THE MICHIGAN DAILY TD
South American Politics
Prof. C. H. Haring of Harvard University Analyzes the Fundamental Powers Behind and Structure
Of South American Governments
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NIGHT EDITOR: KARL KESSLER
The editorials published in The Michigan
Daily are written by members of the Daily
staff and represent the views of the
Insisting that "the political growth of Centralz
America must not "be imposed from without"
but must develop through "the slow spontaneous
growth of native institutions," Prof. C. H. Haring
of Harvard University traced the history of rela-
tions between Central America and the United
States in a lecture sponsored by the Latin-
American Institute yesterday.
Labeling the Central American nations as
"the most backward in the Western Hemisphere,"
he charged their backwardness largely to popu-
lation type, inadequate communication facilities
and political instability.
Large aboriginal Indian populations are held
in a state of "semi-serfdom" by a landed aris-
tocracy, he declared. There is no middle class;
no adequate voice for the workers exploited by
the ruling class who hold the reins of economic
The inadequate communication which hampers
the development of these Central American
countries is largely due to the physical barriers
inherent in the mountains and jungles of the
region, widespread poverty and political instabil-
ity, he explained.
Perhaps the most vexing cause of all, the poli-
tical instability which marks the efforts of these
nations to govern themselves stems mainly from
lack of experience in government and the ab-
sence of a middle class so necessary to effective
democracy, he declared.
Because the control of commerce and in-
dustry was centered in the hands of the upper
classes, there was no opportunity fr a middle
class of entrepeneurs and tradesmen to spring
up, Professor Haring pointed out. Hence the
political scene was characterized by popular
leaders, and demagogues heading militant fac-
tions in struggles for power.
Since elections were universally corrupt and
used mainly as instruments for maintaining the
ruling party or faction in power, the only resort
to change lay in revolution, he said. Thus Cen-
tral American governments have usually been
in the hands of dictators who seized power
through revolution and maintained it with the
The result, Professor Haring declared, is a
vicious circle, with dictatorships and poverty
inspiring revolutions which in turn created more
misery and dictatorships. Political labels such
as "liberal" and "conservative" become a mere
cloak for personal ambitions, and revolutions
spread like wild-fire from one country to its
neighbors due to their "propensity to interfere."
Efforts toward union of the central American
republics, following the early attempts to break
I lowers Planned
By The Japanese
Madame Oshikawa of Toki a'plains the
art of flower arrangement in a demonstra-
tional lecture held under the auspices of the
Institute of Far Eastern Studies in the Rack-
ham Building yesterday.
Fundamental features of the Japanese art
of flower arrangement were illustrated at a
demonstration given by Madame Oshikawa of
the Tokio Ikenobo school of flower arrangement
yesterday in the Rackham Building under the
auspiees of the Institute of Far Eastern Studies.
True beauty in arranging flowers for room
decoration is not achieved by assembling large
quantities of flowers, she emphasized, but rather
by artistically adjusting a few stalks and leaves
with a critical eye toward composition.
In addition to its artistic value, the true
Japanese flower group has also a symbolic mean-
ing and interpretation. It typifies the three fun-
damentals of life: heaven, earth and man. The
topmost stalk, Madame Oshikawa pointed out,
represents the master, and all other stalks must
be so arranged as to illustrate a subordination to
and dependence upon the central figure.
In selecting and cutting the flowers, the
height, width and general shape of the vase
must be taken into account Madame Oshikawa
emphasized, in order to simulate a true sense of
proportion and composition and to create a set-
ting which appeals to the eye as a harmonious
and well-balanced group.
Madame Oshikawa has been brought to this
country to supervise the flower arrangements at
both the New York and San Francisco World's
Fairs. A recognized authority in her own coun-
try, she is the only woman representative on
the Japanese Board of Examiners for Flower
Masters. She is also head of the Ikenobo school
of flower arrangement in Tokio.
the restricting bonds of Spanish domination
have since 1900 been chiefly associated with
the United States, Professor Haring said.
"We believed that by interfering in Central
America we were acting on altruistic motives and
bearing the white man's burden," he declared.
