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July 26, 1936 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1936-07-26

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TIrfi mTIfTHfn4N bty

SUNDAY, MY 26,193d

?AGE T*O ~UNPAY, JULY 26, I93~


Official Publication of the Summer Session

Liberalism In Spain Doomed
-A iton Sees Little Hope Fo r Moderation On Either Side-


Published every morning except Monday during the
?University year and Summer Session by the Board in
Control of Student Publications.
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(Professor of History)
IN VIEW OF THE CONFUSED and conflicting
press reports coming out of Spain it is im-
possible to form an accurate picture of the pro-
gress of events there. The immediate background
of the conflict, on the other hand, in terms of
contending groups, issues at stake, and the general
situation in the days leading up to the outbreak,
can be detailed with greater precision. The pro-
cess throws considerable light on the nature of
the present revolution and its possible outcome.
Nevertheless, a brief statement of this character
has its dangers of misinterpretation and omission,
since the very ncessity for compactness rules out
qualifying sentences and the elaboration of detail
which would make the meaning clear and un-
equivocal. Futhermore, the writer's personal ob-
servations on this occasion were limited to the
area of Andalusia and hence the views expressed
have a certain Andalusian bias, despite wide read-
ing of national and regional newspapers. The
opinions advanced, with this warning in mind,
may have some value and so are offered for what
they are worth.
The liberal republic established in Spain in
1931 as "a republic of the workers of all classes"
has not as yet realized the high hopes of its
founders and, after a longer period of existence,
seems to be going the way of the earlier republic
of 1873. In the case of the earlier government
the army intervened to save Spain from the effects
of excessive regionalism and a general breakdown
of public order and in the end restored the Bour-
bon line of kings to a limited monarch under
a constitution. The parallel cannot be pushed too
far, however. The army in the present instance,
is clearly not possessed of anything like the unity
of the nineteenth century days, but is fighting on
both sides, and its intervention has not been so-
licited by the government this time. In addition,
it is not fighting to restore the monarchy, even
though many officers may have monarchistic
sympathies, but rather to preserve its own historic
position in the nation and, more especially that
of its officer class, largely drawn from the aris-
tocracy and upper class families, who resent leftist
civilian interference and the recent trend toward
the extreme left in Spain. It should also be point-
ed out that the old Spain of King and Church
has been cut into deeply since 1873, and that half
the voters of Spanish in the recent elections voted
for candidates of the various parties of the left,
who desire to destroy traditional Spain. There
is now an articulate, organized opposition, which
may in the sequel prove strong enough to defeat
the army, destroy the republic, and establish some

form of proletarian state of the totalitarian va-
The present republic at the outset pursued a
course of moderate reform with the enthusiastic
support of all save the monarchists and the ex-
treme clericals. . Its strength was demonstrated by
the ease with which royalist revolts were put down,
such as the premature rising under Sanjino at
Sevilla in 1931. It failed, however, to attack cer-
tain pressing problems with sufficient vigor, such
as the division of the great undeveloped landed
estates, .and the labor questions of working condi-
tions, long hours and low wages both in the towns
and in the countryside. A growing unemployment
situation aggravated the situation. Another weak-
ness lay in its dependence on many former royal-
ists in important positions for whom trained sub-
stitutes could not be found. To its credit must
be placed a great growth in the number of public
schools, strong support of institutions of learning,
and a general attempt to reduce illiteracy. An ac-
tive critic of the regime, Gil Robles, leader of the
C.E.D.A. or Catholic action party, made great
gains by offering a more liberal program or re-
form than even the socialists had formulated at
the time, with the added advantage of conserving
what was good in the historic heritage. With
the votes of the women he swept to surprising
victory in the autumn elections of 1933. Instead,
however, of putting his promised program of re-
form into operation he hesitated, made conces-
sions to the right and seemed to be moving to-
ward a restoration of the monarchy. Alarmed,
the parties of the left rose in revolt, in October
1934, a movement centered chiefly in stormy,
separatist Catalonia, and in the mining area of
the Basque provinces of the north. This uprising
was put down with ruthless severity, and the par-
ticipants fled or crowded the jails of Spain. Think-
ing the battle was won the rightists then failed
to keep their promises and, in particular, did
nothing for the oppressed worker or the desperate
unemployed. It was a fatal error as the election
returns of February, 1936, proved.
When the returns were in a striking victory
for the left coalition of parties was revealed.
Formed into a "popular front," from the moderate
left republicans under Manuel Azana over to the
minority groups of the communists and syndical-
ists, the leftistis united behind one ticket swept
the field against the divided vote of the parties of
the right. This despite a fifty-one per cent vote
for the various rightist parties. Stunned by the
unexpected blow, thousands of royalists and other
rightists, fearful of reprisals, fled over the fron-
tiers with their capital ,to the point where limi-
(Continued on Next Column)

