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June 21, 1942 - Image 3

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Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1942-06-21

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SUNDAY, JUNE 21, 1942

'THIE -MTCHI AN DAIL.Y

PA

m yr . ar .ez a. a1 a

The

Week

In

Review

Foreign~Allies Suffer Setbacks

After last week's exciting victory'
near Midway the United Nations set-
tled down to a comparatively calm,
but bitter struggle on all fronts. Un-1
fortunately, the bulk of the news was
slightly unfavorable as the Axis
surged into large-scale offensives on
two fronts.
In Russia the' Nazis opened a
pounding offensive on the great
Black Sea naval bastion of Sevasto-
pol, and at last reports, had broken
thitugh several of the outer defenses.
Soviet sources described this great-
est of German assaults on their last
large Black Sea port as one complete-
ly reckless of lives lost and materials
used.
Along the once bitterer front near
Kharkov things were considerably
quieter although occasional tank bat-
tles indicated mutual feints to de-
tect weakness. Still farther north on
the Kalinin front Moscow reported
that Red troops had retaken several
positions of minor importance.
Libyan Flare-Up . . .
Meanwhile a struggle almost for-
gotten except in Britain where its in-
portance is never forgotten flared
into page one headlines. Most of
the Mediterranean Sea saw either
land, sea, or air battles-some of
them mixed.
From- this important theatre of
war came the most encouraging news
of the ,week. After Italian radio
stations had broadcast scare stream-
ers about a huge British convoy loss,
Allied communiques broke news
about hugely successful air raids on
Italian fleet units--raids far more
devastating than those on the Brit-
ish convoys.
Led by ex-commercial pilot Alfred
F. Kalberer, U.S. B-24 Liberators
scored 35 hits on two of Mussolini's,
battleships only a day after they
had aided the RAF in the sinking of
an Italian cruiser and two destroyers
and the further damaging of two
other cruisers and destroyers.
The main Italian fleet was ap-
parently attempting to halt huge
Tobruk-bound convoys which the
British claim it never saw. Mean-
while the Italian radio continued to
tell of tremendous convoy losses
through air action-losses which the
British admitted only in small part.
Appearance of American planes in
the Mediterranean is an indication
that the Army Air Forces are fully
committed.to a policy of concentra-

tion in areas where the Allies are
fighting particularly heavy, decisive
engagements.
Between the claims and counter-
claims of London and Rome one
thing was obvious. Both sides are
hurriedly throwing every spare man
and machine into the struggle around
strategic, much-besieged Tobruk.
In preliminary battles the forces
of one of the war's outstanding gen-
erals, Nazi No. 1 tank man General
Liberator . .

MAJ. ALFRED F. KALBERER
Rommel, surged back and forth be-
fore finally taking command earlyl
last week.
Trapping the British Eighth Army
in positions which it had selected as
strategically superior, the Nazi arm-
ored columns have since taken con-
trol -largely say London sources be-
cause of the final loss of the amaz-
ing American-built "General Grant"
tanks. Only these heavily armored
vehicles have been able to hold off
the new German tank types.
Now preparing a renewed assault
on Tobruk the Nazis stand ready this
week to put their full strength into
a push which they hope will eventu-
ally carry them into Egypt.
The new Axis emphasis on these
two fronts seems part of a plan to
drive into the Near East from two
directions. One army would force
its way through Egypt to the great
land bridge beyond Suez and the

other ha of this giant pincers
would sten roller its way into the
Caucasus. Ever more needed petro-
leum awaits the Nazis in both places,
Jap Mystery .**
All this activity by Germany and
its dissatisfied stooge Italy failed to
spur on their Axis cousin, Japan.
Rocked back on their collective heels
the Japanese apparently have been
unable to rebound from the terrific
shock of the defeat off Midway.
Inactive as they are on the sea,
the crafty Nipponese are still authors
of the niftiest mystery of the week.
Nobody knows what's going on in the
Aleutians, especially on fogbound
Attu, closest American-owned soil to
the Imperial Empire. U.S. officials
have assured the nation that the
Japanese attacked Port Moresby
with more force than usual as
driven off, bLn there is still no re-
port of the dislodging of the landing
force reported on Attu.
Air attacks on Australia also were
considerably stepped up as Port Dar-
win felt the impact of some of the
heaviest raids in several months. The
Japanese also attacked Port Mores-
by with more force than usual as
U.S. Flying Fortresses continued
their extensive forays over Rabaul on
the northern side of New Guinea and
potential Jap invasion ports in the
Solomons.
Planes For China . . .
The Japanese moves most fraught
with significance, however, were in
SChina where their hard-going of-
fensive continued to gain ground
from planeless, but courageously
fighting Chinese regulars. In an at-
tempt to forestall this desperate Nip-
ponese attempt to seize all eastern
China air bases before U.S. planes
can use them, American Army offi-
cials announced that the appoint-
ment of a U.S. bomber command in
China--added to the pursuit group
of the gallant AVG Flying Tigers-
would soon bring more than token
air support to the long-suffering
Chinese. First arrivals of the new
command were technicians and
ground crews.
The only other big story of the
week in the Far East was an atrocity
story by H. R. Knickerbocker which
told of harrowing treatment of men
who surrendered oi Corregidor.
Another story was still on the fire
as many informed observers reported
that a now quiet Russian border may
soon become the scene of new Jap-
anese aggression, soon meaning the
minute the Red army weakens un-
der Hitler's persistent pressure in the
West.
War From inside..
Amidst all this warfare declared
and undeclared Europe's never quiet
army of saboteurs-not for money,
but for freedom-continued to suc-
ceed and suffer the consequences.
Thousands of Poles were sent to
Germany as slave laborers, hun-
dreds of Czechs died as a penalty
for the death of their oppressor,
Reinhard Heydrich, and hundreds
more Yugoslavians perished with the
knowledge that their guerilla army
was still one of Hitler's greatest head-
aches-certainly his toughest Balkan
problem.
--Hale Champion

