashed and burned
yesterday. There were no survivo,
and the Navy said that "the cause of
the accident has not yet been deter-
The names of the planes' fours
other occupants were not disclosed,t
pending notification of next of kin.
The Navy said that the bodies of all
passengers and members of the crew
have been recovered.
Upshur, commanding general of
the Marines for the Department of
the Pacific and a seasoned cam-
paigner who won the Congressional
medal of honor for service in Haiti
in 1915 had been in charge of sup-
plying personnel in Marine units in{
the Pacific theatre since early last'
UMW Submits
2-Year Pact
Agreement Applies to
35,000 Illinois Miners
WASHINGTON, July 22.- ()-
The United Mine Workers of Amer-
ica offered today to settle their wage
differences with the nation's coal
operators'on the basis of an agree-
ment providing for an 8-hour day, a
48-hour week, and portal-to-portal
pay of $1.25 daily for the next two
A contract embodying those pro-,
visions and providing in effect for
an increase of about $3 in a miner's
daily %'take home" pay, was signed
yesterday by the UMW's District 12
and the Illinois Coal Operators Asso-
ciation, to be effective from April 1,
1943, to March 31, 1945.
The contract applies to approxi-

mately 35;000 UMW miners in the
Illinois fields. The UMW policy
committee decided today that the
pact would be satisfactory and ac-
ceptable for the union's estimated
450,000 workers in the nation's other
coal fields.
Former Student Dies in 1
h . 1 -

to college, probably under the su-
pervision of the Army Specialized
Training Division.
It is not yet definitely deter-
mined under what status the men
will return to the University, Army
officials said. They may come
back under orders, as enlisted re-
servists or under the ASTP. If a
voluntary status is maintained,
those men who do not wish to re-
turn to the University will stay
with their respective units.
It is believed that all men return-
ing to college will return to the uni-
versities at which they were matric-
ulated before being placed on active
Allied Planes
Raid Jap Base
At Soerabaja
Incendiaries Dropped
On Refinery in 2400
Mile Surprise Attack
By The Associated Press
23, Friday-Allied heavy bombers,
again extending the range of their
operations, have made a successfulF
surprise raid on Soerabaja, the Jap-
anese main base in the Netherlandst
East Indies.
It was the first time bombs hadi
dropped on this capital of East Java
Province since the Japanese seized
the former Dutch naval base early in
194. .
Planes Fly 2400 Miles
The attack involved a round-tripC
flight of nearly 2400 miles-some
400 miles more than the previous
record, an attack on Macassar, Cele-
bes, for bombers operating in the
Southwest Pacific.
"Our heavy bombers carried out
a successful surprise raid on the
enemy's main base in the Nether-
lands East Indies, one thousand
miles from Australia," the communi-
que from General Douglas MacAr-
thur's headquarters said.
Direct Hit on Refinery Scored
"Direct hits with 500-pound bombs
and incendiaries were scored on an
oil refinery, resulting in five large
fires; a dock and nearby warehouses
and railway installations were heavi-
ly hit with high explosives and in-
"Raging fires were reported by the
combat crews as being visible 140
The raiders apparently took the
Japanese completely by surprise. The
city was brightly lighted and there
was great activity around the docks
when the Liberators roared in upon
the target area shortly before dawn
Japanese ground batteries quickly
got into action, however, and threw
up an intensive but ineffective anti-
aircraft barrage. Their fire had no-
ticeably slackened, however, by the
time the Liberators had completed
their job.
The unexpected and spectacular
assault, from which all our planes re-
turned, overshadowed an intensive
raid on the Munda area. Medium and
divebombers and fighters, the com-
munique said, flew 250 sorties against
that key Japanese defense position
Munda Fall Nears
After Base Bombing
day- (IP- Munda, key Japanese
base on New Georgia Island in the
central Solomons, was reported in
"reach of capture" by ground forces
today after the record - breaking
bombing on Wednesday of Bairoko

