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NIGHT EDITOR: JACK CANAVAN
The editorials published in The Michigan
Daily are written by members of the Daily
staff and represent the views of the
sis Be Creative?..
Colonies Of Brazil
The European settlements in the rural dis-
tricts of interior Brazil have been more per-
manent and less wasteful than the settlements
of the Bra lian pojlation, Prof. Preston
James says in the first lecture sponsored by
the Institute of Far Eastern Studies.
There is a great contrast between the type of
settlement the European colonists have set up in
the interior of southern Brazil and the settle-
ments of these regions by the native Brazilians,
Prof. Preston E. James of -the geography depart-
ment pointed out yesterday in the first of the
series of lectures being sponsored by the Institute
of Latin-American Studies. Professor Jaes
spoke on "The European Colonies of Brazil."
The Brazilians have built up some -magnificent
coastal cities, Professor James said, but have
not yet developed their interior districts. They
need more farmers and rural colonists and must
smooth the problem of coordinating their big
cities with their comparatively undeveloped in-
terior. The foreign colonists have been important
in these repects.
Prof esor ames spoke from his experience last
year when he spent eight months on a field trip
into the interior of southern Brazil to visit the
colonies. His tour took him through the states
of Sao Paulo, Santa Catharina, Parana and Rio
Grande do Sul, where the Brazilian European
colonies are located. Ihese and settlements at
Antioquia, Colombia, are the important Euro-
pean settlements in South America.
The chief characteristics of the Brazilian
interior settlements, Professor James said, is
that of disorganized and nomadic "squat" sett-
ling, with little attempt at permanent attach-
ment to the soil. The Brazilian setllers enter a
piece of land, clear it and plant crops, build
rude and flimsy shelters, and move after a year
or two, leaving exploited and despoiled land be-
hind them. The European colonists, on the other
hand, have settled with the idea of permanent
colonization and have carefully cleared fields in
order to preserve watersheds and other re-
sources. They have built good homes and have
established communities resembling the old
frontier towns of the West. Such conveniences
as movies and gas stations are to bee found, how-
There appears to be no danger of Nazi diffi-
culties arising from the German colonies, Pro-
fessor James stated. While most of the settlers,
having recently come from Germany, are more
interested in Hitler than the North American
Germans, the yare no more interested promoting
Naziism in American politics.
Professor James also explained that the dic-
tatorship of President Vargas of Brazil was South
American in character and was in no way the
same as the European dictatorships. He explained
the Vargas regime as the result of the rivalry
between the important state of Sao Paulo, which
is the most important state economically in
Brazil, and the other states. Vargas is supported
by the coalition of states and recently put down
a revolution arising from the interests in Sao
In the last 60 years about five million for-
eigners have migrated to Brazil, Professor James
said. Of these, about 34 per cent were Italians and
about 30 per cent were Portuguese who settled
as tenant laborers on the great plantations of
Sao Paulo. In the last few years about 200,000
immigrants from Germany and a similar num-
ber from Japan have entered the country and
have gone back into the, interior in the south to
form their settlements. The total population
of Brazil is 45 million, he said.
The colonies are locateG in a wooded area on
soil largely determined in content by one-time
lava flows. In Sao Paulo this soil is excellent for
coffee, but in the southern regions where the
settlements are found, frosts prevent the coffee
industry from developing. These regions are heav-
ily wooded and are fertile, however, he said.
Professor James described the trip from the
coast into the regions. From the coast there is
a sharp rise in the typography of the country in-
to a vast plateau. This plateau contains hundreds
of miles of rolling grasslands and was setled
early by the Portuguese colonists. Their cities and
early roads still exist, and a prosperous cattle
industry is maintained. To the west are wooded
regions of pines and regions of tropical growth.
Here are found the Polish settlements, which
maintain for the most part the hog industry.
To the west the regular settlements become
more scattered until the lava base area is reached.
