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October 27, 1956 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1956-10-27

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Sixty-Seventh Year

"No, No, Men-Just The One On The End"

To The Edhtor
Letters to the Editor must be signed and limited to 300 words. The Daily
reserves the right to edit or withhold any letter.


"When Opinions Are Free
Truth Will Prevail"


printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers or
the, editors. This must be noted in all reprints.



Stevenson's Draft Proposal
Thoughtful and Realistic

AD^I"Stevenson's draft proposal -- which
originally looked like a rather irresponsible
bid for votes - is beginning to look more and
more like a thoughtful, realistic welcome pos-
When he first suggested in his American
Legion address that the draft might be brought
to an end, Stevenson proved himself strangely
inarticulate. Just as he did when he first pro-
posed a cessation of Hydrogen bomb tests,
he failed to elaborate and explain from the
outset sufficiently to convince many people of
the wisdom' of his ideas.
But in the course of the campaigning, Steven-
son has articulated his draft suggestions (as
well as those on the H-bomb) and made clear
that he is not proposing, as the Republicans
have been all too quick to charge, that we
throw away two of our most potent defenses
against the Soviets.}
The Democratic candidate is not promising
an immediate end to the draft, nor is he nec-
essarily proposing that we cut down the size
of our armed forces. He is suggesting that the
wiole question of maintaining our forces be
studied and is pointing out a particular area
in which present methods may be wasteful.
ONE OF the biggest problems of our military
manpower program is the enormous amount
of turnover the services experience yearly. Ac-
cording to the figures Stevenson gives, the ser-
vices will lose 750,000 trained men, this year,
and the cost of training replacements for
them will come to $2,500,000,000 - an aver-
age of over $3,300, per man.
When one considers the' pay and expenses
of trainers aMd trainees, worn uniforms, am-
munition; other training equipment, and the
maintenance of training centers throughout
rthe country, these figures seem plausible.
They are probably inflated by the inclusion
of Air Force personnel, whose training is most
costly and highest in turnover therefore most
serious. The Air Force does not now rely on
the draft for its manpower, but any solution
to its problem - along the lines of increased
incentives - would only complicate the prob-
lem in the other services by possibly draw-
ing away men, and making Army and Navy
life less palatable by comparison.'
The solution which Stevenson suggests -
and asks a study to explore - is that through
higher pay and increased benefits volunteers
might be induced to sign up for longer peri-
ods of service. For every extra man who can
thereby be induced to enlist in the Army for
four years there can be a decrease of two in
the number of two-year draftees needed and
of one in the number who need be trained
during the period. The volunteer would also
be more likely than the draftees to re-enlist.
An increased professionalism and. efficiency
would be a valuable result, especially as a more

mechanized Army requires better trained (and
perhaps fewer) men to run it. And the savings
on training might be more than enough to
cover the added pay needed to bring sufficient
long-term enlistments.
MORE probably the savings would not be
enough. But as Prof. J. K. Galbraith of
Harvard has ponted out, some of the old jus-
tifications of the draft no longer apply. In par-
ticular, the risk to life traditionally involved in
military life is no longer too much greater
than that involved in being a civilian during
the Atomic Age. Not only are the prospects
good for a prolonged period of nuclear stale-
mate, but the effects of hydrogen warfare -
should it come - might well be inflicted in-
discriminately on civilians and military men
Ever since the Civil War the American gov-
ernment has considered itself incapable of
compensating financially for the risks to life
inherent in war, and it has substituted com-
pulsion for economic incentive as a means of
building up our forces in time of need. But
with the prospect that the risks to life will be
nearly equally shared by all Americans, Army
life looms more attractive and its disadvan-
tages are more comparable to those of; any
other economic pursuit.
It now seems less reasonable for the Ameri-
can taxpayers to refuse to carry the burden of
attracting men into the service, if in fact any
additional burden would be involved in re-
turning our military services to a voluntary
basis and more equitably compensating our
young men for the jobs they are performing.
THIS IS some of the thinking which appears
to lie behind the Stevenson draft sugges-
tions. It is unfortunate that the candidate
and the press have not done a better job. of
presenting this thinking to the general public.
It is even more unfortunate that the Eisen-
hower administration - never a fertile breed-
er or incubator of new ideas has seen fit
to discard these suggesitons as "wicked non-
sense" and a grave threat to the securityof
the world.
In the interests of a more professional Army
in a period of specialization and mechaniza-
tion, a more equitable distribution of financial
burden as between taxpayers and soldiers, a
return to the principle of "free labor" and an
end to the compulsory features of the present
system which are only excusable if absolutely
necessary, and even a possible saving in the
gigantic cost of maintaining our military es-
tablishment, the Stevenson proposals deserve
the most serious kind of study, something the
Eisenhower administration has thus far shown
itself unwilling to give.

