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NIGHT EDITOR: MORTON CARL JAMPEL
Is Defense Moving?
A MERICANS for several months have
been watching the program for
American defense take form, and they naturally
iVonder now how fast it is actually moving.
On some fronts it is moving very fast. One
of these is the mobilization of public opinion
behind measures clearly necessary if the Uned
States is to be prepared in any adequate measure
for the shock of aggression which is already
rampant in the world and may at any time come
nearer to Western Hemisphere shores.
It seems evident from editorial comment
throughout the Nation that American sentiment
overwhelningly supports the steps now being
taken in Congress toward enacting and putting
into early operation a law for compulsory se-
lective military service. The draft has been ac-
cepted by most as a democratic way of defending
democracy. Yet military men are under no illu-
sions that an efficient, large-scale army can be
produced overnight even by conscription. There
is the problem of training, which in an era of
mechanied war assumes larger proportions than
ever before. There must at the outset be a con-
siderable expansion of officer-training if the
expected 400,000 men are to be brought into
camps by October 1 and this number enlarged
by 1,000,000 more within a year. a
Similarly on the industrial side the job to be
done is bigger than the average layman can
readily imagine. If it takes ten civilians behird
every soldier to support a nation at war, the
magnitude of the task of organizing military
production is bound to require time. And time
is one of the critical strategic commodities today
as truly as is tin or rubber or aluminum.
In industrial defense a good beginning has
been made by the calling in of proved and prac-
tical business men such as William S. Knudsen
and Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., to head the Pres-
ident's Defense Commission. It still is possible
that a single administrative or co-ordinating
head will be found necessary for these activities,
as in the case of the World War.
There is also some complaint by business men
ready to co-operate but unable to get informa-
tion as to what is to be done. But the explana-
tion seems to lie in the fact that first things
have had to be put first. Priorities must be
established for the most essential war materials
and most urgent types of military production.
In these lines, according to reports not from
political sources but from business observersin
Washington, it appears that genuine progress is
being made. The production of secondary and
Incidental supplies may be expected in their turn.
It is a characteristic of mass production that
more time must be spent than formerly in thet
construction of plant and machinery before the
assembly belts can begin to roll. But when they
do, the output is tremendous. The financial
problems to be solved at the outset are no slight
matter. The responsibility for plants that may
be left useless after two or three years of oper-
ation calls for some negotiation between business
firms and the RFC.
These points are not made to excuse slowness.
They rather illustrate how much is to be done
and indicate that nothing can justify a mo-
ment's slackness. The task of arming and train-
ing America and of producing meanwhile all
possible aid in planes and other munitions for
the British- Government, whose armies stand in
the breach, is a tremendous one. A good start
has been made. But the task is only begun.
Christian Science Monitor
Mr. Wallace Will Resign
PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT'S announcement
+hat. Spar+pav. ,+- ALoriminlhirp Wnc wan .
SThe Straight Dope
(In pursuance of this column's policy of a free expect that, as soon as the British problem is
press. todays guest column is written by Mr. Fred settled, South America, which we are pledged
Niketh, Law '41, whom we do not know, but who
is not in agreement with our stated views on the to protect, will be given much attention by the
Conscription Bill.) Nazis. When that day comes who among us will
AMERICA TODAY, like the France of yester- take the responsibility for an ill-manned de-
A fense force?
day, has its sleepwalkers. During a time fesfrc?
day, thaserssleepwayles. Duind a imentWith this in mind I call upon those who favor
when the American way of life, fundamental such a bill as the present Burke-Wadsworth
institutions and patterns of living, are endan- Cncito ilt i nispsae
gered by foreign despotism we find many who Conscription Bill to aid in its passage.
