THE MICHIGAN DAILY
Elgin Nat'l. Watch Co., Elgin, Ill.-
Net ok-mnwthB.i iea
Scientists Advance Theories OFF TO BEIRUT:
OnOC n ntapfessor Plans rabic Dictionary
By SARAH ROWLEY : :
(Editor's Note: This is the fifth in'
a series of articles concerning the
atom, atomic energy, its utilization
and the important scientists who
contributed to the advancement of
the Atomic Age.
By GERALD LUNDY
With the pioneering experi-
ments of Roentgen in X-rays and
the Curies in radiation scientists
wondered about the internal
structure of the atom.
And then in 1903 the "indes-
tructible entity theories" of the
ancients, the "eternal atom" pos-
tulations of Dalton, were recog-
nized as fallacies, thanks to Sir
Rutherford, an English scien-
tist, had come up with explana-
tions of the phenomenon of ra-
dioactivity for which he received
a Nobel prize.
He said the alpha particle of the
Curies was the beginning forma-
tion of a new atom.
This, though basically incor-
rect, erased some fallacious con-
cepts of Democritus and Dalton.
Rutherford said the atomic
weight of an alpha particle is four
weight units and, if an atom could
lose such a particle, it would de-
crease its atomic weight to that
of some other element. And thus
new atoms are formed . .. so
He said radioactive substances
are continually converting them-
selves into different substances,
each atom being able to throw
off an alpha particle once only.
The weight of the beta particles,
actually the negative electron par-
ticle of the Roentgen experiments,
was also lost in radiation, but
could not change the weight of
the atom because it weighs only
1/2,000 as much as the alpha
The weightless gamma ray had
no effect on the atom's properties
when lost, although it was haz-
ardous to human life.
When scientists knew - or
thought they knew - the atom's
constituents, they pondered over
how these particles were combined
to form the atom.
Rutherford again was foremost
He, constructed an atom gun
similar to that of the Curie exper-
iments. Directly forward of the
'muzzle' he placed a microscope
with a small fluorescent screen in
order to observe the minute bodies
by the flash that appeared when
they strike the screen.
After observing the flashes on
the screen, he placed a square of
gold foil in front of his gun. But
still the flashes appeared - just
as if the foil hadn't been there at
At once the theory of atoms
being solids collapsed - the alpha
and beta particles had passed
right through the foil. The atom
must be mostly space, Rutherford
But then something strange
happened before the eyes of the
observer. A flash appeared out-
side the place where the atoms
were landing - but why?
Only a few minutes before, the
scientist had conluded the atom
was mostly empty space. He
couldn't say that it was entirely
solid now because some of the
particles were deflected.
Since the alpha particles usec
as bullets were positively charged,
the atom must have contained a
hard, resistant core of positivel3
charged matter which deflected
the alpha particles, since like
charges repell each other.
But what was this positive core?
It was the alpha particle of the
Curie experiments, now named the
Scientists said the proton was
the hydrogen atom nucleus be-
cause it bore a positive charge
and its atomic weight was one,
Since the hydrogen atom bore a
neutral charge, the alpha particle
must have had something to neu-
tralize it - of course - the elec-
Thus the proton was found tc
be the charged particle whict
mksup the nucleus of every
atkm, though of course the num-
ber of them varied.
But how was the electron ar-
ranged in the atom structure?
Since the nucleus of the aton
was positive and that of the elec-
tron was negative, it appeared the
two would be in close contact wits
each other. But Rutherford's ex-
periment denied this. Must therE
be a special arrangement? Anc
how is the electron kept apart
from the nucleus?
jrScientists have said that elec
trons revolved around the nucleus
at terrific speed in individual or-
bits so the force of the revolutions
maintained sufficient force ti
_ _ __.
keep the electron from falling into
th.e nucleus of the atom.
Then these revolving electrons
constituted the outside "shell" of
the atom, one electron for each
proton in the nucleus to neutralize
Thus the atoms of the gas oxy-
gen had 16 protons and 16 elec-
trons to neutralize its charge.,
This revolving action of the
electrons also explained how sub-
stances were held together - by'
sharing the electrons of the outer
shell with each other and not
with hooks as Gassendi so ima-
This meant the nucleus never
changed in a chemical reaction,
but chemical properties were de-
termined by combination of the
atoms with the electrons as hooks,
holding them together.
