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October 01, 1957 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1957-10-01

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t ,

Sixty-Eighth Year
rinted in The Michigan Daily exp ress the individual opinions of staff writers or
the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

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OBER 1, 1957


resident's Vacillation

:: ., * .*1

Heps Prept te t'sese l S

t A-

_ A .

Z'RESID NT has presented his detailed
,ologies for his order sending troops to
eRock, and It offers an interesting frame-
for a discussion of his behavior through-
be integration crisis.
e President -rjected in a carefully-rea-
I argunent the efforts of Sen. Richard
1ll pf Georgia to paint the incident as the
ning of another Sherman's March, Re-
ruction Era or. Nazi occupation.n
must say," replied the President, "that I
leteIy fall to comprehend you rcompari-
If our troops to Hitler's storm troopers. In
:ase; military power was used to further
imlitions and purposes pf a ruthless dic-
; in the other to preserve the institutions
ee government."
e should remember, in considering Presi-
Eisenhower's defense, .that for several
. following the Supreme Court decision on
al integration, he has .said, and he re-
ned as recently as July 17, that he "would
believe it would be a wise thing" to send
.s "into any ;area to enforce te orders of
leral Court."
d also on the subject of civil rights, "If
o too far too fast in laws in this delicate
you are making a mistake."
P weeks before school began in Little
Gov. Faubus notified the Justice De-
ient he hiight call out the National
d. The response, undoubtedly in line with
re ident's expressed feelings, was o6vious-
f' vigorous enough to deter the ambitious
!N CENTRAL HIGH School opened, and
'bus went through with his threat. The
lent,. faced with an "Obstruction of Jus
i the State of Arkansas" on Faubus' part,
as great as the one posed by Little Rock
three weeks later, declined to seek imme-
implemeptation of the court order by ex-
ng his po er as commander in chief to,
alize the Arkansas National Guard and
Ing it to perform Faubus' mission of keep-
,he peace, but at an integrated school
r t;lan a segregated one. This delay may
aluated using the President's own words:
hen a state, by seeking to frustrate the
i: of a Federal court, encourages mobs of
*n'sts to flout the orders of a' Federal
,and when a state refuses to utilize its
e powers against mobs, to protect persons
yre peaceably exercising their right under
ionstitution, as defined in such court or-
. .-.the oath of office of the President re-
4 that he take action to give that protec-
Failure to act in such a case would be
mount to acquiescence in anarchy and
ltion of the union.'
t; are both conditions necessary, or is not
al force required under the first alone,
hen a state "encourages mobs of extrem-
o flout the orders of a Federal court"?
't as the President himself points out,
the police powers of the State of Ar-
is," which were, after all, at the imme-
disposal of the commander-in-chief,
utilized, not to frustrate the 'orders of
ourt, but to support them, the ensuing'
ice and open disrespect for the law and
ie federal judiciary never would have oc-
." s
e.President, then, is pinpointing his own
nsibility, for in refusing for so long to
troops or to utilize existing forces in "any
to enforce the orders of a Federal court,"
even refusing to threaten Faubus with
action when the governor first proposed
ramatic move, Eisenhower was failing to
ai a way which was "tantamount to ac-
eence in anarchy and dissolution of the
3 PRESIDENT'S vacillation on the Little
glk integration question is the more
slng because 'it fits'so neatly into a pattern
ed earlier in his second Administration
veral Washington observers, a pattern of

Of An Art Form



BEFORE ONE BEGINS to discuss the pictorial version of "Th
Also Rises," there is a very important decision that must be
What kind of a picture is it?
There are two.main types of films. First, the film that ente