"In reality' we were trying to shut out European
Scoring attempts at paternalism and inter-
ference from the United States or any other
nation as probably doomed to failure because of
political corrlption and instability within these
Central American nations, he advocated a policy
of recognizing "de-facto" nations which can
maintain law and order as the best policy for the
United States to pursue on the basis of experi-
By HARRY M. KELSEY
If the philosophy of a work written in the
early part of the Renaissance doesn't distinguish
the work as being an outgrowth of that move-
ment rather than a late voice from the Middle
Ages, the literary style very likely may, Prof.
Ernst A. Philippson of the German department
With the Bohemian book, "Der Ackermann
aus Boehmen," as his subject, Professor Philipp-
son spoke yesterday as the third of a series of
lectures elucidating various phases of the Renais-
sance, sponsored by the Graduate Conference on
Tracing the derivation of certain phrases in
"Der Ackermann," Professor Philippson showed
that there was sufficient influence of the Latin
to justify its inclusion in the realm of Renais-
sance literature. Although basis for the ideas
set forth can be found in Medieval works, he
claimed, there are definite traits of style which
cannot be found in the writings of the Middle
"Der Ackermann aus Boehmen" is written in
the form of a legal suit brought by the Acker-
mann, or plowman, against the murderer, Death,
who has taken the plowman's wife. He challenges
the existence of Death before the throne of God,
who finally steps in and settles the matter. The
book is written by Johann von Saaz, who, Pro-
fessor Philippson told his audience, is the plow-
man of the work, and mourned the death of his
first wife, Marguerite. Further evidence of this,
he pointed out, appears in the text of "Der
Ackermann," for when the plowman is asked his
name and occupation, he answers "Of bird's
down is my plow," bird's down referring to the
quill, or pen.
The lecturer went on to review the story of
the work, how Death's argument was the worth-
lessness of life and benefit of death, and how
the plowman comes to admit Death's existence
and asks advice and consolation of him. "Per-
haps," he suggested, "it is the poet's own mind, as
Death, arguing with his heart."
Professor Philippson read selections from the
work in its original German, the modern High
German rather than the middle High German
in which most previous major works had been
written. He also translated sections into English.
After pointing out arguments in favor of the
idea that the philosophy presented in "Der
Ackermann aus Boehmen" is of Medieval origin,
Professor Philippson proceeded to point out the
Renaissance influence of the classical Latin in
How About Uncle?
On her arrival in France, Mr. Roosevelt's
mother told interviewers that, as regards the
grinding wok of the office, "the President could
stand another term very well. His health is
excellent," she said.
Everybody will be glad to know-well, prac-
tically everybody-that Mr. Roosevelt has taken
the man-killing job in stride. But how about the
President's uncle-the venerable gentleman in
the gay turn-out, who at times looks a trifle
dazed, and who, so some of his solicitous nephew
seem to think, hasn't quite the springy step of
less abundant but fairly satisfactory days? It
may be affectionate anxiety, but at times the
sinewy old warrior has a flush on his cheek that
indicates a mounting blood pressure, and his air
of traditional gaiety seems now and then a bit
Could Uncle Sam, one wonders, stand another
term, or would the blithe -old boy crack under
the strain? -St. Louis Post-Dispatch
they are vastly overrated and
IDEALS of modern educational sys-
tems have been experiencing a
definite trend toward greater intellectual free-
dom, both as regards student conduct and teach-
This trend has been slow and cautious in most
of our institutions of higher learning, with one
notable exception: Black Mountain College in
the South Carolina Blue Ridge Mountains. This
school was originated six years ago by nine
teachers and 18 students, many of them from
Rollins College in Florida, who had become dis-
gusted with the regimentation and pettiness of
present educational institutions.
Avoiding as much as possible what they had
disliked about other colleges, they set out to
create a "bunkless" university. The plan of
organization was simplicity itself. Stilted formal-
ities and stock practices of the "typical" Ameri-
can campus weres thrown to the winds. The pur-
pose of the college, they had decided, must be
tc stimulate a quest for knowledge, and to do so
unencumbered by an over-emphasis on regimen-
To illustrate the "unorthodox" practices of this
rebe'llious institution, last year's total athletic
budget came to a staggering $12.80. No degrees
are given by the school, no fraternities or foot-
ball teams have been organized, and the useless
pomp and intrigue of class politics have been
Instead, community living and the quest for
truth strike the keynote to Black Mountain's
free-and-easy style. Classes are informal and
frequently conducted by the Socratic method.