Interview Domestic-~-Surprise
I i terrn eci The capital of the United States bined ability-to-pay and equalit,
became just as definitely the capital sacrifice basis by limiting private
of the United Nations this week as comes to $25,000; 2) to speed up
Prime Minister Churchill-for the tax program by separating the
ep o rter second time in six months-appeared creased excise tax section from
suddenly in Washington, this time rest of the bill and putting it b
following closely on the heels of Rus- the House immediately.
(Editor 's Note: Free from the Nazi sia's Foreign Commissar Molotov At a press conference early i
censorship under which he worked for and Greece's King George II. week the President pointed out
more than two years as a foreign cor- Although most observers were not day of delay was costin
respondent, Clinton B. "Pat,' Conger, every dyo ea a otn
a former Daily editor, has supplied too surprised that the Roosevelt-Mol- -
The Michigan Daily with the informa- otov conferences should lead to ad-
tion for this story on inside Germany. ditional talks between the President Out Of The Blue . . .
Youngest inember of a family of jour- adteoencosn rts rm
nalists, Conger is 25 years old.) and the ocean-crossing British Prime
Minister, it was far from certain
German civilian morale is at its what conclusions would be reached
lowest ebb of the war today, but in- in the discussions.
ternal collapse, rather than internal With the White House keeping its
official mouth tightly closed, Wash-
.evolt. is the development to be ington and London speculators were
hoped for inside Germany, Pat Con- divided as to the probable outcome.
ger, United Press correspondent re- Predominant feeling in the former
cently returned from Germany told city was that the talks would follow
The Daily ,yesterday. the tenor of the U.S.-Russian con-
ferences and, thus, be concerned with
"The morale of the German ci- the establishment of a second front
vilians has suffered one blow after as quickly as possible.
another from their own leaders since Stories out of the English capital,
last November," Conger said. "It -inspired by the recent British re-
seems almost as if Goebbels has lost versals in North Africa-directly con-

y-of-
e in-
) the
e in-
the
efore
n the
that
g the

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his touch.
"Hitler started it last November
with a speech warning the Germans
that the revolt of 1918 couldn't hap-
pen again, because, as he said, the
Gestapo now reaches into every Ger-
man home. Then two days after
Pearl Harbor the German people,!
who had been promised total victory
in 1940, and again in 1941, were told
by their own High Command that
the German Army. which had al-
ready "annihilated" the Russian
Army twice on Goebbels' score-sheet.
had gone on the defensive for the
duration of the winter.
Sacrifices Were Inconveniences'
"Two days later came the declara-
tion of war on the United States, and
the German people, who figured they
had their hands full with Great
Britain and the Russians, couldn't
figure that one out. At Christmas
time Goebbels told the German peo-
ple, in his drive to collect heavy mit-
tens and fur coats for the army, that
they didn't even know the meaning
of the word 'sacrifice' yet--that their
two and a half years of hardship had
only been inconveniences-and that
now they were going to begin to sac-
rifice."
In January and-February, Conger
said, the German people gradually
realized that their armies were not
only on the defensive but on the re-
treat, in spite of the tricky wording
of communiqueswhich went so far
as to describe a retreat in North
Africa in November in these words:
"In North Africa the Axis troops
continued to break off contact with
the enemy according to plan.
In March civilian morale took an-
other severe blow from the drastic
reduction in meat, fat, and bread ra-
tions which, they had been told at
the start of the war, had been so ad-
justed to remain at the same level
for the duration. A few days later,
Hitler made his curious, inexplicable
speech to the Reichstag in which, ra-
ther than promising them total vic-
tory in 1942 or a summer victory over
fthe Russians, he said that the Ger-
man railways, which had virtually
collapsed during the winter, would
"meet their problems better next
winter." Never before, Conger said,
had Hitler even acknowledged that
there would be another winter that
early in the year.
'Volk' Wants Negotiated Peace
"Throughout this period," Conger
said, "German propaganda had been
very weak, trying to keep the people
pepped up on news of Japanese ad-
vances when they wanted to hear
about their own troops. Hitler's dec-
laration of war on us had the effect
of putting even Goebbels' internal
propaganda on the defensive, be-
cause the main reaction to it was one
of despondency. The Germans who
believed in the promises of 'total vic-
tory' now hope, if for anything, for a
negotiated peace, an armed truce, or
a peace of exhaustion, and the Nazi
leaders still make the psychological
mistake of thinking the United
States and Great Britain can be in-
duced to negoitate a peace which will
leave the Nazi regime in power in
Germany.
"Despite the lowmorale, however.
we're kidding ourselves if we expect
the German people to revolt and
throw out Hitler in the near future.
In the first place, a revolution can
no longer be staged with pitchforks
and scythes against machine-guns,
and the army is the only organiza-
tion in Germany today with the
weapons necessary to throw out the
Nazi party and its own blackshirted
SS army,
Nazi Psychology Proaganda
"In the second place, Nazi propa-
ganda has been fairly successful in
building up a psychosis of desperation