attack a program designed to insure the con- In answer to Mr. Niketh's statements we
tinuance of that way of life. would like to say that in our opinion not
The decision that compulsory military train- the fall of France but the hope of many to
ing is a necessity is based on no illusion but destroy our American way of life is the chief
upon the hard fall of France. No longer dare object of the present bill. It is not a new
we depend upon the British navy to defend us. biet hepresente. senaties
Hitler has made us realize the world is round. bill. It has been presented several times
Amerian youth is up against the regimented when France was powerful and Germany
youthc outhis ga st the regmented prostrate. Its history is long and somewhat
yuhof Germany and Italy. The former wayssanthpretsiuio.sbt
of insuring armed security to the United States odiferous and the present situation is but
are o logersuffcien. *an excuse. It is not a sufficient reason. If,
are o logersuffcien. as Mr. Niketh says, economic and political
To meet the new problems our military leaders psner.tin st ecnazi are then
drew u ~~~~~~~~~penetration must precede Nazi warfare, then upapa o ortpso evc o
drew up a plan for four types of service for ormltr eesssol escnay
youn peple Oneof hes iscomplsoy mli- our military defenses should be secondary
young people. One of these is compulsory mili- to our foreign and trade policies. It re-
tary service with the army axed navy. The plan mains true that we are in no present danger
envisages life in camps for a short training omitrytatack.
beriod.of military attack.
period. It also remains true that the conscription
Read Admiral McNamee has said: "consider- bill (to protect us from something of which
ing that every able-bodied citizen will, if war there is no danger) would take away the
comes, be liable to conscription, it is difficult right to vote, to speak, to trial by jury, to
to understand the individual that objects to the write and to petition from one million of this
necessary training on which his survival de- country's finest young citiens. The past has
pends-he becomes a sacrifice useless to himself given evidence that this fact will Tie taken
and worse than useless to his country. If we advantage of. Prohibition is one case in
admit the necessity for preparedness for war
we must admit the necessity for compulsory Hence this column persists in thinking
military training for war. Modern war material that the present bill is a preparation for
is useless without trained-highly trained-per- war, not peace; that it will aid in the de-
sonnel." struction of the American way of life, not in
Since American citizenship imposes the obli- its preservation; that it will get us into un-
gation of military service for the common de- told economic and political troubles; that
fense how can the common obligation be dis- it will lead to a regimented state, the like of
charged except by universal military training. which this country was founded to avoid.
The past has given us ample evidence that vol- Under such a state Mr. Niketh, as well as
untary enlistment will not fulfill the needs. your columnist, would be silenced. May God
The isolationist retort that we are in no imme- grant that it may -not come to pass. We
diate danger of military attack is sincere but cannot preserve democracy, religion and
short-sighted. Military action follows political our liberties by denying them. We cannot
asd economic penetration. Therefore we can serve our country by destroying it.
Grin And Bear It . . .
r Reg. U. 5.Pal
"This room is not to be touched, Hilda-Mr. Snodgrass is defending
the country against aggressors here, tonight!"
n.Abeyance . .
Washington Merry- Go-Round
WASHINGTON--Senator Wheeler's predic-
tion that the compulsory training bill faces a.
"rocky roat in the Senate" only tells half the
What Wheeler didn't disclose was that he
and the other isolationists are secretly pre-
pared to wage a filibuster to prevent passage
of a draft act. They believe that with an elec-
tion in the offing the threat of a knock-down
legislature battle will frighten the politicos and
make them drop the bill until after November.
Then, they figure, it will be too late to do
anything until next spring, by which time they
are confident developments will show that such
a drastic step is not needed.
This is a tremendous gamble, of course, with
the nation's security as the stake. But that
doesn't faze Wheeler and his isolationist friends.
They have been gambling like this for months,
always guessing wrong but still insisting they
They derided Roosevelt's warning that a
European war was imminent and when war did
break, they pooh-poohed it as a "phony" con-
flict. They fought his repeal of the arms em-
bargo and when finally defeated, have fought
every move to aid first the French and now the
Because of overwhelming public sentiment
the Wheeler bloc has trod a wary course on
the various rearmament measures. But they
are going to take off the wraps on the com-
pulsory draft bill and they may be able to
Congressional committee hearings on the
Burke-Wadsworth bill for peacetime conscrip-
tion have brought sharp division of opinion.
Appearing before the Senate Military Affairs
Committee, peace leader Frederick J. Libby de-
clared the bill "would fill our jails and prisons,
not only with young men but with their pastors
and with church leaders."
Retorted war veteran Senator Sherman Min-
ton of Indiana: "Then we'll build more prisons."
Note-The bill now contains modifications
exempting conscientious objectors. Responsible
for them were Harold Evans, E. Raymond Wil-
son and. Paul French, all members of the So-
ciety of Friends (Quakers).