Now man saw himself on the
verge of unlocking most of the
structural secrets of the atom.
Two German scientists had
used the heavy alpha particle in
experiments to see if an atom nu-
cleus could be split.
Using the element berylium as
a target, they made ready to fire
alpha particles into the nuclei of
the metal's atoms.
The particle flew true. But
what happened wasn't what they
had expected, for the particle
lodged itself in the berylium nu-
clei, increasing the atomic weight
to that of some other element.
But even more surprising was
that a hitherto unknown neutral
particle was released from the
atom - the neutron.
It was seen immediately, since
the particle had no electrical
charge, it governed only those
physical properties of matter such
as weight and radioactivity.
If an atom contained too many
neutrons, the atom would be un-
stable, causing it to throw off al-
pha and beta particles plus gam-
ma rays. Radium and uranium
behave as they do for this reason.
Usually atoms of one particular
element all had the same number
of neutrons in their nuclei. But in
some cases where neutrons were
more or less than the usual num-
ber, the element had different
physical properties such as weight
variance or radioactivity.
Such an element was known as
an isotope. It may be stable or
* unstable, depending on how many
neutrons it lacks or has in excess
The discovery concerning the
neutron shattered one of the last
existing fallacies concerning the
atom-that all atoms of any given
substance are the same.
But just as important, the neu-
tron was later to prove itself use-
ful in the age of nuclear reactors
Students studying Lebanese Ara-
bic here will have things a lot
easier after Prof. Ernest N. Mc-
Carus of the Near Eastern studies
department returns from Beirut
At present, no adequate gram-
mar manual or dictionary of in-
formal Lebanese Arabic is avail-
able and students are forced to
use mimeographed sheets, stories
and dialogues in place of text-
books in Prof. McCarus's classes.
This situation will be remedied,
this summer, however, when Prof.
McCarus will spend three months
in Lebanon working on a phonemic
analysis of the colloquial Arabic
A modern instrumental analysis
of Lebanese Arabic has never been
published. At present, Prof. Mc-
Carus receives information from
published material and from his
"informants," Lebanese studentst
attending the University.
"The textbooks which we hopel
Speech Assembly: Arthur Secord, di-
rector of community service and pro-
fessor of speech at Brooklyn College,
will address the Speech Assembly un-
der the auspices of the Department of
Speech at 4 p.m. in the Rackham Lec-
ture Hall, on "Painting Haystacks."
The following schools have listed va-
cancies on their teaching staffs with
the Bureau of Appointments for the
1957-58 school year. They will not be in
to interview at this time.
Chula Vista, California -- All Ele-
Elkhart, Indiana - English/Dramat-1
Havana, Illinois - Vocational Home
Economics; Industrial Arts; American
History/World H i s t o r y/Civics Econ4
Manahawkin, New Jersey - All Sec-
Oradell, New Jersey - Junior High
English/Reading; English; Math; Social
Studies; Spanish/French; General Sci-
ence; Senior High English; Math;
Chemistry; Spanish/French; Biology;
Girls Physical Education; Industrial
For additional information contact
Elgin Nat'l. Watch Co., ElginIl. -
all levels in Ch. E., Elect., Instr., Math.,
Mech., Engrg. Mech., Metal., Physics,
and Science for Summer and Regular
Research, Development, Design, Pro-
duction and Sales.
New York - men with B.A. in Liberal
Arts or raduate degree in advertising
for Creative Writing aind for a Gen-
eral Advertising Development Progra.in
Officesin U.S. and overseas.
Tues., Feb. 26
Fanstee2 Metallurgical Corp.. NorthI J. Walter Thompson C.-se:bo.
Chicago, 1ll. - B.S. or M.S. in Ch.E., Aeronautical Chart & Information
Elect., or Metal., B.S. in Mech. or Phy- Center, St. Louis. Mo, - men and wo-
sics for Research, Development, and men in Geography and related subjects
Design. for Cartographers.
C. F. Braun & Co., Alhambra, Calif. Minneapolis-honeywell H e g u 1 a t o r
-all levels in Che.E., for Design. Co, Minneapolis, inn.-men in Econ.