taking the most vigorous stands of his career
too late to prevent much of the damage done
by his vacillation.
It began with the budget, when he failed to
censure George Humphrey for his statements
against the Administration budget and then
added a few of his own. Within a matter of
weeks he was breaking all Eisenhower prece-
dents by "taking his case to the people" in
two television addresses and threatening a
special session of Congress, 'all in an effort to
restore budget cuts he himself had encouraged.
He admitted he didn't understand the vig-
orous civil rights bill passed by the House as
an Administration measure, and then was re-
ported very angry and "bitterly" disappointed
when the Senate cut out most of its substance.
His representative at the London disarma-
ment talks presented the Administration pro-
posals on nuclear testing, and for weeks the
President was still debating out loud with him-
self on tieir merits. The long delay in the pre-
sentation of a complete disarmament plan,
largely the result of a divided, unprepared and
indecisive Administration, led the Soviets' to
capitalize upon, and perhaps even to believe,
charges of American insincerity. After the
damage was done, the President came out
strongly for his proposals."
He refused to issue any statement in support
of an aid-to-education bill which represented
a compromise with Democratic proposals, een
when Welfare Secretary Folsom publicly called
for such' support, and he waited until the bill
was defeated by a mere five votes to issue a
statement expressing "great disappointment."
NOW THE President has again taken an ex-
tremely strong position -and has, as in most
of the previous cases, been described in leaks
to the press as being very angry. But all this
righteous wrath seems at feast partially mis-
directed.- Perhaps some of it should be turned
inward against a man who has so often, by
his inaction or indecision, permitted or even
precipitated what he has attempted to act
strongly against once the damage was done.
N THE INTEGRATION issue, at least, the
President may have been encumbered in
his actions by some desire for "gradualism,"
as evidenced by his July 16 expression against
going "too far too fast in this particular field."
Many determined foes of segregation will
agree with this sentiment, feeling that the bad
will engendered by premature integration may
do more harm than good for the cause of im-
proved race relations in the deep South. But
an important distinction -should be made in
any, consideration of a "gradualist" policy: it
is one thing for the courts, in applying the Su-
preme Court decisions, to gradually and care-
fully select areas which are ready for integra-
tion, to allow school boards to cooperate with
Negro groups in the working out of plans for
partial integration and in the selection of
Negro students to be introduced into white
schools, to attempt in a number of ways to
make the adjustment as easy as possible. But
it is quite another thing to apply "gradually"
federa court orders once they are given, to,
say, as the President did this summer, that he
would not use troops to enforce the law of the
land once the courts had decreed it.
G1RADUALISTS may well hope and urge that,
the courts will not demand integration in
areas where one would predict that military
force would be reuired to enforce it. But they
should not favor the undermining of the auth-
ority of the courts, or hesitation in the appli-
cation of their orders, only because enforcing
those orders, once given, would necessitate
the use of troops. Such inaction only diminish-
es the respect for federal authority which in
many areas is the only basis for the accep-
tance of integration and encourages the dis-
obedience of that authority as surely as does
the action of an Orval Faubus.

l, . :
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s~wG~~R'p-l S G ,. x N. f

Hussein -King in Danger

The great majority of movies fall
some that are meant to be taken
something beyond an idle hour at
must be judged as a serious film.
It is based on Ernest Hemingway's
novel of the same name, and de-
pends upon the intentions of the
author for its validity."
Surely, if the movie industry is
to; be taken as a sincere form of
expression-and certainly this is
what movie "makers want -we
must regard "The Sun Also Rises"
insofar as it compares to the novel
it attempts to represent. ,
* * *
WHEN READING a novel the
calibre of "The Sun Also Rises,"
each reader goes through a rather
personal experience. This personal
response cannot possibly be dupli-
cated in a theater where one is
involved In an audience reaction.
In judging a film it is only fair
to realize this essential distinction.
Ava Gardner in the role of Lady
Brett Ashley is a mistake. Miss
,Gardner is far too much the
healthy animal, and as such, was
incapable of communicating the
sick, disillusioned spirit of Lady
Ashley of the novel. Even in her
worst moments, Miss Gardner is
just too sturdy and clear-eyed to
look dissipated.
Another miscast character is
Mel Ferrer as Robert Cohn. There
is more to the Cohn of the novel
than the petulent, moody child of
Ferrer's portrayal.
Barnes does as good a job as
Power could have done in' this
role. Perhaps we are a little too
aware of his efforts. His suffering
is a bit too obvious and as.a'result,
the impact of Barnes' suffering is
partially destroyed.
In the book, Jake's lack of self
pity is the factor that makes the
reader 'reach out and really feel
the man's pain.
Eddie Albert as Barnes' side
kick Bill Gorton does a wonderful
job. His performance, however, is
overshadowed by the finest por-
trayal of theĀ° movie, Errol Flynn,
in the role of Mike Campbell, a
drunken gentleman on the way
down. The humorous scenes be-
tween these two at Pamplona are
high spots in the movie..
THE PAMPLONA scenes are
faithful to the events'of the fes-
tival. The scene of the final day
when the festival has ended is out-
standing and retained the essen-
tial emotion of the book.
In contrast, the fishing scene
completely failed to catch the sym-
bolic meaning Hemingway intend-
ed it to have in the book.
"The Sun Also Rises" is an
honest attempt and must be recog-
nized as such. The movie men un-
dertook an impossible task.pTheir
medium cannot possibly present
the truths of' the novel as an art
This is a worthwhile film and,
might serve as a model to the in-
dustry of what can be done with
a serious literary work.
--Fred Marcus,