Factory Door Campaign
Wendell Willkie plans to use the same dy-
namic tactics in his election campaign as those
which won him the GOP nomination. In addi-
tion to touring the country by train, auto and
plane, he also has up his sleeve some novel vote-
One is what he calls "factory door" meetings;
snappy 15-minute gatherings during lunch per-
iods at large industrial plants, at which he will
make a short talk and then hold a question-
and-answer session with the workers. On the
list for such unique rallies are Detroit auto
plants, steel mills in Ohio and Pennsylvania,
coal mines and several other mass production
69 .,.,4 - - r+ ; 1,- 4- +,^ V f-w - ra+1
Engineers figure that it takes a block of ice
105 feet square and towering as high as the
Washington Monument (555 feet) to cool the
Capitol building in the summer "cooling season"
of 170 days, from mid-May to the end of Octo-
ber . . . . This government is issuing visas for
admission of foreigners from all parts of the'
world at the rate of 2500 to 3000 a day. Those
coming on immigration visas, under quota re-
strictions, pay a $10 fee. But most come on visi-
tors' visas, which do not cost Canadians, Cubans
and Mexicans anything, but cost $2 for British
citizens . . . . Oddly parallel in the diplomatic
service are the careers of Clarence E. Gauss,
new Minister to Australia, and Frank P. Lock-
hart, newly appointed Consul General at Shang-
hai. Into each of Gauss' last three posts-Tient-
sin, Peiping and Shanghai-Lockhart has fol-
Nazi Air Routes
While the world's attention is fastened on
Havana, the Germans are making strides with
a type of penetration not on the agenda of that
.conference-the extension of German airlines in
Through the Nazi air holding company, Luf-
hansa, subsidies are being handed out liberally
to domestic companies under German control.
Most aggressive is the German subsidiary in
Ecuador, SEDTA, whose operators ingratiate
themselves by the well-known junket method.
That is, they give free rides all around the
country to Ecuadorean government officials.
This infiltration is a threat to U.S. influence,
but more dangerous still, it gives the Germans
connecting airlines which run all the way fron
the coast of Brazil through Bolivia, Peru, Ecua-
dor, and Colombia to within striking distance of
the Panama Canal.
Now, however, the Civil Aeronautics Authority
and State Department have worked out a plan
to combat the German influence by extending
the existing U.S. airline in Ecuador with post
office subsidies. The line is Panagra, subsidiary
of Pan-American Airways.
A new Ecuadorean company is to be set up
over Panagra, and Ecuador will be offered option,
to buy up to 51 per cent of the stock. This would
give them a controlling interest whenever they
could put up the money.
In the meantime, the line will be U.S. dom-
inated, but with Ecuadorean pilots and crews,
and every kind of training and improvement
service offered for the airline expansion of the
country. This would require a heavy investment
of U.S. capital, and Ecuador, in return, would
be expected to rid herself of the German com-
This plan, however, exists only on paper, and
while it is being deliberated the Germans are
showing every sign of spending fresh money,
in this and in other countries of South America.
Wallace 's Plan
In nearly every movement for Pan-
American solidarity, the Argentine
Republic is found to be hanging back,
For this, there are many reasons. It
would be superficial to attribute this
attitude wholly to"fifth column" in-
Economic timing has a great deal
to do withnational attitudes. In its
relation to industrialized Western
Europe, the Argentine Republic to-
day occupies a position quite similar
to that of the United States up to
1880, when the export of foodstuffs
and raw materials to Europe was
the mainstay of our economic and
financial system. In those days the
Chicago Board of Trade was the pivot
of the American economy, far more
important than the New York Stock
Europe's Ties Short
Great areas of the United States
remain in that position. The ties that
link the packing houses of Buenos
Aires to the chilled meat docks of
London, Havre, Antwerp and Ham-
burg are no closer than the ties that
link the Illinois Central cotton ter-
minals atCMemphis to the Manches-
ter Ship Canal.
Under such circumstances, Argen-
tine conservatism in the face of the
pressing need for Pan-American re-
adjustments to cope with a new Eu-
rope dominated by military socialism
is not surprising. It is no more irra-
tional than the similar escape psy-
chology of so many Americans who
are tryingvto ignore Hitler. But in
the end we must all face facts, and
if Britain goes down, American cot-
ton growers, hog and corn farmers
and orchardists will face readjust-
ments that will be as far-reaching
as the changes to which the Argen-
tine nation must adapt itself.