Union Carbide Nuclear Co., Oak Acctg., Math., Physics, and Chemistry
Ridge, Tenn. - all levels in Aero., Ch. for Acctg., Production Control, Pur-
E., Elect., Instr., Mech., Math., Engrg. chasing, Methods, Market Research,
Mech., Metal., Nuclear, Physics, Sci- and Associates and Aides for Research
ence and Chemistry for Research. De- Development.
velopment, Design, Production, Main- Northern Trust Co., Chicago, Ill. -
tenance and Operations, menI n Finance, Marketing,Acctg.,
4Wed. & Thurs., Feb. 20 & 21 Math., or Selling for Credit Analysis,
North American Aviation, Inc., Dow- Securities Analysis or Administrative
ney, Calif. - all levels in Elect., Mech., Assistant.
Ch.E., Civil, Aero., Physics and Math Connecticut General Life Insurance
for Research, and Development. U.S. Co., Hartford, Conn.-men in any field
citizens. for Management Training, Adminis-
citizens. tration, Actularial ntd Salles,
Personnel Interviews: The Chase lManattan Bank, New
Wed., Feb. 20 York, N.Y. - men with any degree
Linde Air Products Co., Div. of UCC, for Special Training Program, leading
Newv York, New York - all levels in to career in various phases of banking,
Ch.E., Mech., Metal., Elect., or Ind., Marathon Corporation, Menasha, Wis.
Chemistry and Physics for Summer -men with any degrees who are in-
and Regular Research, Development, terested in Marathon.
Design, Production, Sales, and Engrg. Wednesday, February 27
Service. Home Life Insurance Co. Detroit,
For appointments contact the Engrg. Mich. -Ymen with degrees in Liberal
Placement Office, 347 W. Engrg., ext. Arts or Business Administration for
2182, Sales and Sales Management Training.
Kalamazoo Vegetable Parchment Co.
Representatives from the following Kalamazoo, Mich. Location of Work --
will be at the Bureau fo Appointments: Kalamazoo, Michgian - men with B.A.
Mon., Feb. 25 B.S., M.A. or M.S. in any field for 1.
State Mutual Life Insurance Co., Sales 2. Management Training or 3.
Worchester, Mass. - men with back- Research.
grounds in LS&A, BusAd, Math., and Mutual of New York, New York City,
Econ. for Actuarial Assistant, Group N.Y. - Location of Work, New York
Home Office Representative. Jobs City. Men with degrees in Liberal Arts
throughout the U.S. majoring in Economics, Mathematics
J. Walter Thompson, New York City, (Continued on Page 4)
PROF. ERNEST N. McCARUS ... plans trip to Beirut.
will eventually come out of the
analysis will help solve this prob-
lem and that of having no diction-
ary," he added.
Continuing seriously he said,
"Arabic has many dialects and
even within a city such as Beirut
the language will differ. Education,
sex, age, family background and
religion all in
record as ma
of Beirut as p
out what the
A general p
afluence the way it is
SDAILY OFFICIAL BULLE
the Bureau of Appointments. 352s Ad-
ed, "We will have to ministration Building, NO 3-1511, Ext.
Lny different dialects 489.
ossible and then find Representatives from the following
ey have in common. j will be at the Engrg. School:
honemic analysis of Oliver Iron Mining Div., U.S. Steel
bic can then be com- Corp., Duluth. Minn. - B.S. in Civil,
Elect., Ind., Mech., or Metal. for Co1-
lege Recruit. Training Program.
United Aircraft Corp., Research
Dept., East Hartford, Conn. - all levels
in Aero., Instr., Math., Mech., Engrg.
Mech., Physics, and Science, B.S. or
M.S. in Che. E., Construction, or Elect.,
for Analytical and Experimental Re-
search, Design and Digital Computa-
tion. U.S. citizen.
