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May 29, 1957 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1957-05-29

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EL7r ~idriigan Dtily
Sixty-Seventh Year

"While You're Talking, I'll Bring Some More Chairs"

'When Opinilaos Are Free
Truth Will Prevail"

Twelve Angry Men'
Effective, Credible
TWELVE ANGRY MEN has been the subject of much critical interest
among reviewers since its release a few months ago. A product of
the recent television-author-turned-script-writer flurry in Hollywood,
the movie is another of the black and white, slice of life creations
previously typified by such pictures as Marty and Bachelor Party. Like
them, it draws its material from a fairly realistic, middleclass situation,


Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers o
the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
University's Role, Student's Goal.
A Comfortable Hammock.

Adams, "is so astonishing as the amount
of ignorance it accumulates in the form of inert
And despite the ironic truth in Adams' state-
ment, this aspect of education is becoming in-
creasingly prevalent, though perhaps more
understandable in terms of the trends of mod-
ern American education.
While graduates of colleges and universities
throughout the country are being trained more
expertly than ever before in the utilitarian
tactics of the here-and-now, few are emerging
with an awareness of values and issues deeper
and more fundamental. While four years of
college education is looked upon as the neces-
sary prerequisite to a job, and consequently
the graduate's fulfillment of his responsibility
to himself, it is seldom viewed as a means by
which the graduate may meet his responsibili-
ties to society.
It is not uncommon among graduates to
conceive of a world heavily in debt to them
for completing four grueling years of "addi-
tional" schooling, and of themselves holding
little responsibility to reciprocate in the deal.
"We've finished learning; now where's the
AS IT IS TOO EASY to generalize as to the
reasons for this apparent deficiency of edu-
cation, so is it too easy to suggest a panacea to
the problem. The dangers are further increased
when the task is undertaken by a college gradu-
ate himself. But with these dangers in mind,
we will attempt to make a few observations and
One is struck, at first glance at the Univer-
sity's student body, by the large amount of
complacency and lack of concern for matters
t of vital importance to the maintenance of a
society which is, or should be, something more
than static. There seems to be little interest,
and few means to express that interest, in
international relations, politics, social problems
and even the crises faced by higher education,
and little enthusiasm for tackling problems
in these areas which exist on a campus level.
We are living in a time relatively untroubled
by economic, political and social unrest, char-
acterized by its bywords of peace, moderation
and cooperation.For the majority of Americans,
as for the majority of American students, the
financial obstacles in the day of their desires
are not insurmountable. Most of us exhibit a
contented pleasure in the present, a disdain for
things reminiscent of the recent past and either
a-"positive thinking" confidence in the future
or a self-oriented life which can only be lived
on a day-to-day basis. All that counts is that
we are happy now and that there is a reason-
able prospect for our happiness in the future.
CONSEQUENTLY, the emergence of an idea
disruptive of the present status does not
provoke reaction, except insofar as the idea
can be shoved to the side to the realm of
"idealism," and the status quo regained. When
we are kicked out of our comfortable ham-
mocks, our immediate reaction is not to look
around and see why we have been kicked out,
but to crawl back in and reach for the nearest
tranquilizer.Challenge is met by retreat.
Further investigation suggests that this sit-
uation is not peculiar to the student body, and
not even peculiar to the Uiiversity of Michigan
-but this does not make the situation here
any less real. Nor does it make the reason for
it any less escapable.
Indeed, it should muster the full resources of
the student's and the University's intellect.
Primarily, it necessitates an effort to dispel the
idea that education is the mere attainment of
a peak, despite the quantity and quality of
learning that takes place on the way to that
peak. Education should not obtain its objectives
from "research-proven" requirements for par-
ticular jobs and economic livelihoods. Its pri-
mary goal is not the achievement of economic
happiness and social security, though these
conditions are not necessarily undesirable when
coupled with keen appreciation of more funda-
mental values on which society rests.
'Today's graduate is not meeting the challenge
of today because he is not being equipped with
the stuff to meet it. While he is receiving pro-
fessional and job training, he is not at the
same time realizing the full values of his
university experience. The association with
university scholars and great arts and sciences