Here the Brazilian colonists have entered, and
have moved across the region slowly, despoiling
it as they go, instead of permanently settling
and developing the land. The German and Jap-
anese colonies are to the north and west.
With 89 years of existence, the Medical School
has reached an enrollment of 668. Faculty mem-
bers number 143. It consists of a four year course
with prerequisite of three years in college. Degree.
received is Doctor of Medicine,
across that line in Lessing's "Nathan the Wise"
which reads: "It is not children only that one
feeds with fairy tales."
-St. Louis Post-Dispatch
IT IS INTERESTING to ponder upon
the various theses for which the dis-
tinguished recognition of the Doctor's degree is
given. The degree is conferred by the University
upon those who it feels have fulfilled certain
basic requirements and have made a distinct
and valuable contribution to the information
in a certain science or field of activity.
There exists, however, a possible criticism that
the type of contribution recognized by the, Uni-
versity is not enough creative in character. In
the fields of art, literature, and philosophical
thinking the theses written by candidates are
concerned with evaluation of existing material
in the field or with the compilation of facts and
statistics. There exists an inference that theses
in which most creative energy and discovery
can be allowed are the ones in the field of ex-
perimental sciences, and that in many other
fields there is almost no opportunity for creative
originality. This point of view might engage the
interest and study of educators as well as those
who intend to enter the lists for a higher degree.
The University exists as a center of learning
and as a cultural beacon. It seems appropriate
that one of its chief occupations should be that
of stimulating contributions to cultural life. Thus
the thought occurs that it should be possible
to receive recognition for a poem, a dramatic
play, a novel, a painting, or a work of sculpture
if outstanding talent were therein displayed. In
the fields thus represented, the thesis limitation
at present seemingly demands that the contri-
bution be merely critical or evaluative rather
than original. An analysis of an author's style,
for instance, can now pass the criterion whereas
the author's original contribution would not be
allowed as a basis for a higher degree. Many
doctor's theses are founded on a criticism of
Shakespeare's tragedies, yet Shakespeare himn
self-if he were here-could not obtain a higher
degree on the basis of his writing of these trage-
dies. Why should not the standards for thesi.s
contribution be broadened so that the creativt
aspects of art could be given definite recognition
as well as the evaluative?
In discussing the requirements for the docs
tor's degree, however, it should be understood
that the formal requirements are not included
and would remain the same as at present, with all
candidates fulfilling the prescribed work. The
contention that is made is that it should be
possible for a candidate to substitute a novel,
original musical composition, a group of poems,
a piece of sculpture, or other creative work for
the usual formal thesis. In brief, it seems that
the University should be the leader in stimulat-
ing and preserving original contributions along
artistic and literary lines on the part of its stu-
dents as well as those of an analytical, evaluative,
and philosophical content.
Probably the most important influence in
awakening eighteenth century Germany to a
new consciousness of the problems of the modern
world at that time was Gotthold Ephraim Less.,
ing, critic, dramatist and philosopher. Brilliant
student that he was, he also was a fencer, dancer,
horseman and friend of swashbucklers. Among
his intimates were K. W. Rambler, a professor of
the Berlin Military Academy and often referred
to as the German Horace; J. W. L. Gleim, a
fmn riof nf w.nA rr TT hanoi Pamo f , anr.. in
C(3own & Qown
By STAN M. SWINTON
When Coach Fritz Crisler's Michigan eleven
charges onto the field for the first game next
fall, much of the crowd's attention will be on
big Ed Frutig, the sensational end who won All-
Conference honors last year. Talking with Ed
(he's in summer school) the other day proved
so interesting that I requested a guest column.
By ED FRUTIG
It's a little early to be talking football, but
inasmuch as pre-season forecasting is precarious
and may result in undesirable repercussions
once the season is under way, it may be well to
predict now and leave the reader with three
months in Which to forget.