At Sega.. .0

treatment of labor by officials of
the New Deal has been partially atoned for this
week. On March 2 of this year, 374 members of
the crew of the Panama-Pacific liner California
delayed its sailing from San Pedro by striking
for higher wages. Secretary Perkins promised
them an investigation into their demands over
the telephone, ad the strike was called off. When
the ship reached New York, however, the Depart-
ment of Justice, at the instance of Secretary of
Commerce Roper, threatened to prosecute the
crew for mutiny, a felony punishable by ten years
imprisonment and a fine of $2,000.
Now it has been announced by the Commerce
Department that the strike leaders will not be
prosecuted; since the walkout was not executed
at sea and no element of safety was involved, it
has been recognized that the seamen were not
guilty of mutiny. Thus the right of seamen to
strike under these conditions has been established.
This victory was the result of activity on the
part of a committee composed of prominent New
York lawyers, college professors, writers and bus-
iness men, who had investigated working condi-
tions among seamen in the American merchant
marine. The report of this committee first estab-
lished the legal point that there is no basis for
charging mutiny to seamen who strike on a vessel
moored in a port of safety. Second, according to
the New York Times, the report declared that
while government officials were quick to bring a
charge of mutiny against striking seamen, they
have shown little zeal to investigate charges, to
check violations of safety statutes or remedy "in-
tolerably bad". working conditions.
Some other results of the report indicate that:
Wages paid to seamen are substantially lower
than those paid to other workers. Actual wages
paid are in many cases lower than accepted wage
scales. . There exist on American merchant ves-
sels flagrant violations both of statutory regula-
tions and trade union agreements as to working
Food schedules were found to be far below
the standard required by the Navy, while laws
'relating to living quarters, enacted in 1897, have,
except for one minor amendment, not been re-
"Even the present inadequate laws have not
been enforced," according to, the report. "Fore-
castles frequently have but one exit. Complaints
are numerous concerning over-crowded quarters,
damp walls and bunks and the absence of ventila-
tion. Tuberculosis is widespread among seamen.
,"Living quarters prescribed by law were intended
for the steamship of another age. The actual
quarters in which seamen must live are over-
crowded, have no proper ventilation and in gen-
eral are highly insanitary. These conditions seri-
ously impair the health and efficiency of the per-
sonnel in the merchant service."
A government investigation of the entire mari-
time personnel situation and extensive revision of
the laws to protect the right of seamen to organize
were recommended by the committee.
We have faith that the conditions cited above
are true, because of the reputation of members
of the committee. Among them were: William
McFee, writer and veteran seaman; Bruce Bliven
of the New Republic; Amos Pinchot, publicist;
George Soule, writer; Dorothy Van Doren, writer;
and a number of prominent lawyers and univer-
sity professors.
The administration can atone for its shameful
treatment of these seamen by acting on the recom-
mendation to investigate these conditions thor-
oughly. If they do not, there is only one way for
these seamen to bring these conditions to light