Harbor, enemy supply base about ten
air miles north of Munda.
An official statement that U.S.
troops had advanced to within a few
thousand yards of the airfield was
made by Admiral William F. Halsey's
South Pacific headquarters. Most
of the Japanese artillery has been
destroyed. The Nipponese are fight-
L-,.w. ,rr- r - h . rf ra - h n-

in Swift Drive
1U.S. T1 roops Neadr Palermo as British
By The Associated Press
armored columis, sweeping north and west with a breakneck speel, were
approaching Palermo on Sicily's northern coast through the last mountain
range guarding the island capital today after capturing the big air base of
Castelvetrano and six other towns.
Withering under the hot breath of lightning war, the Italian armies of
northern and western Sicily were falling into a debacle comparable with
that suffered at the hands of the British in Libya as Allied armies swept over
considerably more than half of the island.
(Acting Secretary of War Patterson in Washington said late reports

n u-rrrrrurrru ---** ----'r-r-* _ . --- -..----*-*'. ---*'1id
........... ........z....... ........................
... .................................................................................................................... .................................
Following the capture of Enna in central Sicily b y U.S.- Canadian forces, it was reported that Axis
forces in the west had started a general retreat tow arty Messina, escape port to Italy. Meanwhile, Allied
forces advancing at breakneck speed captured Castel vetrano in the west and were advancing on Palermo
on the northern coast in a lightning war to drive th e Axis from the continent. British warships were
reported to have shelled Crotone, north of Calabria o n the Italian mainland.


'United Nations'

Is Non-Existent


"I've been asked what the general
attitude of the United Nations in the
Far East will be beyond disarming
Japan," Dr. George Shepherd, a close
associate of the Generalissimo, said
last night in a lecture sponsored by
the Post-War Council.. <
"Well, first I shall say that there
is no 'United Nations'-not even toc
prosecute the war, much less to de- t
cide on post-war policies.
"There is a Mr. Churchill, and A
Mr. Roosevelt, and once in a while
Stalin and Chiang Kai-Shek get in
on some conferences, but there is
no 'United Nations.'
"It seems to me that the Chipese
will be the real force in decidingt
Kelly Points
Teo Causes for
LANSING, July 22.-UP)-Governor'
Kelly today made public a report of
the State Corrections Commission
which traced rising juvenile delin-
quency in Michigan to 13 causes,
most of them outgrowths of the war.
The Commission, compiling a sur-
vey of statistics and suggestions from
33 public and private agencies hand-
ling child welfare problems, said ju-
venile delinquency in Michigan in-
creased 19.2 per cent in 1942 over
1940, compared to a national in-
crease of 18.3 per cent.
The report pointed out a number
of weak points in Michigan's child
welfare systems, especially in the
county agent system.
Kelly called a meeting here Sept.
8 of representatives of the prosecu-
tors, probate judges, sheriffs, police
chiefs and school superintendents
associations to discuss the delin-
quency problem. Among the causes
of delinquency outlined by the com-
mission were:
"Latch key children" left to shift
for themselves while their parents
worked in industry.
Broken homes, indicated by a
Michigan divorce rate of one divorce
to every 3.5 marriages during a five-
year period.
Congestion, unsanitary conditions,
crowded schools and inadequate rec-
reational facilities in areas where
families have crowded together for
defense work.
Specialists To
Begin Training
Officers Will Study
European Languages
Training of officers as civil affairs
specialists will begin at the Univer-
sity next week when the first con-
tingent arrives from the Provost-
Marshal General's School at Ft. Cus-