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Within the Ranks . ..
To the Editor:
WHEN I spoke before the Young
Democrats at Ann Arbor, I
neither charged, nor implied that
the Republican Party is guilty of
anti-Semitism or of racial pre-
judice generally.
In the editorialcommenting on
that speech, however, it was sug-
gested that I did so. Actually, I
said that children of immigrants,
for example, have found a wel-.
come within the ranks of the
Democratic Party as they have
not-at least not until very lately,
and now only in token numbers--
within the ranks of the Republi-
can Party.
I said that for this reason,
among others, I regard the Dem-
ocratic Party as more representa-
tive of the whole community. This
is not the same as charging the
Republican Party with overt pre-
judice, The audience of Young
IDemocrats could be relied upon to
make the distinction, if.the edi-
torialist could not.
In support of my general con-
tention, I cited certain facts:
That the three Negro members
of the United States Congress are
all Democrats.
That the two Jewish members
of the United States Senate are
That Pastore, the only man
bearing an Italian name, who so
far as I can recall, has ever been
elected to the United States Sen-
ate, is a Democrat.
That p e r s o n s with Polish
sounding names were, so far as I
recall, quite effectively excluded
from the political life in Michigan
at the state level until after 1948,
when G. Mennen Williams was
first elected Governor.
That Jones and McCree, the
first Negroes ever appointed to
sit as judges in high court in
Michigan were appointed by Wil-
That, so far as I have been able
to discover, Negroes were never
elected to the State Legislature in
Michigan until Democrats built a
strong organization in the state;
that nine Negroes now sit as Dem-
ocratic members of the state leg-
That Al Smith, the only Roman
Catholic ever nominated for Pres-
ident, was named by the Demo-.
Now, all this was said, not as
evidence that the Republican Par-
ty istovertly prejudiced,rbuthra-
ther to support my general thesis
that the Republican Party has not
been representative, much less all
The evidence at hand, only a
little of which I cited, is compel-
ling, I believe.
Furthermore, I said that while
I did not support Ferguson, Pot-
ter, Leonard, Alger, Martin, and
other Republicans, I would not
charge that they had ever played
upon racial prejudices in an ef-
fort to win high public office.
I did make this charge against
Cobo. I know that he did just this
and so does every other politically
aware Detroiter who is old enough
to remember Cobo's first cam-
paign for Mayor. Of course, it is
difficult to prove such charges
conclusively, but I would repeat

'Umberto D.' Magnificent'

SINCE THE war a significant ad-
vance has been made in the es-
tablishment of a truly original aes-
thetic of cinematic drama. Best
representative of these efforts are
the films "Bicycle Thief" and.
"Umberto D". Labeled "neo-
realism", it is an attempt to cre-
ate a completely realistic presen-
tation of life, of human motives
and desires, by using meaningful
characters in a setting and direc-
tion determined by life itself,
rather than tradition's shadow
of the classical Greek drama.
Umberto D.-before retirement
a government worker and accus-
tomed to a certain dignity of
manner, thought and dress - re-
turns to his tenement roof from
an unsuccessful attempt of fel-
low pensioners to gain a living
substance. He quarrels with his
landlady, to whom he owes con-
siderable back rent, and she
threatens dispossession. His sleep
is tormented by the noisy tene-
ment, tramcars, worry about
money, and a tortured confusion
due to an attempt to live in his
previous dignified-manner while
on the pension of a beggar.

HIS ONLY sympathy comes
from an unmarried, three month
pregnant servant girl; she re-
ceives her only understanding
from Umberto. He eventually ob-
tains a free bed ix1 a Catholic hos-
pital in order to recover from a
week-long throat infection. Upon
returning home he finds -himself
evicted, and his room being re-
eled. His beloved mongrel dog,
Flick, which he has entrusted to
the care of the servant girl, has
been lost, and is suddenly his im-
mediate concern.
Umberto spends a degrading
and depressing day trying to re-
cover the dog. After a joyous re-
union Umberto and Flick attempt
re-establishing old friends, bor-
rowing money, and finally beg-
ging :all to no avail. He obtains
money by selling his watch and
some fine books, but the landlady
refuses the money. In an attempt
to find a new home for his dog
he is reduced to further insults
and rejection. His mind is racked
with thoughts of suicide, he at-
tempts to kill himself and the
dog, but in the process the ,dog
escapes him. With a final tremen-