Editorial Staff
Editorial Director City Editor
GAIL GOLDSTEIN................. Personnel Director
ERNEST THEODOSSIN. -............Magazine Editor
JANET REARICK........Associate Editorial Director
MARY ANN THOMAS.............. Features Editor
DAVID GREY........................Sports Editor
RICHARD CRAMER ........ Associate Sports Editor
STEPHEN HEILPERN ........ Associate Sports Editor
ARLINE LEWIS.............. Women's Co-Editors
JOHN HIRTZEL ................Chief Photographer
Business Staff
DAVID SILVER, Business Manager
MITOTCN GOCLDfSTEIN ... Associate Business Manager

has been minimized to the detriment of the
student, the University and society.
The University is fulfilling one of its tasks,
that of using and perfecting the means of
life, but it is not realizing the equally important
responsibiilty of providing focus for and inspir-
ing its ends.
SINCE THE University community is com-
prised not only of scholars, but students
as well, the responsibility for providing this
focus and inspiration is a joint one. The fac-
ulty must provide challenge; the students must
accept this challenge. The mutuality here is
the most important ingredient for the progress
of the University community as a regenera-
tive spirit in society, adaptable and adapting to
the needs, not the desires, of society.
With regard to the University of Michigan,
several suggestions can be made for considera-
1) Students and faculty should both take'the
initiative in establishing mutual associations
outside the classroom, and not in a student-
faculty-administration-conference vein. Infor-
mal discussions between students and faculty
members often do more to establish an attach-
ment to academic disciplines than classroom
lectures and usually give the student a greater
appreciation for the subject. Through "unhur-
ried and relaxed conversation" with faculty
members, the student is better able to recognize
the significance of the discipline to his own
2) Counselors should continue to be teaching
faculty members. One of the most dishearten-
ing things about an expanding university is the
growth of a large counseling staff that runs
the risk of developing into another area of ad-
ministrative professionalism. At one time, all
members of the administration were required
to be appointed from the ranks of the faculty.
The academic counseling burden should be
spread over a sufficiently large number of
teachers to prevent the University from breed-
ing through its own size another "efficient"
3) Consideration should be given to making
conditions more favorable for faculty members
to be placed in residence hall positions. Close
student-faculty relations would provide the
student with a good picture of the faculty
members' ideas, hopes and ambitions, the fac-
ulty members with a better knowledge of his
student's interests and problems.
4) The student-faculty ratio should decrease
rather than remain the same as the Univer-
sity expands. Faculty members cannot be al-
lowed to become so burdened with classroom
work, committee assignments and the "publish
or perish" yoke that they cannot devote ample
time to each'of their students.
5) There should be less concentration on lec-
tures and more reliance on the student's abil-
ity to get material himself from the library
and discuss it with his teacher in conference.
6) The superior student should not be treated
as a special case in the sense that he is a de-
viate from the American mental and behavior-
al norm. The academic program should be cen-
tered around the superior student, for whom it
has the greatest sinificarce. The deficiency of
the average student should be the criterion for
course adaptation, not the superiority of the
brilliant student. To operate otherwise is to
make mediocrity a virtue and to prostitute the
philosophy of a university. The academic level
of honors programs should be the rule and not
the exception. Superior students should be
constantly challenged, not necessarily loaded
with more work on the same level. Only by
basing the academic curriculum on the finest
in intellect and ability is the average student in
the best position to benefit.
THE EStABLISHMENT of a goal which rep-
resents 100 per cent of accomplishment will
usually result in an actual accomplishment of,
for instance, 50 per cent; but the watering-
down of objectives to 50 per cent might mean
only 25 per cent attainment of that goal.
7) The University should not maintain a
position of neutrality in important social and
moral issues, but should encourage students
to use their fullest intellect to solve some of
the problems extant at this University and in
(society in general. With respect to Michigan,
for instance, there could be fuller utilization of
the international student population and a
vigorous, positive program in the area of
racial and religious discrimination.
8) Faculty members should take an active
interest in activities which have the potential,

as does Student Government Council, of get-
ting out of the bicycle ban-dance area. As the
student becomes cognizant of the fact that
he can translate the ideas he picks up in the
classroom into action on the campus his edu-
cation is made more exciting and valuable.
9) Students should become more aware of
their responsibilities after graduation to their
university and to higher education. If their
experience in school is a signifcant one, if they
do not just mark time, the chances are that
graduations will not sever them from their du-
ties to contribute in such areas as financing
institutions and developing in their own com-
munities a greater appreciation of the im-
portance of colleges and universities.
B UT MORE IMPORTANT than any of these
suggestions: the University should not be