Marquardt Aircraft Co., Van Nuys,
Foundation Material Calif. - all levels in Aero., Ch. E.,
ay Contest-first prize Civil, Elect., Ind., Physics, and Science
75; third, $25. All manu- for Research, Development, Design and
y 2, 1957. Contact Prof. Production.
further details, Melpar Inc., Div. of Westinghouse
Air Brake Co., Falls Church, Va. - all
mnination in Economics levels, Elect., Instr., Math., Mech., Phy-
nd 153 will be given in sics, and Science for Research, Devel-
nomics Building Thurs. opment, Design, Prod. and Test. U. S.
0 p.m. California Texas Oil Co., Itd., New
York, New York - all levels in Ch. E.,
ence Graduate Round- Const., Naval & Marine, B.S. or M.S.
Feb. 21, at 8:00 p.m. in in Civil. Elect., Mech., or Metal. for
Assembly Hall. J. Philip Summer and Regular Research, Devel-
. of Business Adminis- opment, Design, Production, Construc-
peak on "Fact and Fic- tion, and Sales.
ping Economic Progress."
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication for which the
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be sent
in TYPEWRITTEN form to Room
3553 Administration Building, before
2 p.m. the day preceding publication.
Notices for Sunday Daily due at 2:00
Wednesday, February 20, 1957
Vol. LXVII, No. 96
Film, for Wed., Feb. 20, will be Nancy
flanks instead of One Nation Indivis-
ible, Part I. Nancy Hanks is the last of
the films in the Lincoln Series, to bej
shown at 12:30 p.m. in the Audio-vis-
ual Education Center Auditorium, 4051
Delta Delta Delta announces its an-
nual scholarship competition Feb. 18
thru March 7. Three scholarships of
$150.00 each are offered for the benefit
of any deserving women students, in-
dependent or affiliated, who show evi-
dence of scholastic ability, superior
citizenship, and who have financial
need. Applications may be obtained
from the Office of the Dean of Wo-
men. These should be completed and,
with the three specified letters of
recommendations, returned to the
Military History Lecture: Prof. Wil-
t iam B. Willcox, Department of History,
will speak on "The American Revolu-
tion," Wed., Feb. 20, 7:30 p.m., Aud.
C, Angell Hall. Open to the public.
Dr. Jacob A. Arlow, Associate Research
Psychiatrist, Presbyterian Hospital, New
York City, will present a University
Lecture at 8:00 p.m., Wed., Feb. 20, in
the Auditorium of Children's Psychi-
atric Hospital, on "Ego Psychology and
Its Development." Sponsored by the
Department of Psychiatry.
Summer Job Opportunities for so-
ciologically-minded students will be
discussed by Professors R. D. Vinter,
R. O. Blood, and H. P. Sharp on Wed.
Feb. 20 at 4:10 p.m. in Room 2402,
Mason Hall. All undergraduates in-
Research Seminar of the Mental
Health Institute. Dr. George Devos,
on "Some Observations on the Rela-
tion of Guilt to Achievement and Mar-
riage in Japanese." op Thurs., Feb. 21,
1:15-3:15 Conference Room, Children's
Organ Recital by Robert Ellis, guest
organist, 8:30 p.m. Wed., Feb. 20, in
Hill Auditorium. Graduate of School
of Music (M. Mus. 1951), Ellis is now
head of Organ Department of Hen-
derson State Teachers College (Ar-
kansas); program will include compo-
sitions by Bach, Mozart and Widor,
and will be open to the general pub-
lic without charge.
ACS Student Affiliate. 7:00 p.m. Wed.
Feb. 20, Room 3003, Chemistry Build-
ing. Dr. Anderson will speak on "Some
Applicataions of Radiation to Chemis-
Sociology Colloquium: Prof. Bert
Hoselitz, U. of Chicago, "A Sociological
Scheme to Analyze Economic Develop-
ments," Wednesday, Feb. 2J, 4:15 p.m.,
West Conference Room, Rackham.
College of Engineering announces
$300; second, $7
scripts due Ma
Q. C. Vines for
51, 52, 53, 54 a
Room 103, Eco
Feb. 28, at 1:0
table Thurs., I
tration, will sr
tion in Explain
"Wunderbar, they'll yell,
vhen you sere our yum-yummisch
Your favorite German and American dishes,
- _packed fresh to your order - It a.m. to
8 p.m.; daily except Thursdays. Try them!