dous effort he re-establishes his
dog's confidence.
*, *
THROUGHOUT the film Um-
berto is driven between elation
and depression. The pace of this
action increases to the end. The
impetus of the film drifts from
the attempt to obtain a living
pension to atdesperate struggle for
recognition and respect. When
the environment is squalid the ac-
tion centers upon the warmth of
his two friends; when the setting
is decent the characters are aloof
and cruel. Unresolved action fol-
lows upon unsolved crisis. The
hypocrisy of custom and ritual
within state and church scream
from mere existence.
Umberto has lost faith in his
life and his reason to live; in his
attempt to regain it he is rejected.
His dog loses faith in his master,
but the confidence between, them
is regained, built anew. Umberto
is, however, left to his plight of
old age and death.
"Umberto D" is not a comfort-
able experience to live with, but
it is one of the few films of great
significance ever made.
-Gordon Mumma

them before Mr. Cobo.
I could not prove to you at this
moment, that anti-Catholic bigo-
try was stimulated in order to win
votes for Herbert Hoover against
Al Smith, but since I lived
through that campaign, eve as a
non-voter, I know that the charge
is true. Unlike Cobo, however, Mr.
Hoover disassociated himself from
the use of such methods.
--Brendan Sexton
Director of Education,
Intellectual Bondage...
To the Editor:
E series of reports and editor-
ials by James Elman, Jr., on
the detrimental lecture situation
were appreciated. I was unaware
of the Lecture Committee's con-
servative restrictions upon outside
speakers, demanding that they be
non-radical. As was pointed out,
freedom of ideas and controversy
is at stake.
One of the obvious advantages
of a large university is the diversity
of opinion. To deny that persons
of communistic or socialistic
thinking should objectively be
heard, is irrational timid bigotry,
excluding the valuable clarification
of ideas and heightening the an-
tagonisms between differing ideol-
ogies. It is an old truth that one
need not agree with a divergent
view but must tolerate its expres-
sion in order to understand and be
able to criticize.
Many students support Mr. Els-
man's views, (perhaps as force.
fully as the student body in 1952,
voting 2-1 for the revision of the
lecture policy), and would like to
see the situation remedied. Let us
hope that some of the University
authorities who equally dislike the
present lecture policy, can eventu-
ally escape the pressures exerted
on a state university in these mat-
ters by demonstrating that a non-
restricted lecture policy combats
the real evil-that of intellectual
bondage through fear.
-Carol Schappi, '58
High Priced Fix .. .
To the Editor:
Why is it that we must submit to
such high prices for our senior
pictures? Do such figures as the
following seemslike "'reduced col-
lege prices": wallet size applica-
tion pictures-six for $3.50, sx
5 x 7 (white) $15.00, and so on?
Who selected the Colonna Studio
in New York as the photograph-
ers; did someone get a kick-back?
It seems that a competent, less
expensive studio could be found
nearer Ann Arbor. Why go to New
York to be robbed?
Marie Bourbonnais, '57
Helen Laaksonen, '57,
Ed. Note: The senior picture con-
tract for the Michiganensan is
awarded in the spring on a compe-
titive bid basis. The business man-
ager and the editor consider the qua-
lity of service, uniformity of photo-
graphs for engraving reproduction,
and the price of photographs to stu-
dents in selecting the Studio. The
two dollar appointment fee is used
by the Ensian tp defray the cost of
engraving and printing the senior
pictures in the book. No one is obli-
gated to buy any pictures from the
Ensian's photographer if he feels that
the prices are too high or if he is
not satisfied with his proofs. There
are no firms in Ann Arbor who have
the equipment to process 1800 pic-
tures In time to meet the Ensians
engraving deadline.
Negro Voters . .
To the Editor:
1 WAS shocked by your editorial
"GOP Getting Negro Vote."
President Eisenhower has refused
consistently to use federal powers,
to insure the right of Negroes to
vote in those southern state where
they are kept from the -polls

through use of lagalistic subterfuge
t or violence. The NAACP has shown
that the number of Negrovoters
in the South has declined during
President Eisenhower's term in
In considering the Republican
stand on Civil Rights we must
remember three facts:
1. The President, when he was
General Eisenhower opposed inte-
gration in his official testimony
before the Senate Armed Services
Committee hearing on Universal
MilitaryTraining in 1948.
2. Richard Nixon voted against
a strong Fair Employment Prac-
tices bill in 1950 as a member of
the House of Representatives.
3. Albert Cobo was elected Mayor
of Detroit because he was low
enough to conduct an anti-Negro
--Ken Cherven, '59
(Continued from Page 2)