and like them, it may be classed
as a comparative success.
Characterized by small casts,
fine acting, and creditable plots,
these films seem to exemplify the
wisdom of the shift in focus that
has taken place in the entertain-
ment world as a result of TV com-
The script of television writer
Reginald Rose has been combined
with the professional screen pro-
duction techniques of Hollywood
to produce an effective and con-
vincing show.
. * *
THE TWELVE angry men of the
title are twelve irritated jurors in
a New York murder trial. Repre-
sentative, almost stereotyped citi-
zens, they seem to personify all the
various weaknesses and prejudices
of average un-public minded
people who find themselves forced
to take on the unpleasant respon-
sibilities of government.
The jurors walk into their quar-
ters convinced of the guilt of the
defendant; in a short space of*
time, they have all changed their
minds. The action is tense, occa-
sionally funny, and usually inter-
The acting, especially that of
Joseph Burrows, Henry Fonda, and

Lee J. Cobb is good and,' in some
instances, even memorable.
Perhaps the only outstanding
fault of the film is over-concen-
tration. Too many characters, too
many symbols, too many human
weaknesses are presented in much
too short a time.
* * *
WHILE THE attempt to attain
universality through this device is
commendable, we wonder if it is
not expended at times at the cost
of believability and verisimilitude.
The characters are over-typical,
This excess is probably explain-
able, if not entirely Justified: At
the beginning of the picture,
twelve men appear upon the
screen as little more than barely
distinguishable ciphers; a brief
hour and forty minutes later, we
know most of them well.
Such rapid mass revelation of
character would most likely be
impossible unless the characters
themselves were a trifle typed from
the very start.
On the whole, however, the
movie accomplishes its purposes-
it succeeds in creating both sus-
pense and sympathy in the mind
of the interested viewer.
-Jean Willoughby



Russian Withdrawal Plan


Daily Staff Writer
THE SOVIET UNION has, as re-
cently as last February, offered
to "withdraw all Soviet troops in
Europe to the Russian border, pro-
vided',American and British troops
agree to retire to their own bor-
ders." Chester Bowles, former Am-
bassador to India, feels this would
pave the way for a free United
Germany and eventually a free
and integrated pro-Western Eur-
Bowles thinks this could be ac-
complished by the gradual with-
drawal of troops of both sides
from one country at a time. For
example, the United States would
pull out of West Germany and
the Russians would evacuate East
* * .*
EVENTUALLY then, the East-
ern European nations would be rid
of Soviet domination and free to
choose their own political and
economic systems. Advocates of
this withdrawal plan feel the
choice would be favorable to the
United States, where many Poles
and Hungarians, for example,
have relatives or certain cultural
Bowles believes that besides this,
such a move would relieve the
strained relations which now exist
along the Iron Curtain and-which
could flare from mere "border in-
cidents" into a full scale or even

atomic war, if a wrong move is
made at a crucial time.
Certain other aspects of this
plan, however, are not quite so
For one thing, it looks like a
well calculated propaganda move
by the Russians, who hope to put
the United States on the spot. In
the event we do not accept, it
would look as though we are the
ones who are afraid to pull our
troops out of Europe for our own
economic or political reasons.
It is most unlikely that the
USSR would go through with such
a plan, for fear of having all of
Eastern Europe slip out of the So-
viet sphere of influence. Even in
such a case, the cards are still in
their favor.
If the United States pulled its
troops back as far as an Iceland
to Spain to North Africa defense
line, as the former ambassador
suggests, and the Russians pulled
all troops 300 or more miles with-
in their borders, (the likelihood of
which is small) the Soviets would
have a decided advantage in case
of war.
* * *
ADVANCING along good roads
racross the flat plains of Eastern
Europe, especially Poland, they
could move whole armies into
Germany and perhaps across the
Rhine before any semblance of
American and British resistance
could be rushed into France. It
would amount, in short, to anoth-
er Blitzkrieg.

To The Editor
A Tribute ...
To the Editor:
ON SUNDAY a great heart was silenced when our most recent alumnus
passed on even before his classmates received their degrees. Enrique
Borda-or Henry as his friends called him-lost the valiant fight against
Through the long months he never gave up hope; his bright smile
and happy disposition were a tribute to courage and the will to live.


