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August 18, 1937 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1937-08-18

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War Presents
Neutrality Test
Neutrality No Longer Moot
Question But Definitely
Defined Term

Paralysis Spray Dr. Peet Developed
Is Ready For Use In Next Epidemic

Publication in the Bulletin is constructive notice to all members of the
UfIversity. Oopy received at the oU ee o the Aistant to tme Presda
wi*3"30; 11 :00&in. Saturday.

(Continued from Page 3)
powers, 'Italy, the Netherlands, Bel-
gium, Portugal, and China signed this
treaty, declaring their desire "to
adopt a policy designed to stabilize
conditions in the Far East, to safe-
guard the rights and interests of
China; and to promote intercourse
between China and the other Powers
upon the basis of equality of oppor-
tunity." In other words, the "Open
The contracting powers (other than
China) agreed: (1) To respect the
sovereignty, the independence, and
the territorial and administrative in-
tegrity of China; (2) to provide the
fullest and most unembarrassed op-
portunity to China to develop and
manitain an effectvie and stable gov-
ernment; (3) to use their influence
for the purpose of effectually estab-
lishing and maintaining the principle
of equal opportunity for the corn-
merce and industry of all nations
throughout the territory of China;
and (4) to refrain from taking ad-
vantage of conditions in China, in
order to seek special rights or priv-
ileges . . . and from countenancing
actions inimiacal to the security or
friendly States."
No Spheres Of Influence
Article 2, further states that the
Powers agree "not to enter into any
treaty, arrangement, or understand-
ing with any Power which would in-
fringe or impair these principles";
and Article 4) "not to support any
private agreements designed to create
Spheres of Influence" in China.
Japan apparently is violating the
first, third and fourth clauses of Ar-
ticle I of the treaty, and perhaps
Article 4, as well as the Kellogg Pact;
which is the most important matter.
At least the Japanese Navy had per-
petrated outrageous acts of war with-
in Chinese territories and her most
populous cities. Why, then, do not
the signatories of this Nine Power
Treaty do something?
Article 7 reads: "The Contracting
Parties agree that, whenever a situa-
tion arises which, in the opinion of
any one of them, involves the appli-
cation of the stipulations of the pres-
ent treaty, and renders desirable dis-
cussion of such application, there
shall be full and frank communoica-
tion between the Powers concerned."
Terms Are Vague
"Comm nication" is decidedly Pla-
tonic; neither joint action nor coer-
cion, nor any question of pointing an
accusing international finger at the
"aggressor," is even implied.
The Chinese students, therefore,
who have recently appealed to the
President by telegram to denounce
Japan as the aggressor against their
country are misinformed as to the
character of the obligations assumed
by the United States in these Pacific
treaties; and they may mislead their
friends concerning them, and con-
cerning our historic and carefully
considered Neutrality policy.
It may be presumed that impor-
tant diplomatic interchanges are now
taking place between the department
of State and the foreign offices of
Britain, France, and other govern-
ments; if they were not there would
be an incredible dereliction of duty.
U.S. Not Obligated
It is important to observe, however,
that no word in these treaties obli-
gates the United States to take any
initiative in this matter; that our
material and political interests in
China are far less in extent, or value,
than those of Britain or France,
howsoever great our human and sen-
timental, scientific and religious in-
terests have grown.
There may be moral reasons and
justifications for doing so, despite
China's lamentable shortcomings,
inertias and corruptibilities. But the
striking failures of the League of
Nations, and of the British govern-
ment, effectively to cooperate with
the United States Government at the
time of the Japanese Army's first out-
rageous attack upon Chapei and Man-

churia, five years ago, cannot be for-
fotten. That action, or non-action,
led, indeed, directly to the demise and
disintegration of the League of Na-
tions as a moral and political instru-
mentality of "the international com-
No Hope In League
It is, therefore, to the "sanctity of
treaties" and to the good faith of
their signatories, in the case of the
Nine Power Pact-not to the League
-that China must look for whatever
protection which, in her weakness,
she can hope for.
As the sponsor of the Washington
Conference of 1921, from which that
treaty emerged, and of the Kellogg
Pact, which has been so cynically
ignored and flouted by the Japanese
and other militarists, and as the in-
itiator of the new Neutrality with its
penalties against belligerents, as such,
the United States Government has1
more than sufficient provocation (notI
to mention the murder of three or
more of its most respected citizens in
Shanghai) to take an important in-:

(Continued from Page 11
factory nerves of smell, terminating
in the roof of the nose Once the
virus strikes, it courses rapidly back
along the olfactory nerves to the ol-
factory bulb, then to the brain, ex-
tending down again into the spinal
With this knowledge on hand, it
was plain that no injected vaccine
could be effective, since it could not
protect the nose and brain, first to be
attacked. Similarly tests disclosed
that there was no effective method
of building up immunity, as is done
in allergic conditions, without an ac-
tual attack of infantile paralysis in
the course of treatment.
Nerve Ends Give Solution
Accordingly the only solution
seeme to lie in protection of the ex-
posed nerve endings through which
poliomyelitis makes its entry into
the human system. Instantly three
groups of scientists began testing a
large number of chemical substances
in their search for an effective pro-
Previous research and medical his-
tory had demonstrated that Indo-
African monkeys are the only other
animals aside from man susceptible,
and that the disease in men and
monkeys runs a similar course. This
fact enabled a rapid survey of pos-
sibilities, since the monkeys could be
treated with the solutions being test-
ed and then, along with controls,
inoculated with virulent paralysis
virus, where children, for humani-
tarian reasons, naturally could not
Almost simultaneously the three
groups of independent workers be-
gan to report partial success. In
May, 1935 Dr. Charles Armstrong and
Dr. W. T. Harrison of the National
Institute of Health at Washington
reported "a high incidence of resis-
tance" in monkeys treated intra-
nasally with a four per cent solution
of alum (sodium alumnium sulfate).
Shortly thereafter Dr. A. B. Sabin
of the Rockefeller Institute with two
of his colleagues confirmed the pro-
tective value of alum and reported
that a four per cent solution of tan-
nic acid also "exercises a protective
Several Preventatives Found
A third report by Dr. Schultz and
his assistant, L. P. Gebhardt, found
definite protective action in sprays of
picric acid, paranitrophenol, trini
trocresol and mercurochrome.
Suddenly, in the summer of 1936,
an epidemic ravaging Alabama
brought the picric acid, alum, and
tannic acid sprays into use in an ef-
fort to combat its spread. Children
were sprayed in whole sale lots, and
the solutions distributed for home
Discouraging reports came in al-
most immediately, however. "I
sprayed my child every night, and yet
he came down with infantile," many
a tearful mother reported. The chil-
dren who had been sprayed seemed to
be smitten almost as frequently and
as violently as those who had not
Meanwhile Dr. Schultz and Mr.
Gebhardt carried on their researches,
testing 40 different chemical agents
before, early this year, they were able
to tell Dr. Peet, at a meeting of the

Medical Advisory Committee to the Vilbiss atom
President's Birthday Ball for Infan- tip No. 1561
tile Paralysis Research, that zinc suited for tl
sulfate sprays had resulted in al- Further
most complete protection of the ex- the timing
perimental monkeys, for a period of ments follov
almost a month. renewals,
Working under a grant from the woork had i
Birthday Ball Fund, Dr. Peet came, month. Dr.
back'to Ann Arbor and went to work. termined th
The zinc sulfate spray in undiluted centimeterr
form, he found, caused acute burn- Olfa
ing sensation for more than two An intere
hours, and often violent headaches during the
for the next day after treatment. least the ii
His experimentation covered va- of smell ft
rious strengths of the solution, and Medical stu
while he was demonstrating that however, rei
the one per cent strength was best, to the olfa
he also added one per cent of pon- normal in a
tocaine, a local anesthetic, to the pending on
formula, along with the one-half per With the
cent sodium chloride to make the With the
spray more isotonic. The headaches itsrenfisu
and burning sensation vanished, Dr. Peet, co
leaving only a "mild discomfort" dur- the results.
ing the treatment.
been reporte
Sought Cause For Failure failed when
Meanwhile field workers had been men," the l
investigating the cause of the Ala- cited one o
bama failures. One mother, they as an exam:
found, had used a perfume atomizer, In a sma
while another, because her child thern Michig
disliked the discomfort of the spray- constant as
ing, had gently squirted the solution virulent pol
into the nostrils while he slept, reported, on
When a third surrendered her ato- tages in Dr
mizer for testing, it was found to be trained nos(
so plugged that nothing was coming from Unive:
out of the tip. the camp wi
Investigations carried on at and treated
University Hospital with dyes and had been p
X-rays meanwhile revealed that the 10 days of
normal atomizer and the normal passed, and
method of spraying noses failed to ported.
cover satisfactorily the areo of the At presen
olfactory nerves. deal with th
With these findings in mind, Dr. lution to ch
Peet and his assistants formulated in the proper
these rules: the sprays, to be effec- ing. For the
tive, must be administered by com- the "Proetz'
petent nose and throat specialists, head hangs
trained in nasal irrigations; and the with the cl
atomizer must be one with a longI center of th
narrow, metal tip especially suited for 4 the zinc sul
the work. (In local study a De into each nc