Old German Restaurant
120 W. Washington NOrmandy 2-0737
Aeronautical Engineering Seminar.
Prof. J. Valensi, Director, Institute
of Fluid Mechanics, University of Mar-
seille, will talk on "Three-dimensional
Flow in Compressors," Thurs., Feb. 21,
at 4:00 p.m. in Room 1504, East Eng.
English 298: Mr. Crowley's section will
meet Thurs., Feb. 21. in 1006 A.H. at
7:30 p.m. Students in this class should
consult with him at his office (2626
II.H.) to arrange conference hours.
Chemistry Department Colloquium:
8:00 p.m. Thurs., Feb. 21, Room 1300,
Chemistry Building. Oswald Anders will
speak on "Absolute yields of Deuteron
Induced Nuclear Reactions." Dave Em-
erson will speak on "The Rearrange-
ment of Thiocyanates."
402 Interdisciplinary Seminar on the
Application of Mathematics to Social
Science, Room 3401, Mason Hall, Thurs.
3:15-4:45 p.m. Feb. 21. Leo Katz; (De-
partment of Statistics, MSU) "Proba-
bility Distributions of Random Vari-
ables Associated with a Structure of
the Sample Space Sociometric Inves-
A Campus-to-Career Case History
E ~Ken Boekeloo (center foreground) at the scene of a cable installation project in Detroit. +
Te n ye a rs along in
After graduation in 1947 from what Ken Boekeloo says about it:
Kalamazoo College with a B.A. in "Tewytetlehniuies
Physics and Mathematics, Ken ishe wangyouhecaeledvne usnes
BoekeloisoigrdwingigacanBadvTance j.'s' as
# Bokelo joied ichian'Bll Tle- fast, and just as far, as you're able. ;
p-hone Company as a trainee... And all along the way, from the y
Today, ten years later, ken is a student period through each assign- y
Division Plant Superintendent in ment, the training and experience
i Detroit. Eight district supervisors you get really prepare you for ad-
report to him, and they supervise' vancement.s
some 1700 people. Ken is responsi- G -
1. If you like to make contributions i
i ble for the installation and mainte- adtk epniiiy n fyu
"a "ce of pla"t facilities v "lued at ad t hereppo niitys andgr o ung
P ~$135,000,000 including more than vauthoprunieagowg
Ibusiness can offer, then the tele-
} 500,400 telephones. phone company's the place to look
A big jump in ten years? Here's for a career."
C G (G A R E T T E S
.~*.....-,-..---------.---.. . .
PA SW ITHOUT tUC V I6 o~oYo
YOU'RE STRANDED high on a peak in the Andes. Wind's
rising. Thermometer's dropping. And the next llama for
Lima leaves in 7 days. You reach for a Lucky... try every
pocket. ..but you're fresh out. Brother, you're in for a
Bleak Week! No cigarette anywhere can match the taste
of a Lucky. A Lucky is all cigarette ... nothing but fine,
mild, good-tasting tobacco that's TOASTED to taste
even better. Try one right now. You'll say it's the
best-tasting cigarette you ever smoked !
DON'T JUST STAND THERE.;. STICKLE! MAKE $25
Sticklers are simple riddles with two-word rhyming
answers. Both words must have the same number of
syllables. (No drawings, please!) We'll shell out $25 for all we use
-and for hundreds that never see print. So send stacks of 'em
with your name, address, college and class to Happy-Joe-Lucky,
Box 67A, Mount Vernon, N. Y.
WHAT IS A PUGNACIOUS
MARTIN XATZ. Fistic Mystic
WHAT IS A COLLEGE
A. JEROME EDISON. Mentor Center
WHAT IS A SHORT ARGUMENT;
DANIEL CONSTANT. Brief Beef
SANTA MONICA CITY COLL.
Luckies Taste Better
"IT'S TOASTED" TO TASTE BETTER . . .CLEANER, FRESHER, SMOOTHER!
Wave a WORLD of FUN!
o Tree/ with S ITA
Unbelievable Low Cost
WHAT IS A CONCEITED BOXER?
WHAT IS A TOUGH GUY'S
WHAT IS A SODA FOUNTAIN?
AiI I I A -
WHAM IS FAKE FEROCITY?