First let's talk about Michigan. Prognosticat-
ing on the coming season for the Wolverines,
there seems little to worry about and three very
definite factors which can bring only solace to
apprehensive Michigan fans.
one is the presence of last year's out-
standing sophomore backfield,-Kromer,
Harmon, Mehaffey, and Evashevski-with
all the speed and truculence they showed
during that season plus a year of experience
which should bring them to their peak.
Two is the mitigated schedule. An opponent
trade brings Iowa to Michigan instead of North-
western, which means that the Wolverines will
not have to play one of the finest teams in the
country. Iowa, with the newly acquired Coach
Anderson, will be a formidable opponent, but
without the power, speed, and personnel that
Northwestern could pit against Michigan.
Three is a tentative reason. He is a human
bombshell named Bob Westfall who, though yet
untried, has the drive of a Joe Louis right and
can hit a line with just about the same amount
of force that the Champ hits a jaw. Together
with Howard Mehaffey and Ed Christy, Bob
should give Michigan a real threat from the
Looking in at Evanston, Lynn Waldorf will
sprinkle the best freshman team in North-
western's history into a lineup which fin-
ished third in the conference last year and
from which only a few veterans have been
lost. However, a difficult schedule should give
the Wildcats a great deal of trouble and may
block their Conference hopes.
Bennie Bierman's charges up in Minneapolis
will be strong as usual but they will not be as
powerful as last year, when they finished on
top of the Big Ten, for graduation has drained
fifteen of their twenty-five lettermen.
The final contender, barring surprises, will
be Ohio State. But rumor from Buckeyeville has
it that Straussbaugh, most able of their fullbacks,
has been nipped by ugly, satanic ineligibility;
and even with him, theirs is not the best team
in the Conference.
. So there you have the Big Ten race. Three
months before the opening gun I'm predict-
ing that Michigan and Northwestern will be
two of the strongest teams in the Country
and that Michigan will win the Big Ten
Championship - provided Northwestern
doesn't finish ahead of her.
' * * *
CHATTER: Thanks, Ed . . . the bane of a
journalist's life is the makeup man who has tb
slash to make the stories fit into the page fori
. what I was getting at in yesterday's yarn
about Pepito Santini was that Harry BaxtIr
brought the kid up from Puerto Rico without any
hope of profit . . . "Some guys keep an animal-
I keep a prize fighter," Harry says . . . now that
Pepito has won over a toughie such as Charlie
Parham he may get into the money . . . which
would be swell, because he's a grand boy and a
real fighter . . . a letter in the morning mail
from Pete Lisagor . . . who says hello to his
campus friends and reports he likes his job at the
Daily News in Chicago . . . Willis Player (he
writes "Ann Arbor Town" for the Ann Arbor
News under the initials T.D.H.-Tom, Dick and
Harry-) called up Senator Thomas before his
lecture to find out whether it would be over in
time for the Galento-Louis brawl . . . "It
doesn't start until 10, does it?" asked the Sena-
tor . . . "No, 9," Player told him . .. . coincident-
ly the Thomas lecture stopped just before 9
p.m. . . . best news report on the fight was an
AP yarn-"It was the first time a beer barrel
ever tapped a man."
* * *
HEARD OVER THE RADIO:
"Romance and glamor of old California
for fifty cents and one Crisco wrapper."
the beauty of the pulsing surf and a feel-
ing of nostalgia are one Crisco wrapper extra.
The Law School, which was organized in 1859,
now has an enrollment of 677. Three years in
Law School with graduation from college or
three years in college on a combined course lead
to Bachelor of Laws or Juris Doctor. Further
work gives Master of Laws or Doctor of Juridical
Education is to the fore this month,I
what with the schools letting outI
and the young folk taking examina-
tions for college, and eminent edu-
cators belaboring one another in the
I had to take a hand in it myself.-
This morning I was waited upon by
a young man who wanted to know
if he should go to college. His par-
ents wanted him to go, and by some
pinching of their pennies could pay
his way. The boy didn't want to go
to college. He wanted to go to work.
