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DAY AND NIGHT WIRE
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, THURSDAY, AUGUST 6, 1925
BALD WIW CRITICIZED
Premier Baldwin's method of settling the threatened British mine strike
is bringing him more blame than praise. The settlement is accounted a
moral victory for the miters, the government having agreed to provide until
May 1, the difference between what the miners want and the owners will
pay. Other unions are expected to seek similar "doles." Ben Tillett (left),
Labor member of parliament, and A. J. Cook, secretary of the miners, are
seen discussing the victory they were instrumntal in achieving.
Work Of Outdoor Drawing And
Painting Class To Be Shown
An exhibition of the work done by
the class in outdoor drawing and
painting will be on display in the west
gallery of Alumni Memorial Hall all
of next week.
According to Myron D. Chapin, the'
instructor of the class, independence
of composition and individuality of
technique has been stressed and are
evident in all the work. All mediums
are used, including pencil, pen and
ink, charcoal, pastel and watercolor.
An interesting feature of the exhibit'
Is the variety of subject matter. Back
gardens, front lawns, the boulevards,
and the parks are among the works.
Among the collection are those of
Primitiro Castrillo, who exhibits both
in watercolor and .pencil.* His treat-
ment is br'oad and his color rich and
sombre, resembling Zubiara, the Span-
ish painter, to quite a 'degree. Mrs.
H. B. MacNamee, also showing water-
colors, treats her subjects broadly and
with brilliant color. The work of E.
Woodward, both in pencil and in
watercolor, is decorative and gay in
character, light in color value, and
charming in composition. Mr. Chapin
will exhibit batiks of his own.
Other students exhibiting are Helen
Arnold, Elizabeth Barker, Lena Bev-
erly, Erwin Boeker, Mae Bryner, John
Fish, Mary Karpinski, H. L. Lamm,
E. Mann, Edith Mosher, Max Mitsch,
Harold Naser, and C. Ramirez.
"The Italian garden requires the
setting characteristic of it," said Prof.
Aubrey Tealdi of the landscape design
department, in his lecture on "Italian
Gardens" yesterday afternoon in Nat-
urdI Science auditorium. "When we
transplant the Italian garden from its
native home, we are at best trans-
planting lines. The spirit of it can-
not be transplanted."
The three principles underlying the
Italian garden, according to Prof.
Tealdi, are the close harmony of gar-
den and house, the close relation of
the different parts of the house with
the different parts of the garden, and
the inclusion of the house, garden and
landscape into one unified whole. The
Italians consider their, gardens as
places in which to live, intimately
connected with their lives, and they
design them accordingly.p
Prof. Tealdi said that stone, water
and evergreens are the essential ma-
terials of the Italian garden. Flow-
ers are not essential, although often
used in great profusion, particularly
in the roof gardens. The great cy-
press is typical of the Italian garden
and it is impossible to duplicate It
in this country. Statues, fountains,
steps and terraces are other integral
parts. In many gardens, loggias of
beautiful design and architecture add
individuality and charm.
"One of the important elements of
the Italian garden," Prof. Tealdl
stated, "is the scent, whethe from
annuals or trees, from blossoms or
Professor Tealdi explained that the
most beautiful Italian gardens are de-
pendent upon their topography, which
Is very distinct. That is why upon
very flat ground it is almost impos-
sible to get the spirit 'of the garden.
The so-called Italian gardens in
England 'and America, according to
Professor Tealdi, are copies of the
most unattractive type of Italian gar-
den, a type belonging to a perioi pre-
dominated by foreign influence rather
than by Italian.
EDUICATIONAL GRADUA TES
GIVEN CHANCES WRDO
Graduates from the School of Edu-
cation need not necessarily confine
themselves to teaching in this coun-
try, for occasional opportunities are
being offered for positions in schools
in foreign countries.
Frequent calsF are received from
,Canton Christian College, China, with
requests for Michigan graduates to
teach in their institution. Roberts
College, Constantinople, a private
school in Hawaii, and several schools
in Alaska and Porto Rico have also
communicated with the University
with respect to possible graduates
who would consider accepting posi-
tions on the teaching staff.
YOST TAES VACTION
*SPICKS AT WISCONSIN'
Director Fielding H. Yost is now
spending a few weeks' vacation at his
home in Walling, Tenn., before re-
turning to Ann Arbor for early foot-
ball practice Sept. 15.
Last week Mr. Yost addressed the'
classes in the coaching school con-
ducted by Director George E. Little
at the University of Wisconsin. Mr.
Little had spent the previous. week
lecturing before the Michigan coach-i
Goldsmith To Be
In Tennis Finals
Joseph Goldsmith, '26, entered the
finals of the all-campus tennis tour-
nament yesterday when he defeated
his opponent in two out of three sets,
8-6, 3-6, 1-6. Goldsmith had played
the first set several days ago and was'
not in the best of form. His handy
win yesterday places him in th'e
favored position to cop the title match
which is to be played this week.
TALS ON HEARINGt
IN THIRD LECTURE,
TELEPHONE R E P R ESENTATIVE
OF EAR DRUM
Outlines Four Principle Theories
Accounting For Sound
In the third of his lectures here
this week, the mechanism of hearing
was discussed by Dr. Harvey Fletcher
of the Bell Telephone laboratories.