Japan's fate, and Japan will prob-
ably get equality in the Far East
--but no more."
After the war there will be four
important forces to reckon with in
China, Dr. Shepherd said. The most
outstanding factor will be the politi-
cal struggle between the liberals and
the militarists.
At present the small group in
the Military Affairs Commission
are running things, but the Chi-
nese, nevertheless, have a liberal,
democratic mind, Dr. Shepherd de-
"Inevitably China must have access
to world trade to raise her standard
of living, and I predict that her
standard may some day rival ours.
In the 20 years that I spent in China,
the living standard of the common
man was raised 400 per cent," Dr.
Shepherd said.
"The Chinese have no designs on
extra territory, although she has
indicated she will demand Formosa,
Manchuria, and the return of her
own possessions.
Participating in the discussion
with Dr. Shepherd were Dr. Esson
Gale of the International Center,
Prof. John Decker of the history de-
partment, and Dr. George Kiss of
the geography department.
When asked what China would
do with the Japanese after the
Publisher Shot
In Cleveland
McCarren.s Wounded
By Hungarian Gunmman
CLEVELAND, July 22.- (A)-John
S. McCarrens, 74, general manager
of the Cleveland Plain Dealer and
president of the Forest City Publish-
ing Co., today was shot and wounded
critically by an assailant who then
put a pistol to his head and killed
The shooting occurred in McCar-
rens' office on the fourth floor of the
Plain Dealer building at East 6th
Street and Superior Avenue, in
Cleveland's downtown.
Detective Inspector Frank W.
Story identified the gunman as Her-
bert L. Kobrak, 55-year-old Hungar-
ian-born Clevelander associated for
some years with German and Hun-
garian language newspapers here.
Kobrak, wounded in the right tem-
ple, died at the same hospital 38
minutes after the shooting.
Inspector Story said Kobrak's clo-
thing contained two notes, one ad-
dressed to "gentlemen of the press"
indicating he had intended several
months ago to kill the publisher and
another addressed to police asking
that his body be taken to a certain
undertaking establishment.
On his way to the hospital McCar-
rens told associates Kobrak had
made an appointment with him to
discuss starting a graphic newspaper
in Cleveland.

war, Dr. Shepherd held out the
hope that they might be absorbed
into the Chinese nation in the
course of time, since they were a
part of the yellow race.
But Dr. B. A. Liu, head of the Chi-
nese National Institution in America,
said, "As a member of the Chinese
nation, I don't relish the idea of
digesting an indigestible people.
"The solution does not lie in
over-emphasizing the racial ques-
tion--of setting up the yellow race
to be opposed by the white. I
sincerely hope that we can learn
instead to think in terms of the
human race; perhaps then we can
avoid another world war," Dr. Liu
Union Leaders
Demand Food
Price Roil-Back
a virtual ultimatum, leaders of the
AFL and CIO today served notice
that they would demand the official
scalp of Price Administrator Prentiss
Brown and an end to the "little
steel" wage curb formula unless food
prices are rolled back promptly.
William Green, president of the
American Federation of Labor; Phil-
ip Murray head of the Congress of
Industrial Organizations, and other
members of the combined War Labor
Board conferred with President
Roosevelt. They announced later
they had submitted a statement de-
claring that no adequate steps were
being taken to reduce prices in line
with the President's anti-inflation
"If your administrators have de-
cided not to carry out in full the
program which you proposed and
which Congress permits, it will, of
course, be impossible for organized
labor to continue in its support of
the wage and price stabilization pro-
gram as now formulated," the state-
ment said.
Murray reported that no time limit
had been set for the administration
to meet labor's demand, but he ex-
pressed hope something "satisfac-
tory" would be worked out

Reds Wipe Out
North of Orel
50,000 Nazis Killed,
6,000 Taken in 10-Day
Continuous Offensive
LONDON, July 23. (Friday)-(/P)-
Russian Armies engulfing Orel's de-
fenses have wiped out a strongly-
fortified belt north of the city in a
10-day non-stop offensive that has
cost the Germans more than 50,000
killed and 6,000 captured, Moscow
announced early today.
With Russian units fighting less
than nine miles from Orel on the
northeast and within 11 miles on the
east, a special bulletin said Bolkhov
35 miles above the city, had fallen
to the onrushing Red Army.
Fall of Bolkhov Breaks Defense
Bolkhov already had been by-pass-
ed by Red Army units racing to take
Orel from the rear. The seizure of
the strongpoint, Moscow said, "fin-
ished the liquidation of strongly
fortified districts of the enemy north
of Orel."
The fall of Orel, which already is
within artillery range, would endan-
ger the entire German line extending
from Leningrad in the north to the
Sea of Azov.
Battle of Attrition Waged
Berlin termed the struggle for the
city "the greatest battle of attrition
ever fought."
Striking from three sides the Rus-
sian armies seized village after vil-
lage yesterday in advances of fou
to five miles, said the special bulle
tin and the later midnight communi
que. Successes in the Belgorod sec-
tor and the Donets Basin to the south
also were reported.
The Red airforce steadily ham
mered German troop and supply con
centrations at Orel, Karachev an
Bryansk to the northwest, and othe
points in the area.
More than 2,600 Germans wer
killed and 46 enemy tanks destroye
in yesterday's fighting, the Russian
Bob Wiese ELeced
To Contto Board
Bob Wiese, varsity letterman, wo
the all-campus election for studen
membership on the Board in Contro
of Physical Education today, pilin
up 50 votes to his only opponent, Ar
Upton's 30.
Wiese will take the place of Georg
Ceithaml, last year's football cap
tain, who graduated in May. Th
other student member of the boar
is Bob Stenberg.