Then I lunched with two men, one
of whom had been graduated from
a university and who considered his
four years in cloistered scholarship
a tragic waste of time; the other,
who hadn't even finished high school,
said that his lack of education was
his greatest handicap. The college
graduate said that my boy friend
should certainly not go to college.
The other man said he certainly
Con And Pro
All these arguments, it seems to me,
condense to the simple question:
"What is education?" And this ques-
tion, so far as I know, has never been
It also brings up another difficult
question. Educators talk a great deal
about what they call discipline of edu-
cation. But what is "discipline"?
Some say that the only discipline
worthy of the name is the discipline
that is self-imposed. Others insist
there is no discipline save that im-
posed from without.
I suppose the right answer is some-
where in between. We are driven
partly by conscience and by our in-
terests, partly by social, economic and
religious pressure. Some men can ed-
cate themselves at a public library.
Other men would never read a book
if some professor didn't require it.
And that brings up a third ques-
tion. Is "education" confined to learn-
ing out of books? Somehow I doubt
it.. Among the people I know are
some who have read many books, but
have little or no common sense. They
are so poorly adjusted to life that one
suspects their reading to be nothing
more than a means of escape. On
the other hand, I know people who
read very little 'but who are on top of
Reading, said the poet, maketh a
full man. Yes indeed. Sometimes it
maketh him so full that he aches
with intellectual dyspepsia.
I sometimes think that we ought
to scrap all our present methods of
examination, and instead of trying
to find out what a candidate for more1
learning had read, we should try to
find out what sort of a person he
was. It ought to be obvious, by this
time, that the system of marking a
person "A" because he could remem-
ber what he had read, and another
Following the election of officers,
two informal talks were givenrat the
first meeting of the Cercle Francais
held last night at the French House,
1414 Washtenaw Ave.
Elected president was Catherine
Swift; vice-president, Frederick Hall;
treasurer, Winifred Cardner; and
secretary, Daniel Erickson.
Talks were given by Prof. Hugo P.
Thieme, chairman of the department
of Romance Languages, who wel-
comed the members in the name of
the department, and by Prof. An-
thony Jobin of the French depart-
ment and faculty adviser to the club.
Professor Jobin, who Was in Paris
at the time of the signing of the
Munich Pact last fall, recounted
some of his experiences while there
and told of the French reaction to
person "F" because he couldn't, sim-
ply doesn't work.
We've been groping along that way
with what are called "aptitude tests."
But what I am after is something
more than aptitude. If I were an edlu-
cator I wouldn't care to know wheth-
er or not a candidate was likely to
profit by book learning: I should want
to know what sort of fellow he was.
We have long been accustomed to
grading people as "smart" and
"dumb." But this is too simple. People
vary in many things besides intelli-
gence. As Herman Schneider pointed
out in his "Problems of Vocational
Guidance," there is such a thing as
the indoor type, as opposed to the out-
door. Comes a blizzard, and the in-
door type rubs his hands cosily and
is glad that he is a bookkeeper. The
outdoor type throws out his chest
and wishes he were a telephone line-,
Some day we shall hitch education
up to its material, and we shall then
look back with tolerant amusement
on the days when a good part of our
educational effort was devoted to
manufacturing useless silk purses out
of self-respecting and marketable
sows' ears. The higher education will
then be something more than a four
years' wait for a job.
-Howard Vincent O'Brien
in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch
Of China Back
Japan Hints He May Rule
SHANGHAI, Julie 29.-(P)-Wang
Ching-Wei, ex-premier of China, was
reliably reported today to have re-
turned to Shanghai after visits to
Japan and Peiping for consultation
on Japanese plns to make him presi-
dent of a Japanese-directed "Federal
Government of China."