into this category. Then there
seriously; that is, their purpo
the theater. "The Sun Also R
The Daily Official Bulletin i
official publication of the Uni'
sity of Michigan for which
Michigan Daily assumes no
torlal responsibility. Notices she
be sent in TYPEWRITTEN form
Room 3519 Administration Bu
ing, before 2 p.m. the day preced
publication. Notices for Sun
Daily due at 2:00 p.m. Friday.
General NOtiCe
Varsity Debate Team, under the
pices of The Department of 8:
will hold its first meetinig of ti
mester for all former and proep
members at 7:30 p.m. Tues., Oct
Rm. 2040, Frieze Building.
Meeting of all those intereste
Rhodes Scholarships in Room
Angell Hall, on Wed., Oct. 2, a
p.m. Application forms for R
Scholarships may be obtained a'
Angell Hall and should be hand
on or before Oct. 18. Anyone
ested who is unable to attene
meeting is requested to see Clark
kins, 2011 Angell Hall, Chat
Rhodes Scholarship Committee.
Marshall Scholarships. Inforrr
and application forms on the,
shall Scholarship program may b
tained at the Scholarship Divisio:
fice of Student Affairs, 2011 St
Activities Building. Applications
be filed by Oct. 15. This progr
open to application by those who
to do graduate study in the I
Science Research Club meetir
the Rackham Amphitheatre at 703
on Tues., Oct. 1. Program: "Early
Life in Michigan," Chester A. A
-Botany; "Radiation Effects on C
ical Reactions," Leigh C. Andez
Chemistry. Dues for 1957-58 act
after 7:10 p.m.
Academic Noti
Engineering Freshman Assembi
begheldrinthe Architecture Au
ium on Wed., Oct. 2 at 2:00 p.m
at 4:00 p.m. Attendance of all
semester engineering freshmen
Medical College Admission Test
plication blanks for the Oct. 29
administration of the Medical C
Admission Test are now availat
122 Rackham Building. Applic
blanks are due in Princeton, N.J
later than Oct. 15, 1957.
Mathematics Colloquium: Dr. E
pern will lecture on "Hyperalge
But Topology" on Tues., Oct.
4:10 p~m. in Room 3011. Angell
Coffee and tea in Rom 3212,
Hall at 3:45 p.m.
The Extension Service announce
following class to' be held in An,
bor beginning Tues., Oct. 1:
Design and Development of
Properties, 7:30 p.m. 141 SOho
Business Administration. EightN
$13,50. Prof. Harlow'0. Whittemor

AMMAN, Jordan - King Hus-
sein of Jordan is a youngster
of 23 who has spent most of his
life absorbed in sports cars, alr-
planes, and women. Suddenly he
has found the weight of the world
upon his shoulders.
His-grandfather, King Abdul-
lah, was shot and killed as he
prayed. in the great mosque of
Jerusalem because he wanted to
make peace with Israel. Hussein's
father became mentally ill. And
the young prince, a callow youth
just out of boarding school in
England, inherited the throne -
one of the. shakiest, yet one of the,
most important in the Near East.
Those who know Hussein say
he has aged 10 years in the last
two. The American Embassy staff
who entertain him at informal
dances and barbecues say he is
dignified, modest, has given up
the women-chasing ways that
brought him fame and caused his
beautiful Egyptian wife to leave
THOUGH it's difficult to judge
from quick impressions, I found
him modest, sincere, and thor-
oughly familiar - with the heavy
burden weighing upon his royal
head. .
I also found him to be the most
carefully guarded personage I in-
terviewed in the entire Near or
Middle East -- for understand-
able reasons. At the foot of the
hill on which stands the royal
palace, your car is stopped while
the guard phones the king's sec-
At the top of the hill, around
the palace, pace the famed, color-
ful Arab Legion, once paid by the
British and trained by Glubb
Pasha. Inside the palace are more
guards dressed in the shiny black

boots, the tight coat, and the tall
lambskin hat of the Cossack."
Inside, waiting 'for audiences
with the King, was a long line of
advisers, cabinet members, am-
bassadors - the head of the Mos-
lem Brotherhood which has as-
sassinated Arab leaders when
they leaned toward friendship
with Israel; the very intelligent
Jordanian Ambassador to Ger-
many, Farhan Ishbailat, on his
way to a new post in Iraq; the
Chief of Staff, Habis Majali; the
astute Turkish Ambassador, Mah-
mut Dikerdem; and leaders of
Parliament presenting the King
with the ticklish problem of
whether to call back into a ses-
sion a parliament some of whose
members, have been hanged for
treason, some remaining in exile,
and some by no means loyal to
The room in which the King re-
ceived me looks more like a mod-
ern business office thanka throne
room. A black mahogany table
stood under a portrait of his late
grandfather, King Abdullah.