- indicated the American Seventh Ar-
my had reached the outskirts of
Marsala at the extreme western tip
Sof Sicily.)
(The Morocco radio, in a broad-
cast heard by Reuters, said that
Axis forces had already fled Mar-
sala, indicating that the Ameri-
cans might already be entering the
western port.)
In a week the roles of the British
Eighth Army and the American Sev-
enth Army had been completely re-
versed, with Gen. Sir Bernard L.
Montgomery's forces still fighting a
bloody war of position at the edge of
Catania while Lt.-Gen. George S.
Patton, Jr.'s Americans speedily her-
ded all Axis resistance into the
northeastern part of the island
around Mt. Etna.
Six Towns Captured
Sciacca, San Stefana Quisquina,
San Caterina, Menfi, Caltabellotta
and Bivona, as well as Castelvetrano,
fell to the Americans driving loops
westward along the south coast and
northward across the island to the
north coast, it was announced at
Allied headquarters.
Castelvetrano, one of the "big
three" air bases in Sicily, was cap-
tured--before-'daw aT sterday by
American infantry and a big arm-
ored column, after a three-day
march of 60 miles which placed
Gen. Patton's fighting veterans
only about 20 miles from Marsala
at Sicily's western tip and less
than 30 miles from Trapani on
s the northwest coast.
-The fall of San Caterina to the
Americans plunging northward from
Caltanissetta placed the vanguard
within about 28 miles of the north
coast, and the capture of San Stef-
ano Quisquina to the west gave an-
other northward column a position
only about 30 miles south of Palermo.
Ramacca Falls
Ramacca, 22 miles southwest of
r Catania, where Canadian troops
were driving remnants of the 15th
German armored division toward Mt.
- Etna, also fell to Allied arms.
Moving in to complete encircle-
ment of the battling Axis garrison,
a strong British naval force bom-
barded the Italian mainland at
c Crotone in the Gulf of Taranto
r yesterday morning.
d Nazis Retreat From
Ls 'Tioi ess' Theory
BERN. Switzerland. July 22.--(P)
--Nazi dispatches reaching Switzer-
land today asserted that Germany
is retreating from her long-touted
theory of a "European fortress" to
an idea of basic, final defense deep
n' within the continent.
t Increasingly since the Allies
l cracked Sicily the Nazi press has
g been referring to the "reduit na-
-t ! tional" to be held to the last, with
the current coastal forti ications
- considered only as outer bastions.
e (A reduit is a small inner fortifica-
d 1ion usually at the core of a large

Government Will Take Over If Educators Fail

"If leaders in public education in
the United States do not begin to
sense and meet the problems facing
them, if they don't do something to
make education dynamic, then the
Federal Government will do it," Dr.}
Arthur B. Moehlman, of the School1
of Education, declared in an address
at the final evening session of the
current Education Week Conference,,
snonsored by the School of Educa-

critical period the education system
of the country has proved itself in-
adequate, has shown the existence of
institutional inertia," he said.
"Consequently the Federal Govern-
ment has had to step in and make
the necessary changes. Lincoln
signed the bill providing for land-
grant colleges because the crises of
the Civil War showed a need for
them. Wilson supported the Smith-
Hughes bill because World War I

ple, as the dictatorial governments
have discovered, that unless the peo-
ple can activate their wants and
ideas concerning education democ-
racy is inevitably weakened.
"In a democracy," he said "edu-
cation should be free as the free
people who support it. There
should be no state monopoly."
"The states must accept the re-
sponsibility of revitalizing education
so that it can remain in the hands of



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