Reports from Japan through us-
ually trustworthy channels said
Wang, whose arrest as a traitor has
been ordered by the Chinese Govern-
ment in Chungking, had held long
talks at an unnamed mountain re-
sort in Japan with Prince Fumimaro
Konoye, President of Japan's Privy
Council and former Premier.
Just What Is An Education?
FRIDAY, JUNE 30, 1939
VOL. XLIX. No. 5
Summer School Reception is to be
held in the Horace Rackham School
for Graduate Studies on June 29 at
8:30 p.m. The following rooms have
been assigned to the various de-
Administrative receiving line, As-
sembly Hall, 3rd floor, Doctor Hop-
Education, Study Hall, 2nd floor,
English, East Conference Room,
3rd floor, Professor Bredvold.
History, Exhibition Room 3015,
Mezzanine, Professor Boak
Hygiene and Public Health, Study
Hall, 2nd floor, Professor Sundwall.
Institute of Far Eastern Studies,
Men's Lounge, 2nd floor, Professor
Institute of Latin American Stu-
dies, Men's Lounge, 2nd floor, Pro-
Library Science, 'Women's Lounge,
2nd floor, Professor Gjelsness.
Linguistic Institute, Men's Lounge,
2nd floor, Professor Fries.
Music, Women's Lounge, 2nd floor,
Physics, West Conference Room,
3rd floor, Professor Randall
Speech and Play Production, Wo-
men's Lounge, 2nd floor, Professor
Renaissance Studies, East Con-
ference Room, 3rd floor, Professor
Church services at the Unitarian
Church during the month of July will
be in the charge of the Rev.- Lester
Mondale of Evanston, Ill., and a local
committee composed of Prof. Chester
Arnold of the botany department,
Mrs. Roy W. Sellars, Mrs. A. D. Tin-
ker and Ted Merkle.
Reverend Mondale is a graduate of
the Harvard Divinity School and
preached at Hingham, Mass., before
going to Evanston nine years agG
He is co-editor of the "Journal of
Activities for the month will in-
clude the regular Sunday morning
services at 11 a.m. and weekly round-
table discussions to be held at 7:30
p.m. in the church library. Topics
of current interest, the world scene
and the latest developments in re-
ligion will be among the subjects.
The Rev. H. P. Marley, minister
of the church, will leave next week
on a trip to California. He will also
attend the General Conference of
the Unitarian Church in San Fran-
cisco to be held in August.
As in previous years, individual
conferences with the visiting minis-
ter may be arranged.
Dancing. After the Summer School
Reception tonight, all students are
invited to dane free of charge in
the Michigan League Ballroom or in
the Michigan Union Ballroom. Danc-
ing will be from 9 to 1 p.m.
Bridge Tournament. A bridge to.'
nament will be held in the Michian
League tonight following the Sm-
mer School Reception. Each player
will play eight hands and post his
score. Watch this column for names
of players who are to receive prizes.
Mail for Students, Faculty n
temporary residents at the Univer
sity: All students and ne' members
of the faculty should call ut the U.S.
Post Office and make out a pink
card, "Order to Change Address,"
Form 22, if they have not already
done so. This applies also to tempor-
ary residents in Ann Arbor who may
be doing reference or research work
on the Campus.
Unidentifiable mail is held in
Room 1, University Hall. If you are
expecting mail which you have not
received, please call at Room 1 Uni-
versity Hall, and make inquiry.
Graduate Outing Club will have a
picnic, including baseball and swim-
ming, at Saline Valley Farms on
Sunday, July 2. There will be an op-
portunity to inspect this cooperative
farming project. The group will meet
at the north-west entrance of the
Rackham Building at 2:30 P.M. All
graduate students and faculty mem-
bers are cordially invited. Charge,
35c. There will be a meeting regard-
less of the weather.