he has accepted aid from the
United States and England, both
regarded as friends of Israel.
"When I was in Israel," I told
King Hussein, "I found that the
Israelis were terribly worried
about an attack from you. Yet you
seem worried about an attack
from them."
"We have reason to believe that
Israel-wants to enlarge her bor-
ders," the King observed, "That
she feels she cannot live without
taking the high ground which we.
hold along the mountain slopes.
We have to protect ,ourselves from
aggression and worry about it at
all times. Unfortunately, the mili-
tary drain is more than our eco-
nomy can stand."
I HAD LEARNED from others
that the King, in private, is more
reasonable toward Israel than
most Arab leaders, but cannot af
ford to say so, either politically
or for his own safety. He can't.
forget that his grandfather was
killed for wanting to make peace
with Israel.
So I sounded him out on Harry
Truman's plan to resettle the ref-
ugees by a big irrigation develop-
ment plan for the Near East,
which might bring peace between
Israel and the Arab states. Eith-
er I did not explain the idea clear-
ly, or the King wanted to avoid
part of the question.
"We had great hopes from the
Eric Johnston plan for getting ir-
rigation water from the Jordan
River, but that failed of agree-
ment in the end," he said. The
development of minerals in the
Dead Sea has been 'held up be-
cause 'of the uncertainty of our
boundaries, but we hope to go
ahead there soon."-
(Copyright 1957 by Bell Syndicate Inc.)

"THE INTERNAL problems we -
experienced last spring, the threat
of Communism are over now." he
told me when I asked how his
desert kingdom- was progressing.
"We still have some problems,
of course -" he continued, speak-
ing in excellent English. "Our,
borders with Israel where we face
the danger-of attack, and the fact
that one-third of our population
are refugees. This is more than a
country of our size can handle,
and would be a difficult element
in any country."
The King referred to the 400,-
000 Arab refugees from Israel liv-
ing in camps in Jordan, most of
them bitter against him because

Pea ce?


T HE RESULTS 'of the Haitian
election for president are not,
yet official, but it seems clear
enough that Francois Duvalier is
going to be declared the victor.
Whatever some Haitians may,
feel about' the election, it is to be
hoped that the whole 'country will
now accept the verdict and 'settle
down to a desperately needed peri-
od of civic peace .. ,
-New York Times

The tExtension Service annour
that there are still openings in
following class to be held in Ann
bor r /
Miarkpting, Principles- and PeRi
7:00 p.m. (Business Administratioh
three hours of undergraduate _cret
170 School of Business Administrat
Sixteen weeks. $40.50, Ross J. Wilhe
may be made in the Extension Se
ice' office at 1610 Washtenaw Avei
during' University office hours or
Room 164 of the School of Busi
Administration, from 6:30 to 9:30 p
the night of the class.
(Continued on Page 5)

Integration from Within Versus Integration by Force

U.N s HammarskId

Associated Press News Analyst
)AG HAMMARSKJOLD is going into his
second five-year term as UN Secretary
eneral with a bolder concept of his role than
had when he started his first one.
When he took office April 10, 1953, he told
e General Assembly the UN's work "requires
strict observance of the rules and principles
d down in the charter of this organization."
When he accepted a second term last week
said the Secretary General ought to be ex-
cted to act without guidance of UN charter
UN decisions "should this appear to him
He expwessed belief it was in keeping with
e philosophy of the charter that the Secre-
ry General should act "to help in filling any
cuum that may appear in the systems which
e charter and traditional diplomacy provide
r the safeguarding of peace."'