FOR RENT: Furnished and unfur-
nished apartments. Phone 8507.
tations of the export of money had
to be rigidl enforced and an ex-
change control mechanism put into
operation. The socialist party of
Largo Caballero was the majority
party, but that party and all the other
minority groups refused to go into
the new government. The left re-
publicans at this point made their
great mistake by forming a govern-
ment which was exclusively drawn
from their own party and which as-
sumed responsibility, without the au-
thority that a parliamentary majority
would have created. This permitted
the allies, especially the communists
and the syndicalists, to sabotage and
discredit the government of the re-
public, without sharing the responsi-
bility for its failure.
The program of the new govern-
ment of Azana was thoroughgoing
and might have succeeded if the al-
lies had not pushed their own causes
sub-rosa. The new government could
not get started. Strikes, rioting, dis-
order, and a gradual breakdown of
public order, amid the constant in-
citement of manifestations,sand the
contending efforts of Trotsky and
Stalin communistic agitators, harried
the land. At the same time red-shirts
and blue-shirts drilled, marched and
sang, business almost came to a
standstill, and the effort to end em-
ployment by the enforcing hiring of
labor drove many into . bankruptcy.
The little owner of a home or busi-
ness, who had voted for the popular
front, became alarmed. The syndi-
calists, with anarchistic ideas, came
to blows with the socialists and com-
munists, and the government that
was the hope of moderation and jus-
tice, began to totter, as much by rea-
son of its friends as by reason of
the hunted and suspected fascist. To
make matters worse rains and floods
destroyed crops and greatly dimin-
ished the demand for agricultural la-
bor. An impatient people were grad-
ually approaching the point where
the desperate expedient of proletar-
ian dictatorship might be attempted.
At this point the army raised the
standard of revolt in North Africa
and in the north of the Peninsula. Its
cry and that of its rightist friends be-
ing "Spain? Yes! Russia? No!" In-
ternecine strife then came to an
abrupt end as the popular front ral-
lied the loyal troops, armed the work-
ers and fought back in the confused
struggle now progressing behind
closed frontiers.
If either side wins it looks as
though the liberal republic is doomed.
One of the groups to the left, with
the victorious armed workers, will
probably seize power-if they win. If
the army is victorious an inevitable
reaction to the right should follow.
The conflict is more than a civil war,
it is a social revolution with the hand
of every man against that of his
neighbor. It is to be hoped that a
victorious army-if victorious, will be
moderate in its triumph, but moder-
ation on either side in such a war is
almost too much to nope for. The
friends of Spain and of the Spanish
people pray for earlypeace and an
amicable solution of the difficulties,
with justice to the worker and with
the conservation of as much as pos-
sible of the admirable qualities of
the older Spain. The class hatred
stirred to the boiling point by agi-
tators is not typical and the underly-
ing good sense that is so character-
istic of Spain should in the end assert
itself to find a Spanish road to the
future rather than one borrowed
from abroad that, in the end, will not
fit the national character and will be
violently rejected. It is to be par-
ticularly desired that the paths of de-
struction will avoid the great archi-
tectural and artistic monuments of
Spain and that her great national

archives and libraries, rich in liter-
ature and history, and a world herit-
age of culture and civilization will
come to no harm.

.. ,,,

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Second floor. 509 E. Madison.
Phone 4546.
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watch with initials U.M.P. on back.
Ladies lounge of Women's League
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PERMANENT work for part and full
time waiter. Phone 4075 between
five and twelve p.m. 17

Class & individual in-
struction in all types
of dancing. Teachers
course. Open daily dur-
ing Summer Session.
10 A.M. to 9 P.M.
Phone 9695
Terrace Garden Studio
Wuerth Theatre Bldg.

ed. Men's shirts 10c. Silks, wools,
our specialty. All bundles done sep-
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Careful work at low price. 1x
All Makes Office Machines
and Portables
0. D. Morrill
314 S. State St.
Since 1908 Phone 6615
TODAY! 25c TILL 2 P.M.
Starting Today
The story-swell!
The songs-hits!
The dances-sensational!
The cast-incomparable!
Shirley herself-
> words tailfus'


- - Now Playing
and His
Per Person


WILL exchange home within driving
distance of the University of Chi-
cago for one in Ann Arbor for
summer of 1937. Marshall. Phone
3653. 16


= i

Today! 25c Till 2 P.M.
Now Playing -

-Program Notes-
Tuesday evening, July 28, 8:30 p.m.
Arthur Hackett, Tenor. Wassily Besekirsky,
Viloinist. Hanns Pick, Violoncellist. Joseph
Brinkman, Pianist.
Trio. Op. 70, No. 1, in D Major ("Geister")
Beethoven - Once again the name of Beethoven
appears on these programs, and once again the
work chosen to represent "the mad German" is
an outstanding one of its type. Perhaps the latter
statement is not true as regards technical perfec-
tion; Thayer, Beethoven's outstanding biographer,
sees this trio, particularly the first and third move-
ments, more as the result of an impulsive, spon-
taneous conception than as an example of Beeth-
oven's usual slowly-evolved and carefully-worked-
out style. Certain it is that the composer devoted
much less time to the composition of this trio
than to the writing of the one in E Flat, which
constitutes No. 2 of the same opus; and, from
words which Beethoven wrote or spoke at various
times, it would seem that he did not think as
highly of this as of some of the other trios. Never-
theless, from the standpoint of popularity the
work is entitled to be called "outstanding"; even
during the composer's lifetime it was one of the
most played of his smaller compositions. To-
day, perhaps, it is not so widely known as many
of his other works, but this is due more to a dearth1
of trio playing than to any lack of popularity
amongst the works in that form.
Probably the chief reason for this trio's fame
movement, a broad, gloomy Largo Assai. The
movement possesses an eerie, supernatural quality
to which the trio is indebted for its popular title
'Ghost"-an epithet evidently arising from a re-
mark made by Schindler, Beethoven's literal-
minded factotum, who was guilty of a great many
of the programmatic placards attached to his mas-
ter's music. In this case ,however, the choice of
appelative seems unwittingly to have been upheld
by the composer, for the first sketches of the move-
ments are to be found in Beethoven's notebook
adjacent to some notes of a Witches' chorus for
an uncompleted opera on Macbeth.
Clair de Lune Joseph Szulc, Op. 83, No. 1-This
lyric is a delightful setting of a rather wistful
poem by Paul Verlaine, the first lines of which are
"Your soul is a garden fair as Ederl,
Wherein gay maskers and revelers wander;
Playing on lutes and dancing, yet inly
Mournful, mid the revel they seem to ponder."
Les Roses d'Ispahan Gabriel Faure (1845-1924)
-French music bears a distinctive charm which
arises out of its lightness ,its delicate sensitivity,
its warm tenderness. The music of Gabriel
Faure possesses all these qualities without the
trivial, affected banalities which sometimes ac-
company them. At a time when most French