nizer No. 156 with a spray
N.C. was found to be best
;he work.)
experimentation evolved
of the three daily treat-
wed by single fortnightly
although Dr. Schultz's
ndicated immunity for a
Peet's research also de-
e minimum of one cubic
required for each nostril.
ctory Sense Lost
sting point brought out
study was the loss or at
.mpairment of the sense
ollowing the treatments.
tdents who were tested,
ported no harmful effects
ctory sense, returning to
week or two weeks de-
the number of sprayings.
spray ready for use, the
mer at last brought tests
iency, and, according to
omplete satisfaction with
"As yet no cases have
ed in which the spray has
n applied by competent
ocal surgeon reports. He
f the latest emergencies
11 isolated camp in Nor-
gan whose 26 boys were in
sociation, nine cases of
iomyelitis were suddenly
e of the highest percen-
. Peet's knowledge. Two
e and throat specialists
rsity Hospital rushed to
th the zinc sulfate spray,
the campers all of whom
plentifully exposed. The
the incubation period
no further cases were re-
Lt Dr. Peet's researches
he application of 'the so-
ildren too young to keep
position for nasal spray-
em, Dr. Peet recommends
position, in which the
over the end of a table
hiri vertically above the
he' ear. In this position
fate solution is dropped
ostril, with the child re-

(Continued from Page 2);
blanks of the school or college in
which the student is registered, and{
return these reports to the registrar. ,
Grades for students registered in
any other units than the above should'
be sent directly to the Secretaries of
the schools, or colleges concerned.
Daughters of Atreus: A few tickets'
are still available for the Wednesday
and Thursday performances of this
last presentation of the Michigan
Repertory Players. Call Lydia Men-'
delssohn box-office, 6300.
Graduate Students in Education
who have taken Education C116,
C216, C201, or C204 in previous ses-
sions are-requested to call for their
term papers, if they have not done'
so already, at Room 4016 University
High School.'
Michigan Dames cordially invite
the wives of students and internes to.
the weekly bridge party, Wednesday
at 2 p.m. in the Grand Rapids Room{
Michigan League. Both contract and,
maining in the head-down position
for at least two minutes.
One problem arises out of the fact

auction will be played.
School of Music Library materials
on loan by Summer Session students
must be returned to the Library,
Room 606, Tower, by Wednesday,
August 18. School of Music credits
are withheld until all school property
is returned.
Henry Bruinsma, Librarian.
Pi Lambda Theta: New members
please call at the Pi Lambda Theta
room in the University Elementary
School for your pins on Wednesday
from 4:30 to 5 p.m. If this is im-
possible, call Geil Duffendack, tele-
phone 7247.
"The Need for Teaching Tech-
niques of Cooperation," is the topic
of the lecture to be given by Prof.
S. A. Courtis in University High
School Auditorium at 4:05 p.m. this
Student Recital: Miss Alice May
Hoffman, violinist, North Liberty, In-
diana, will give a graduation recital
in partial fulfillment of the require-
ments of the Bachelor of Music de-
gree, Wednesday evening, Aug. 18,
8:30 p.m. in the School of Music Au-
ditorium. The general public is in-
vited to attend. She will be accom-