Starting with the outer ear which
acts only as a1 sound collector, Dr.
Fletcher described how the ear drum
converts the air waves into mechani-
cal vibrations to the cochlea, a little
channel like a snail's shell, in which
the vibrations are converted into nerve
stimulations. The ear drum and the
little bones act :as sort of a trans-
former to convert the vibratory energy
of the light medium, air, into a form
suitable for the heavier fluild which
fills the cochlea. Due to the ,mechani-
cal arrangements of the parts the
force exerted at the entrance to the
cochlea is"about twenty times that
exerted on the ear drum.
Pure tones, that is, tones contain
ing waves of a single frequency, are
the simplest form of sound. They dif-
fer from each other by their pitch
and their loudness., So finely can the
ear discriminate that it can recognize
300,000 tones, each different from its
neighbors by slight changes in the ear
of these two qualities. When two
notes of different .pitches are sounded
together; they are sensed as separate
notes. In this respect hearing is
radically different from seeing. When
red and green lights are mixed the
eye no longer sees the colors sepa-~
rately, butan entirelyhdifferent color
Dr. Fletcher then outlined briefly
in popular terms the four principle
theories which attempt to account for
the working of tl hkuman jar. He
went into considerable detail on a
modification of two; of these theories
which have been evolved by himself
and his associatestas a result of their
experiments in the Bell 'Telephrone
laboratories. The gist of these theor-
ies is that sounds are transmitted
down the fluid-filled cochlea through
varying distances, depending on the
number of vibrations ,per second.
Where this number is small, the vi-
brations can go all the way down
the canal and set' its membrane in
vibration at the distant end. As the
rate of vibration rises the waves are
damped out at less distances until at
the upper limit of the hearing they
affect the membraneat the entering
end of the canal. Between these two
limits there is a position along the
membrane at wlich each pitch is
sensed. Evidence to confirm this
theory has been secured from experi-
ments upon animals and also from
mathematical research based on care-
ful measurements of the human hear-
ing, in the Bell laboratories.
A fact of great importance to the
manufacturers of radio loud speak-
ers was brought out by Dr. Fletcher.,
The chain of bones in the middle ear
had a characteristic much 'like that
of a detector in a radio circuit. WUhen
two tones struck the ear drum, the
cochlea received not only the tones
themselves but salk of their harmonics
and overtones, ,ahd also two new tones
consisting of the sum and difference
of the two original tones. If, then, a
group of tones reaches the ear differ-
ing'from each other by a constant
amount the cochlea will receive,
among other things, a tone which is
the difference between each two tones.
This is the condition which exists
when a radio loud speaker-or indeed.
any part of the radio transmission
system-suppresses the lower notes of
the scale. Every musical instrument
delivers along with each fundamental
note, a series of harmonics whose
constant difference is the vibration
rate of the fundamental. Thus, when
the fundamental is suppressed, due
to a poor loud speaker, the harmonics
reaching the ear are reconstructed
NEW LEAD TEMPERING
Chicago, Aug. 5.-Discovery of a
process to harden and temper lead by
R. S. Dean and W. E. Hutchins, Chi-
cago metallurgical engineers, was an-
nounced today by the Western Elec-
tric company, in whose plant at Haw-
thorne, the experiments were conduct-
The new discovery, something that
science has been trying to do since
the ancient days of Egypt, comes
after years of patient research and
experiment by Western Electric engi-
neers." It involves the use of a small
percentage of alloy and treatment of1
the mineral by a heating process.
Tapping Goes OnI
Ten Day Vacation
Hawley Tapping, field secretary of
the Alumni Association, left for a ten
days vacation yesterday. Mr. Tapping
plans to attend a meeting of the Uni-
versity of Michigan Clubs of the
eleventh district in Escanaba. He
will also attend the Davis Cup match-
es at Germantown, Penn., before his
return to Ann Arbor.
All games postponed-rain.
Chicago 7, Philadelphia 6.
St. Louis 14, Boston 2.
All others postponed-rain
O.F MAR1KING HlIGHWAYS
Washington, Aug. 5.-Fifty thousand
miles of roads honey combing the
United States from the Canadian bor-
der to the gulf coast and from the
Atlantic to the Pacific, were selected
today by the joint board on inter-
state highways .as "United States High-
ways" to be designated with uniform
The actual grouping of these roads
into main arterial highways was begun
today by the full committee, and was,
turned over to a sub-committee, which
after making tentative designations,
will submit recommendations to the
various states for approval.
'NEW, ATHLETIC OFFICES
TD BE READYIN FALL
The club house at Ferry Field,
which is being remodeled this sum-I
mer, is expected to be ready for use
by September 8. This building will
then include the athletic association
The space in the field house previ-
ously used by the athletic association
will be given over to the intramurall
department, which has formerly been
situated in Waterman gymnasium.
Muskegon, Aug. 5.-Four hundred
Michigan druggists were assembled
here today for 'the opening of their
forty-third annual convention. The
sessions will continue until Friday.
Dance at Union Friday Night.