Although attendance at classes is not compul-
sory, few students take the opportunity to "cut."
From the original teaching staff of nine, the
college has now expanded to 20, and its stu-
dent enrollment is about 50. Housed at first in
a rented Y.M.C.A. summer. conference hotel,
Black Mountain is now proposing to erect an
ultra-modern structure designed by the famous
architects Walter Gropius and Marcel Breuer.
They will house classrooms, laboratories and a
library as well as the administrative offices and
That Black Mountain has been a success so
far, is shown by a general acceptance of its gradu-
ates in most of the graduate schools of the coun-
In thataBlack Mountain represents what our
educational methods seem to be aiming at, it is
of great interest to watch the success of the
experiment in the educational methods of the
As The Sloths Whiz Past
Hot weather overwhelms most creatures, in-
cluding Homo Sapiens, with a vast lassitude. But
the lazybones of the animal kingdom, the sloth, is
pepped up no end when the mercury hits tropi-
cal altitudes. Scientists in Canal Zone labora-
tories have used stop watches to prove the
point and another great zoological paradox is
Justification for the adjective the sloth has
contributed to the language is shown by the
statistics. The normal and typically unambitious
sloth on a cool day allows himself from three to
six hours to cover a mile. When the heat is
turned on, he can get around the course in two
hours. One particularly nimble fellow-doubt-
less an ai, or three-toed sloth, beloved of cross-
word puzzlers-came galloping along at one mile
own & Gown
By STAN M. SWINTON
When first burdened with the prob-
lem of this daily- stint I did a bit of
quick mathematical calculation and
came up with the fact that 48 guest
columnists would make for a very
pleasant summer indeed. So far I've
had to write a couple in between
guests but the future looks very
bright. Today's little visitor is James
Allen, editor of Perspectives, winter
session literary magazine. James, a
Birmingham, Mich., lad, is addicted
to reading charming English essays,
so read nfurther at your own risk.
HERE YOU ARE SWINTON,
VOU LAZY BUM.. .
By JAMES ALLEN
It is particularly difficult for an
old winter resident to adjust him-
self to the mores of this sultry ses-
sion. Take for example the matter
of eight o'clocks. Any sane clean-
living American student should have
found by his Junior year that they
are declassee; he should know fur-
ther (through empirical study car-
rieid on through the preceding hours)
that the world is indeed no place in
which to be conscious; lastly he
should be apprised of the fact that it
is not light at that hour, and, indeed,
is invariably raining.
But not so. Instead we find that
Summer students like eight o'clocks.
In fact, a few of them formed a
cabal and told me of the delights of
the world-"Mornings at seven" and
all that. In few words, they talked
ne into one. I am here to attest
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Browning or Governor Dickinson may
iave my share. For instance:
The first day of the session I
valked unshaven, unbreakfasted from
,he early classroom. By sheer will
power I managed to descend the stair
'o the lobby of Mr. Angell's magnifi-
,ent hall. I was due to eat break-
"ast with a young lady, named Bar-
)ara Brehm. Casting a yet sleep-
Fogged eye about, I noted a young
dady whom I had every reason to be-
'ieve was she. Our eyes met, she
:creamed, collapsed to the floor.
Now I Wor4t say I was surprised-
I merely supposed it was customary
aehavior at that hour, so I walked
>ver to find I had the wrong party
and that this was not Miss Brehm
mat all. I didn't wish to interfere with
'nyone's morning sleep so I started
oward the door only to find myself
.onfronted by two rather stern look-
.ng ladies who obviously believed that
ny attitude on the whole thing was
it least questionable. Frankly dis-
,ouraged by this time I took the only
way out. "Pardon me," I said politely
and pitched screaming down the
I knew immediately that I had not
taken the correct recourse. It was
hard on the nervous system as well
as the bone structure. So rather than
face these incidents further, I care-
fully loaded mycourse in a gunny
sack and dropped it with" all its
promises of a vicious future into the
registrar's capable lap.