Argentine Economy 'Extractive'
Since the industrial revolution of
the 18th century in England, ex-
tractive agricultural and mineral
economies have spread into the
Americas, the Tropics and Far East,
which were at first chiefly devoted
to supplying Europe with food and
manufacturing materials. The Ar-
gentine is mostly in that state of
extractive economy today. We have
largely passed out of it. But it was
our status fora dlong time, both in
our colonial and national periods,
aid we have had our share of that
same psychology that now dominates
the Argentine mind.
More than that, we have had our
share of the kind of social organiza-
tion that so often goes with an ex-
tractive or "planter" economy. Al-
though nominally a popular repub-
lic, the real power in the Argentine
nation resides in the "lords of the
pampas," the great ranching families
who own the greater part of the fer-
tile plans and upland grazing coun-
New York Parallel
That same kind of setup has pre-
vailed in more than one American
state at some period of our history.
The colony of New York probably
had, at one time, the closest parallel
to the Argentine system. Twenty-
two great landholding families owned
virtually all of the colony of New
York, under the Dutch West India
Company and the later English gov-
On their own huge estates they
were miniature sovereigns, and it
was long after the American Revolu-
tion before this oligarchy lost its
grip. In fact, the last feudal privi-
leges of the New York patroons were
not extinguished until 1846.
St. Louis Post-Dispatchf
By KIRKE L. SIMPSON
Time is so important in the Battle
of Britain that the lapse of ten days
since Adolf Hitler's "last-chance"
peace move without a wholesale on-
slaught on England is causing wide
Hitler himself noted in his recent
speech that bad weather had been
a major consideration in forcing
postponement of the Nazi West
' Front attack from September, 1939,
until the spring of 1940. There re-
f main of this year only six or eight
weeks within which Germany could
expect to complete her victory with-
out facing the same weather diffi-
culties that held her almost inactive
from September, 1939, to the spring
That being the case, it is difficult
to fathom Hitler's reasons for with-
holding his final attack on England
this long. His last-chance "appeal
to reason" speech of July 19 com-
mitted him so completely to a devas-
tating attack without delay that
failure to launch it soon would seri-
ously impair his prestige.
Expected Btter Results
Looking back over the available
texts of the Hitler speech of July
19, it can be argued that he was
expecting the preliminary air cam-
paign against England to achieve
far more decisive results than seem
yet to have been attained. He scoffed
at Britain's claims that she was turn-
ing out planes at an accelerating
"It is not ncessa'y for us (Nazi
Germany), as with the democracies,
to multiply every airplane that is
built by five or by twelve, and then
broadcast it to the world," he said.
"Even for a hen it is not very clever
to announce in a loud voice every
egg she is about to lay."
Ten days later, however, the Brit-
ish "Hen" is cackling furiously of
the achievements of those airplane
"eggs," telling of Nazi bombers
brought down and of more than 1.000
bomber raids on German targets
since June 18. It is questionable
whether the Nazis engaged in aerial
raids on England and on British
shipping are today quite as confi-
dent as Hitler was ten days ago.
Nazis Cackled Too
Hitler did a bit of cackling himself
about German plane production, say-
ing that battle equipment destroyed
or worn out in France and the Low
Countries had been "completely in-
significant" and that the output of
new equipment was so vast it had
to be curtailed for lack of storage
Clearly, then, it is not shortage
of material that is holding up the
German blitzkrieg; nor can the Ger-
mans have any doubt about British
rejection of the kind of peace Hitler
offered, or any other kind short of
British victory. There is an increas-
ingly confident note in British re-
ports of air battles, constantly rising
claims of Nazi aircraft shot down
and Nazi airmen captured.
Hitler has indicated full confidence
of conquering England within hours
or days, once he loosed his blitz-
krieg, but if the fight goes on for
weeks instead, and an early winter
closes down on it, he is destined to
lose more than his reputation as a
Bridge At Mackinac
Is Reported 'Feasible
LANSING, July 29. --R)- The
All notices for the Daily Official
Bulletin are to be sent to the Office
of the Summer Session before 3:30
P. M. of the day preceding its pub-
lication except on Saturday, when
the notices should be submitted be-
fore 11:30 A. M.