musicians of being a son who followed willingly
the profession chosen for him by his father. With
this, however, the distinction ends; for, whereas
the elder Franck, somewhat after the manner of
Beethoven's father, wished his son to follow the
dazzling, meteoric course of a piano virtuoso a la
Liszt, Ceasar himself had amoitions of a more
artistic and unremunerative nature. After an
unsuccessful attempt to combine the qualities of
a dutiful son and a sensitive artist, the young manI
broke with his father, and became the master of
his own artistic will. From that time (1848) on,
he inconspiciously pursued a career as organist and
composer which went almost unnoticed by his
contemporaries. The pathetic indifference with
which his works were received is evinced by some
words of his upon the occasion, in 1890, of his
first unqualified public success. With naive pride
he exclaimed, "There, you see, the public is be-
ginning to understand me"-this from a man of 69
years, a few months before his death!
Unlike Faure, Franck contributed but little to
the literature of the song. The few secular lyrics
which he wrote are, for the most part, products
of his maturest years, and are in the unmistakable
Franckian style. The four songs on this program
are to be sung in exact reverse to the chronological
order of composition, the dates being 1871, 1873,
1884, and 1888. During this time, from 1858 until
his death, he was organist and teacher at the
basilica of St. Clotilde, in Paris, devoting two or
three hours of every day to the writing of the
compositions which were so long in coming into
their own.
Five Impressions of a Holiday: In the Hills; by
the Rivers; The Water Wheel; The Village Church;
At the Fair. Eugene Goosens-Eugene Goosens
was born in London, 1893, the son of a Belgian
opera conductor. He rose easily to a position of
musical prominence, in which he was known
equally well as a conductor and as a composer. In
the first capacity he has been connected in Eng-
land, with leading symphony and opera orches-



In Charge of Production
f Directed by Irving Cumifgv
1 Associate PFoducer 8. G. D.Sy iv
Sugge.s.d by the storiesof
fIoonor Got*$ and Ralph Spene.

tras and with the Russian Ballet; and in this
country, with the Rochester and Cincinnatti Sym- j MOTORCYCLIST KILLED
phony Orchestras, of the latter of which he is at HOWELL, July 25.-(P)-Cecil'
present conductor. His career as a composer began Workman, 32, of Lansing, was in-
in 1911, and soon brought him to a position of jured fatally late today when he was
emminence among the younger British composers. thrown from his motorcycle near{
In the trio entitled "Five Impressions of a Holi-L
day," composed in 1914, the violin part was or-
iginally written for the flute, which seems to be
the composer's characteristic and favorite instru-
ment. Along with most of his early compositions, REAL VALUES!
this trio was criticized as "cold" and "glittering,"
an impression of his work which has changed with
the maturing of his style.
In The Musical Times of 1919 there appears a
that date, in which the writer, Edwin Evans, says:
"The Five Impressions of a Holiday are frankly
pictorial, and, apart from their musical charm,
it is a great tribute to them to be able to say that,
in spite of the triteness of such themes as "The
Water Wheel," "The Village Church," and other
titles which have done their duty for generations,
the composer's poetical instinct has permitted him
to place them in new aspects. Some of the figura-
tion is very ingenious, and the composition closes

Comedy_"Will Power"
Guest Feature






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