The 52=year-old Swedish diplomat-econom-
ist, in his report to the 1957 Assembly, sug-
gested "the primary value of the United Na-
tions is to serve as an instrument for negotia-
tion among governments."
"In an organization of sovereign states," he
declared, "voting victories are likely to be illu-
sory unless they are steps in the direction of
wining lasting consent to a peaceful and just
settlement of the questions at issue."
HE GAVE no examples. But the Assembly
year after year has passed resolutions on
the Arab-French conflict in Algeria, the Brit-
ish-Greek disput over Cyprus and the Indo-
nesian-Dutch quarrel on western New Guinea.
All those questions remain unsettled.
Hammarskjold observed that "in the diplo-
macy of world organizationthe quiet work ...
of conciliation and mediation, ... the winning
of consent to agreed solutions" forms a basis
canw. hich t he. TUN couild become ncj reasinglyv

(EDITOR'S NOTE: The response to
Robert Y. Drake's letter (The South-
ern View) which appeared in The
Daily of Sept. 27, has been consider-
able and so far unanimous in oppo-
sition to Drake's position. The Daily
regrets that because of space limita-
tions, we are unable to print every
letter, Those reproduced below are
Rejoinder .
To The Editor:
THOUGH I do not like to ask for
space in the columns of the
student newspaper, I feel that to-
day's (Sept. 27) letter on integra-
tion, written by a faculty member
may merit some rejoinder. Having
lived in India, where social change
is now being legislated, as well as
in the South and in the North in
our own nation, I am struck by
some of the comments included in
the letter to which I refer.
As is recognized in 'many parts
of the world, it is not always fea-
sible to wait for people to change
themselves. One may have to re-
gard as rather specious the plea
that the nation ought to let the
South solve integration. The South
has had decades in which to pro-
vide even "equal but separate fa-

be upheld. There is nothing novel
about this fact. Each society uses
force to maintain its lawn Md we
all benefit from orderly use of
such force, as by the police force
in our cities.
The Southern quibble on the
use of force in this case results
from the fact that they don't like
the law that is being upheld. I
wonder if the responsible element
of the South has stopped to realize
what life would be like if force
were not available to uphold the
I must also react to the quaint
phrase "the dark powers of Madi-
son Avenue." One finds it difficult
to understand how Madison Ave-
nue gets dragged into the Little
Rock problem. One suspects that,
some people have so lost contact
with reality that they can no
longer perceive what is pertinent
and separate it from what is not.
If there has been anything like
a-"dark power" which has mani-
pulated people vis-a-vis Arkansas
and integration it has been a lot
closer to Central High School than
Madison Avenue.
* * *

have waited until Doomsday for
the South to work out its own
salvation, as Mr. Drake puts it,
in accordance with the laws of
the nation.
-Prof. Robert I. Crane
History Dept.
Rebuttal .. .
To The Editor:
WOULD like to consider a few
of the arguments advanced by
Mr. Drake in the letter which ap-
peared in the Sept. 27 issue of The
Space does not permit a de-
tailed rebuttal of all the arguments
in Mr. Drake's letter; however, I
would like to discuss the following
concepts which seem to have moti-
vated this letter: 1) integration
must come from within, 2). the
Southern view, 3) integration can-
not be imposed by force, and 4)
the North is forcing the South to
First of all, integration is coming
from within; the decisions of the
Supreme Court were the result of,
legal action instigated by Southern
people. These decisions would be

the South are not being heard,
except in their courageous deter-
mination to secure their individual
rights in the face of physical and
economic reprisals.
It is certainly true that integra-
tion cannot be imposed by force..
However, Federal troops have not:
been sent to Little Rook to force
integration; they have been sent
there to prevent forceful segrega-
tion. They have been sent there
to protect UnitedbStates citizens
from physical violer . The" have
been sent there to see that the
legal structure of our society is
not inpaired b;, illegal actions, a
duty which the local government
could not or would not fulfill.
It certainly is not the attitude
in the North (which has serious
integration problems of its own)
that the use of Federal troops will
advance integration; such usage is
at best negative, in that it ,pre-
vents "de-integration."
* * *t
ONE OF the shibboleths ad-,
vanced as the so-called "Southern
view" is the picture of the naive
Northerner "forcing" ,'e - th-
erner to integrate. Presumably the

Court. This moneY comes, for
most part, in a trickle of penn
nickels and dimes, from mo
Southern homes, where memb
ship in the NAACP invites ami
by shotgun, or an -economic, b
--A. Lang
Plymouth, Midt
Confused?, ,
To The Editor:
under "The Southern View'
the 'Letters to the Editor' colu
of the Sept. 27 issue of The Da
has tried to make perverted jud
ment appear the better rea
With all the art at the comm
of an instructor in English, he
attempted to conceal vested in1
ests behind a subtle and ar
camouflage of his totally confu
notions of individual' liberty
According to Mr. Drake, pec
are equal before' law only beca
law does not recognize them
persons in the fullest sense of
word. And, therefore, some p
sons (the Southern whites es

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