Airpower, of course, would play
a vital role in any future attack,
with both sides utilizing nuclear
weapons. We must assume, how-
ever, that our Air Force could do
little better than force some sort
of costly stalemate, for the Rus-
sian air and missile forces 'may
soon be as effective as ours if this
is not already the case.
In any case, ground troops
would be 'necessary to occupy all
but the most bomb-ravaged areas,
and the balance of power could
possibly rest with the forgotten in-
fantryman, of whom the Soviets
have a huge majority.
THE RESULT of all this is the
dilemma with which we are pres-
ently faced today. Perhaps the
solution rests with the acceptance
of a somewhat revised plan. In
such a plan, after the withdrawal
of American and Soviet forces, a
large and well-armed United Na-
tions contingent would be moved
into Europe to make sure all terms
of the agreement were carried out
and to insure that neither side
could gain a tactical advantage
from the withdrawal.
Most probably, however, noth-
ing will be done until the United
States has some sound basis for
believing that the USSR is actual-
ly seeking such a move with peace-
ful intentions and willingness to
accept the proper safeguards that
the Free World would demand in
such a proposal.

In the final weeks of illness, he
was cheered by two manifestations
that this great University was not
so big or impersonal that it must
be indifferent. Though he came
from a foreign land, he was
amongst friends-scores of friends
he never knew.
A few weeks ago when the doc-
tors prescribed a complete~trans-
fusion, a call went out for sixty
pints of blood. The response from
students and even faculty was
instantaneous and generous. A
brief respite from the ravages of
his afflictionnow permitted him
to leave the hospital and walk the
campus again.
And then his new found strength
must inevitably slip away; but this
did not weaken his determination
to graduate. His department of
concentration, applauding his cour-
age and realizing how near he was
to his goal, petitioned the admin-
istrative authorities to waive the
few outstanding requirements"
which had been more than satis-
fied in spirit, if not to the letter.
This request was granted, and
last week the University, in a pri-
vate ceremony at his hospital bed,
conferred its degree of Bachelor

Atoms for Peace Program To Aid U.S. Industry

Daily Staff Writer
payer has invested more than
15 billion dollars in the American
atomic program, and it is in the
interest of our industry that we
get some benefit out of this tre-
mendous outlay," Eric Stein, Pro-
fessor of International Law at the
Law School, said recently.
Discussing the most recent in-
ternational developments concern-
ing the Atoms for Peace program,
Prof. Stein stated in addition that
"it is clear you should not make
fissionable material available for
widespread use abroad without
effective control against diversion
to military purposes.
"Fissionable materials will be
used more and more all over the
world; and the United States mnust
make sure, to the best of its ability,
that use of fissionable material is
under safeguards which will en-
sure peaceful use."
* * *
PROF. STEIN and Bernhard G.
Bechhoefer, U.S. Foreign Service
Officer detailed to the Atomic
Energy Commission, are co-au-
thors of "Atoms for Peace: A New
International Atomic Energy
Agency," which appeared in the
April, 1957 Michigan Law Review.
The article analyzes the history of
negotiations for this Agency, the
statute of which has already been
ratified by 10 nations.
Closed hearings are now taking
place on the Statute before a sub-

international agency would be to
"... begin to diminish the poten-
tial destructive power of the
world's atomic stock piles," and to
make more widely available the
benefits from atomic energy for
peaceful purposes.
The United States, Prof. Stein
said, has already concluded 41
bilateral agreements, under which
it has undertaken to help other
nationA in the development of
atomic reactors for research and
power. He noted also that Russia
has made her own arrangements
with her satellites.
WILL THOSE states which now
use or wish to use fissionable
materials use them for their medi-
cal, industrial, and agricultural
needs and power purposes? Or
might they draw off some of the
weapons grade material and make
plutonium bombs? The United
States bilateral agreements, Prof.
Stein said, provide safeguards
against such diversion. The new
International Atomic Energy
Agency likewise seeks to prevent
diversion of the material into new
armament programs.
Prof. Stein and Bechhoefer have
pointed out in their article that
"there is less danger when three
countries have atomic weapons
than when more than 80 states
have them. In this respect," the
article continues, "it is possible
that the interest of the United
States and the Soviet Union might
There are some countries, Prof.