* * *
But life has not always been so
disappointing; it has had its pleas-
ures. As in what we laughingly call
our "quarters" at the Zete Castle
(Dick Black maintains that living
here has all the thrills of campingj
We started out with three beds and.
a table for furniture in the sleeping
room. The problem was to arrange
the beds so that the alarm clock was
by the couch of he who must get up.
Reading from left to right, the lineup
was Paul Park, table plus alarm
clock, Allen, and Dennis Flanagan.
The difficulty was that I was to
get up first, then Dennis, and last,
Paul. Since Dennis wasn't near the
clock when his turn came, Paul had
to still it for him. They would then
drop quietly off to sleep where I
would find them after lunch. We tried
several rearrangements of furniture
and at last got another clock, but it
was no good.
It became apparent to all that the
second alarm was but complicating
matters and during a period of recur-
ring poverty (in which starvation was
fended off only by two charming
young ladies in Swift's) I sold it. This
move left but one instrument for
morality, therother clock. Dennis
solved the problem with awe-inspir-
ing finality by demolishing the other
ticker while Paul and I were off for
the weekend. And now there are no
more disturbing factors. Man has
asserted his mastery over the
& J *
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
Publication in the Bulletin is constructive notice to all members of the University.
Copy received at the office of the Summer Session until 3:30 p.m.; 11:00 a.m. Saturday.
TUESDAY, JULY 18, 1939
Students in the Division of Hygiene
and Public Health: The annual sum-
mer picture of students will be taken
on the steps of the campus entrance
to the West Medical Building t6day
at 12 noon. All professional students
in hygiene and public .health are
urged to be present.
Phi Delta Kappa Luncheon today
at 12:10 p.m. Michigan Union. Profes-
sor John H. Jessup will speak on
"Education in England."
The meeting to select candidates for
membership will be held Wednesday,
July 19, at 7:30 in the East Confer-
ence Room of the Rackham Building.
Members are asked to attend.
Language Tea at the International
Center: The International Center an-
nounces a tea at 4 o'clock this after-
noon for the faculty and students of
the Institute of Latin American Stu-
dies. All students from Latin Amer-
ica or others who have a speaking
knowledge of Spanish and Portu-
guese are cordially invited to be pres-
Lecture: "Issues of National Sig-
nificance in School Support," by Ar-
thur B. Moehlman, Professor of
SchoolBAdministration and Super-
vision. This lecture will be given to-
day at 4:05 p.m. in the University
High School Auditorium.
Lecture: "On the Influenza Trail"
by Professor C. H. Andrews, Univer-
sity of London, England. Professor
Andrews will speak at 5 p.m., today,
in the Lecture Hall of the Rackham
Placement: The first of three dis-
cussions as to "Why People Do Not
Get Jobs" will be held at 7:15 in the
Rackham Building Tuesday evening,
July 18, by Dr. T. Luther Purdom,
Director of the Bureau. The topic
of the first discussion will be "Ap-
pearance," with demonstrations by
University Bureau of Appoint-
ments and 'Occupational In-
Talking pictures on the war in Chi-
na and a European film on world or-
ganization will be shown Tuesday,
July 18, 7:30 p.m., at the Michigan
Union in Room 316.
Beginners' Class in Social Dancing
TODAY and WEDNESDAY
Book Week Conference (University High School).
Physics Symposium, Prof. John A. Wheeler of Princeton University
(Amphitheatre, Rackham Building).
Physics Symposium, Prof. E. J. Williams of the University of Wales
(Amphitheatre, Rackham Building).
"Reading Habits as Indices of Life Interests," by Dr. Henry Beau-
mont of the University of Kentucky (University High School Audi-
Latin American Tea (International Center).
"America's Stake in the Western Pacific," by Dr. George B. Cressey
of the Department of Geology and Geography, Syracuse University
(Amphitheatre, Rackham Building).
"Issues of National Significance in School Support," by Prof. Arthur
B. Moehlman of School Administration (University High School
"On the Influenza Trail," by Prof. C. H. Andrewes of the University
of London (Lecture Hall, Rackham Building).
"Carelessness of One's Appearance," by Dr. T. Luther Purdom
(Lecture Hall, Rackham Building).
"Activities of a State Education Association," by Dr. A. J. Phillips of
the Michigan Association (Union).
... .. f l/ aI 1 1