Doctoraa Examination: Miss Helen
Eugenia Conger, Hygiene and Public
Health; Thesis: "The Organization
and Administration of Medical Re-
lief for Dependents in Michigan."
today, July 30, 1:30 p.m., room
2, Waterman Gymnasium. Chairman,
Dr. J. Sunwall.
By action of the Executive Board
the chairman may invite members of
the faculties and advanced doctoral
candidates to attend the examination
and he may grant permission to at-
tend to .those who for sufficient rea-
son might wish to be present.
C. S. Yoakum
Lecture, "Twenty Years of Intra-
mural Sports," will be given by Elmer
D. Mitchell, Professor of Physical
Education, at 4:05 p.m. in the Uni-
versity High School Auditorium to-
Lecture, "The Riddle of Genius,"
by Dumas Malone, Director of the
Harvard University Press, to be given
at 4:15 p.m. in the Rackham Lecture
Kappa Phi Supper: Members of
all chapters of Kappa Phi are invited
to come to a reunion and supper at
the Methodist Church today
July 30 at 5:45 p.m. Reservations
may be made at the church office,
The Fellowship of Reconciliation
will meet today at 7:00 p.m. in Lane
Hall to discuss opposing the con-
scription bil. All interested are invit-
ed to attend.
"The Fundamental Law and Ju-
dicial Review," is the lecture to be
given by Henry M. Bates, Dean Emer-
itus of the Lew School, University of
Michigan in the Rackham Lecture
Hall at 8:15 p.m., today.
Faculty Concert. Mrs. Mabel Ross
Rhead, pianist, will again be heard
in the Summer Session Faculty Ser-
ies of concerts, this evening,
July 30, at 8:30 p.m., in Hill Audi-
torium,. On this occasion she will
be assisted by Mrs. Marian Free-
man, guest violinist, of Ann Arbor,
in a sonata recital.
A trip to Put-in-Bay, Lake Erie,
will be the last Summer Session Ex-
cursion to be held on Wednesday,
July 31. Chartered buses leave for
Detroit at 7:15 a.m. from in front of
Angell Hall and will go to the steam-
er which leaves at 9 a.m. The steam-
er returns to Detroit at 8 p m. where
the buses meet the party and arrive
in Ann Arbor at about 9:30 p.m. Ex-
penses include round trip bus fare,
$1.25; round trip on steamer, 85c;
free admission to caves will be ar-
ranged; total expenses including
meals on the steamer will be under
$3.50. This sum may be reduced by
bringing own lunches which is recom-
mended. Reservations must be made
in Room 1213 Angell Hall, before
4:30 p.m. Tuesday, July 30.
The Michigan Dames will hold a
bridge party at the Michigan League
Wednesday at 2 p.m. for the wives of
summer school students. There will
be a ten cent charge to cover prizes
Graduate Speech Students: A sym-
posium in the general field of Speech
Science will be held Wednesday, July
31, at 4 p.m. in the Speech Clinic,
1007 East Huron Street.
Chemistry Lecture. The fifth in the
series of chemistry lectures will be
given by Professor R. H. Gillette on
Wednesday, July 31 at 4:15 p.m.
in the Amphitheater of the Rack-
ham Building. Subject: Recent Views
on the Nature of the Covalent Bond.
Physical Education Students: The
Men's and Women's Departments of
Physical Education are sponsoring a
picnic supper for undergraduate and
graduate students in phycical educa-
tion, their wives and families on
Wednesday, July 31. This supper will
be held at the Women's Athletic
Building at 6 p.m.
Tickets priced at twenty-five cents
may be secured before Tuesday noon,
July 30 from Office 15, Barbour Gym-
nasium; Office 4200-C University
High School; or from Miss Barbara
Jones, Mr. Harve Oliphant, or Mr.
Vibration Problems Symposium..
The third lecture in this series will
be given by Professor S. Timoshenko,
who will speak on "Vibration of
Bridges". The meeting wil be held
on Wednesday, July 31, at 7:00 p.m.
in Room 311 West Engineering Build-
ing. All interested are cordially in-
vited to attend.