able, for a fixed price, to other
states under effective safeguards.
The' Agency could also procure
technical: advice and act as an in-
termediary in procuring the neces-
sary equipment.
"Here," Prof. Stein said, "is
where American industry comes in.
It will be possible for a member
state to get the necessary fission-
able material from the Agency
and to buy the reactor and the
know-how from American indus-
** *
feels, that the United States would
make available to the Agency any
classified data. "This would be
neither advisable or necessary for
the Agency's purposes, since
enough technology is presently
available in unclassified form."
Prof. Stein and Bechhoefer have
pointed out in their article that
the Agency will have authority to
set up its own storage and other
facilities. However, because of the
great cost, it is not likely that such
facilities will be set up on a large
scale in the near future.
Therefore the Agency will no
doubt wish to make use of mem-
bers' existing facilities. The short-
age of technicians will be a real
handicap, and in the first stages
of operation the Agency will very
likely concentrate on helping in
the training of technicians.
Before giving any assistance to
its members, the article points out,
the Agency will have the right to

that a participating country fail-
ing to comply with the rules of the
Agency would be in serious trouble.
For one thing, he said, the
Board of Governors of the Agency
could stop supplying materials. He
termed this "a good sanction if the
country depends on the Agency
for its supply of fissionable ma-
terials." Or, he added, the Board
of Governors could order the vio-
lator to return the fissionable
In any case, the Board of Gover-
nors will report the violation to
the Security Council of the United
Nations, which has the authority
to act under Chapter VII of the
Charter (economic and other
sanctions) in case of a threatvto
the peace. In the event of a veto
in thecSecurity Council, action
would be taken in the General
THE AGENCY itself, Prof. Stein
said, cannot punish a country; it
can only suspend that country's
membership in the Agency and
stop the supplies. "Beyond that,
the Security Council and the Gen-
eral Assembly must cope with it."
The statute of the International
Atomic Energy Agency has met
with some opposition in the Sen-
ate from those who claim that
some of the United States-pro-
duced fissionable material may be
added to the military potential of
the Soviet bloc. This is quite un-
likely under the proposed Agency
setup, in which the United States

or Arts upon the proudest alumnus
of the class of 1957.
Henry was an inspiration to all
who knew him. His infectious smile
and his enthusiasm were amazing,
for he would never admit that a
dark cloud hung over him. One
can recall visiting him at the hos-
pital and being greeted with a
cheery-"I'm glad you came be-
cause I want you to explain this
point of international law in the
Suez crisis."
Personal problems were always
subordinate in the wider concern
for world affairs. His interest in
his studies never waned and al-
ways his college texts were at his
bedside. Yet he was apything but
a pedant! When he could not at-
tend class himself he coaxed his
father to attend for him, and thus
vicariously he attempted to keep
up with assignments.
Occasionally his faltering
strength would have periods of
renewal and delightedly he would
report-"I got out to class a couple
of times last week!" One recalls
the note of triumph on Easter
Sunday when he declared - "I
think I'm going to make it!"
No graduate this year will have
a more cherished degree than that
awarded to Enrique Borda.
-Lionel H. Laing
Sen. Morse ..
To the Editor:
SENATOR Wayne Morse has been
under fire lately because of his
statement in Detroit several days
ago in which he accused Mr.
Eisenhower of "political immoral-
Although I don't think it is fit
to compare the President with Mr.
Beck, as Morse did, I do think that
it is about time that the image of
Eisenhower became more realistic.
His popularity has reached an
all-time low despite his immunity
to criticism.
The President has tried to give
away many things, including
Douglas McKay (and the people
of Oregon didn't accept.) If he is
not guilty of political immorality,
in this respect and many others,
then he is surely treading on dan-
gerous waters.
-Keke Pyrros, '58
Formosa ..
To the Editor:
MR. James Elsman's editorial
of "An Independent Formosa,"
I should like to offer a few com-
ments which I hope may be help-
ful in talking about China:
1. Mutual military or economic
pacts are based cn mutual con-
cerns and benefits. Neither side
of it is necessary to sign it if she
does not think she has a fair share.
To expect to get something for
nothing is just wishful thinking
and not practical.
2. Mixing personal feeling to-
ward certain individuals with di-

1 '


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