of the fall semester the General Li-
brary will be closed evenings, but
service will be maintained in the
Main Reading Room, the Periodical
Reading Room, the Medical Read-
ing Room, and the Circulation De-
partment fromd8 a.m. till 6 p.m., with
the exception of the period from
Aug. 30 to Sept. 6, when the building
is closed completely while extensive
repairs are in progress. Graduate
Reading Rooms, and Study Halls
both within. and outside of the main
building will be closed until the op-
ening of the fall semester. All de-
partmental and collegiate libraries,
with the exception of the Transpor-
tation Library, are also closed during
this interval.
The Bureau has received notice of
the following civil service examina-
Safety instructor, $1,800 a yer,
and assistant safety instructor, $1,
620 a year; bureau of mines, depart-
ment of the Interior.
Instructor of weaving, $2,000 a
year; Indian field service (including
Alaska), Department of the Interior.
For further information, please
call at the office, 201 Mason Hall.
University Bureau of Appoint-
ments and Occupational In-
First Mortgage L o a n e: The
University has a limited amount of
funds to loan on modern well-located
Ann Arpor property. Interest at
current mates. Apply Investment Of-
fice, Room 100, South Wing, Univer-
sity Hall.
Alice Hoffman To Give
Violin Recital Tonight
Alice May Hoffman, violinist, of
North Liberty, Ind., will give a grad-
uation recital in partial fulfillment
of the requirements of the Bachelor
of Music degree at 8:30 p.m. today, in
the School of Music Auditorium. Mr.
Myron S. Myers will accompany Miss
Hoffman at the piano.
Miss Hoffman' will play Schumann's
Sonata: "Mit Leidenschaftlichem
Ausdruck," "Allegretto," "Lebhaft,"
Bruch's Concerto: "Allegro Moder-
ato," "Adagio," "Allegro." Other
movements will be "Vogel als Pro-
phet" by Schumann-Auer, "Knott
ing" by Moffet, "Eclogue," by Akli-
manko, Juon's "Arva" and Novacek's
"Perpetuum Mobile."

that the pontocaine must be omitted panied at the piano by Mr. Myron

from the formula for this nasal
douching, because in the head-down
position it might enter the accessory
sinuses and pharynx, and through its
anesthetic action eliminate the
cough reflex, opening the way for
The current experimentation aims
at finding the percentage of children
who will be adequately protected by
this nasal douching, along with the
proper dose and a possible substi-
tute for the anesthetic. Even with-
out these further advances, however,
the spray is ready for a major test,
and after that will be ready to take
its place as a tremenduous advance
in the march of medica lscience, cap-
able of eliminating poliomyelitis just
as previous research wiped yellow
fever off the civilized globe.

S. Myers.

The Intramural Sports BuildingI
will be closed Friday, Aug. 20, at 6
p.m. All lockers must be vacated or
renewed for the school year by that
date, the fee being $2.50 for the
period from Sept. 21 to June, 1938.
Student Loans: There will be a
meeting of the Loan Committee in
Room 2, University Hall on Aug. 18
to consider loans for the coming
school year. Any one in Ann Arbor
who has recently filed an application
for a loan should make an appoint-
ment to meet the Committee at this
In the interim between the close of
the Summer Session and the opening

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George Mah Fined
On Peeping Charge
George Mah, 21-year-old Chinese
student from San Francisco, paid a
fine of $10 and costs of $6.95"in Jay
Payne's justice court yesterday on
disorderly charges arising from his
arrest while allegedly window peeping
at the Betsy Barbour Dormitory on
Maynard Street.
Officer Harry Krumrei, returning
to his parked car at 1 a.m., following
the midnight show early yesterday
morning, saw Mah against the wall of
the dormitory on the north side, ar-
rested him and took him to head-
quarters, after which Mah was jailed
. In court the Chinese student, who
is an American citizen, plead guilty
after first asking Judge Payne for a
definition of the word "peeping."
sues do not meet the eye.
It is not Japan, but economic im-
perialism and the international an-
archy which is the cause of the pres-
ent tragedy in China, as well as
China's own weakness and wealth.
The new American Neutrality Act is
the best guide to provisional conduct
in time of danger and of conflict that
has ever been developed.
But the solution must be sought
through loyal and constructive in-
ternational collaboration for the vin-
dication of the principles of justice.
If, instead of provocative action
against Japan, American opinion now
demands a convocation of the powers
signatory to the Nine Power Treaty,
and suggests that, pending a final
solution, all of them join with us in
the application of the series of pen-
alties against belligerents-against
belligerency as such-which the Neu-
trality legislation calls for in a man-
datory and impartial way-we venture
to think that-if this were done, or
even seriously proposed-the Japan-


.. .so spoke the dying Hamlet

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