professed the belief that Churchill
would ask for American reinforce-
ments in the Mediterranean area
even though it meant delaying the
second front until sometime in 1943.
Some British sources even went so
far as to hint that Russia would not
react unfavorably to such a proposal:
but most informed observers agree
that the two things Stalin wants,
most right now are: materials and
a second front.
Regardless of what concrete deci-
sions are arrived at by the leaders
of the two English-speaking nations,
it is certain that their talks will de-
termine the course of the war for
some time to come and that the dem-
ocratic world may be won or lost by
what is decided in them.
Congress Delays Tax Bill
Although it gives one the feeling
of kicking somebody who is lying
very, very flat on his back, it be-
comes necessary once again to accuse
Congress of being responsible for one
of the most serious and unnecessary
drags on the war effort. For after
more than three months of debate
and delay, the House Ways and
Means Committee has yet to intro-
duce the much-needed tax bill to
the floor of the House.
The Committee-spent most of this
week turning down two Presidential
proposals: 1) to proceed on a com-


WINSTON CHURCHILL
Treasury (and therefore the nation's
war effort) a great deal of money.
He said he hoped he received a bill
"sometime this year." The people
hoped so. too, while an already irate
Congress became even more so.
Base Pay Is Boosted
The men in the armed forces and
their dependents both benefitted at
the hands of Congress this week as
the minimum base pay for soldiers,
sailors and marines was boosted to
$50 a month and the wife of a service
man was promised $22 a month from
her husband and $28 from the gov-
ernment.
The latter bill also stipulated that
the government would pay $12 per
month for the support of one child
and $10 for each additional child.
Both bills are retroactive to June 1.
Rubber Drive Gets Started
This week saw the beginning of
what many a car-driving citizen
prayed would be an immensely suc-
cessful scrap rubber drive; for, look-
ing into the future, he saw that strict,
nation-wide gas rationing was not

Capital Visitors

far off if the governuent was un-
satisfied with the amount of old
tires, water bottles and flooi mats
turned in to the nation's 400.000 gas
stations.
He also knew that, without tre-
mendous quantities of rubber we
would never have the pincs. the
tanks anl the ships to win the war.
By the end of the week the Michigan
State Defense Council estimated at
least 4,500.000 pounds of old rubber
had been collected in this st ate alone
-and it did not include lMiles of rub-
ber which still remained ii the hands
of gasoline dealers.
Aircraft'a Carries sAe Fit
In passing the larget Nval au-
thorization bill - -$8. Js0000.000 n1-
the history of the United Sttesth
House of Representtives stipulated
that most of the money would be
used in the construction of aircraf t
carriers. 6
Explaining that work on battle-
ships-ordinarily the largest sinrle
item in a naval appropriat ions; bill -
would be postponed in favor of car-
riers, Chairman Carl Vinson of the
Naval Committee pointel out that
recent battles in the Pacific have
shown the aircraft carrier to be the
"backbone of the Navy. So for the
first time in history the old "battle-
wagon" takes a back, se-t
Hudson Strike Is Ended
Detroit-- fast becoming the nation's
cradle of inequality--broke loose
again in a flurry of racial discrimina-
tion as severai thousand workers at
the Hudson Naval Orinace Arsenal
went on strike because thev were
asked to work with eight Negroes,.
Naval and union officiais brought
the trouble to a rapid close, how-
ever. by firing four men and threat.-
ening the rest with dismissal and ex-
pulsion from the union.
WPB To ieorganize
Following a Snaecoimmittee
charge that the War 'roduction
Board,'sr$1-a-year men are guilty of
"temporizing, moderation and de-
lay," the WPB announced a "thor-
ough, fundamental" reorganizaion.
Senator Harry Truman, chairman
of the committee, declared that WPB
had fallen short of its duti and
should have a "change in both or-
ganization and personnel" in many
of its branches.
-Homer Swander.

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