International Center: The Interna-
tional Center will be open through
the Summer Session from 8 a.m. to
9 p.m. daily except on Saturday,
when it will close at noon, and on
Sunday, when it will remain closed
till 7 o'clock in the evening. Foreign
students in the Summer Session, and
members of the various institutes In-
terested. in the international groups
are cordially invitedrto use the Ce-
ter. Its facilities are entirely free.
The entrance is on Madison Street
just off State.
J. Raleigh Nelson.
Church Worship Services will be
held in Zion Lutheran Church, East
Washington'and South Fifth Ave
at 10:30 with sermon by Rev. E. Q.
Church worship services in Triity
Lutheran Church, E. William at S
Fifth Ave. will be held at 8:15 a%,
and 10:30 a.m. with sermons by the
pastor Rev. Henry O. Yoder.
The Lutheran Student Associatio.
has planned an outing for all Lu-
theran Students, their wives and
friends. Cars will leave from Zion
Lutheran Parish Hall at 4:30 for a
site near Portage Lake. A picnic
supper will be served for 25 cents.
After th supper Rev. Ralph Sel,
Lutheran missionary to China en-
rolled in the summer school will
speak on Present Day China. Make
your reservations at once by calling
Rev. Henry Yoder, 2-3680
Linguistic Institute Lecture. Profs
Leonard Bloomfield, chairman of the
department of linguistics and pro-
fessor of Germanic philology at the
University of Chicago, will speak on
"The Sounds of the Algonkian Lan-
guages," Friday, 7:30 p.m., in the
small amphitheatre of the Rackham
Mathematics 278, Relativity. Will
meet on Friday at 12 non instead
at 11 o'clock, in 3201 AH.
G. Y. Ranich.
WJR WWJ WXYZ CKLW
750 KC - CBS 920 KC - NBC Red 1240 KC - NBC Blue 1030 KC - Mutual
12:00 Goldbergs Julia Blake News News commentator
12:15 Life Beautiful Feature Farm Almanac Turf Reporter
12:30 Road of Life Bradcast Golden Store On Parade
12:45 Day Is Ours Words and Music Fan on the Street songs
1:00 Ed McConnell Farm News Betty & Bob Freddy Nagel
1:15 Life of Dr. Susan Tyson Interview Grimm's Daughter Word Dramas
1:30 YourFamily Kitty Keene valiant Lady Singing Strings
1:45 Girl Marries Gardener Betty Crocker Black and White
2:00 Linda's Love Mary Marlin Navy Band Quiet Sanctuary
2:15 Editor's Daughter Ma Perkins " ,
2:30 Dr. Malone Pepper Young " - Henry Cincone
2:45 Mrs. Page Guiding Light Zinn Arthur
3:00 Minuet Chicago at Detroit Club Matinee News Commentator
3:15 Promenade " 11 Moods in Music
3:30 Wayne and Dick
3:45 Duncan Moore News To be announced
4:00 Musical " Police Field Day Jamboree
4:15 Melody, Rhythm Xylophonist "
4:30 Affairs of Anthony
4:45 Alice Blair " Bob. Armstrong "
5:00 Plane Meet Castilla Twins Hollywood Hilights Muted Music
5:15 Howie Wing Malcolm Claire Stuff Smith Orch Turf Reporter
5:30 Tomy Talks Buck Rogers Day in Review Baseball Scores
5:45 Musical Lowell Thomas Harry Heilmann News
x 12:15 p.m.
First Institute on Secondary
School Journalism (Women's Lounge,
Symposium on Theoretical Physics, "Cosmic Radiation," lecture by
Prof. Enrico Fermi (Amphitheatre, Rackham Building).
Executive Committee of the Sociology Department (Crofoot Room,
Law Faculty (Room 101, Union).
Linguistic Group (Alcove, Union).
Prof. George Carrothers (Founders Room, Union)
6:15 Inside Sports
6:30 Calling All Cars
7:00 Buddy Clark
7:30 Johnny Presents
8:00 99 Men and Girl
8:30 First Nighter
Stop and Go