HOMECOMING 1956! A time for shouting
and gaiety! There probably never has been
nor will be such an occasion in the history of
the: University.
What weather! Until yesterday, it had been
almost as bad as spring when no one can study
for anything. Such a rainless autumn is un-
heard of in Ann Arbor and as a result there
may have to be Standing Room Only in the
arboretum for the rest 'of the month.
However, as every upperclassman knows, the
campus always .rates at least a little rain for
its Homecoming.
And it's a time for record players - you're
nobody, if you don't have one, along with the
My Fair Lady recording. It helps one to think
of Homecoming display ideas, just sitting and
listening to "Even Keats will survive without
you ...'
It really makes one wonder how SGC and
the city polite department are surviving these
days - thy're so understaffed, you know. Per-
haps the latter should do as the former is do-
ing and recruit campus or city "leaders" who
already have one job and are therefore proven
capable of taking on another.
CTUALLY, it's been shown that some of
the houses don't really think about display
ideas until the night' before. That's under-
standable this year.
After all, unless you've circled the date on
your Michigan Union Fall Calendar, you might
be forgiven for not realizing that Homecoming

is the last football game of a five-game home
The team just hasn't been anywhere to
come home from. (Due, of course, to the re-
scheduling of last week's Northwestern game.)
But Homecoming is also a time for physical
activity, and the leaders in this department
boast a Tug-O'-War and a mudbowl league
football game. ,
ONE of the greatest traditions on many cam-
puses is a Tug-O'-War. Even the University
used to have a freshman-sophomore Tug-O'-
War, way back in the good ole days.
So, perhaps it's a return to tradition that
Taylor and Gomberg Houses are making it
their annual event. At any rate, Taylor is hop-
ing the event will not be the six-minute rout
it was last year and that maybe next year
their event will receive mention in the official
Homecoming program of activities.
But Sigma Alpha Epsilon and Phi Delta
Theta aren't worried about any competition
for their mudbowl game coming from the Tug-
O'-War. They know 'there's nothing anyone
would rather do than watch football all morn-
ing and again all afternoon.
A T ANY rate, it's more than evident that the
battlecry of Homecoming 1956 will go down
in history: "Somebody'll get wet, whether it
rains or shines."


Hydrogen Bomb Tests and the Campaign


i 11

WERE the hydrogen bomb tests
not involved in the campaign,
and therefore at once exaggerated
and over-simplified, what precisely
is the substantial issue between
President Eisenhower and Gov.
Stevenson? Basically, it is whether
the testing of . the big hydrogen
bombs presents a special problem,
requiringa special solution, dis-
tinct from and different from the
problems posed by all the other
weapons, including the atomic
bombs and the smaller hydrogen
The Governor's position, when it
is precisely defined, which it has
not always been, is that the big
hydrogen bombs are a special prob-
lem which can and should be dealt
with without waiting for a general
agreement covering the regulation
of all armaments. The President's
position is that the big H-bombs
are not a special case and that
testing of big H-bombs cannot
and should not be limited unless
and until there is a general agree-
ment, with satisfactory safeguards
of inspection and control, on all
On this basic issue there is little
doubt, I submit, that the Governor
has the better of the argument. It
does not follow, I hasten to add,
that the Governor's solution of the
problem is satisfactory. What can-
not be denied successfully is that
the big hydrogen bombs are a
special problem, and a- close read-
inm o h Prci ,.nV - etfrAnto

September, there was a fall-out in
Norway which was about ten times
as highly radioactive as the normal
atmosphere. According to the spe-
cialists "the absorption rate was
about one-tenth of the interna--'
tional norm for dangerous radi-
ation." This was all very well.
But it did not reassure and it did
not please the Norwegians. For the
fact was that poison was being
dumped on Norway without their
having anything to say about
whether it should be dumped,
about how often it should be
dumped, and what was the legiti-
mate amount of poison that could
or should be dumped upon them.
The Norwegians were in the po-
sition of a man who finds that
every now and then his neighbor
puts some arsenic in his morning
coffee, accompanied by the assur-
ance that it is not enough arsenic
to kill him. There is no denying, it
seems to me, that because of the
fallout on other countries the test-
ing of the hydrogen bombs is the
legitimate concern of the inter-
national community. The testing is
a proper and a necessary subject
of international regulations. And
no nation, especially not this na-
tion, can afford to have a policy
which refuses to recognize that the
world community has a legitimat:e
interest which must be protected.
* * *
from the White House, the accom-
panying memorandum of the ex-

thermo-nuclear (hydrogenY weap-
ons (end italics) although the ob-
jectionable fall-out of an atomic
explosion, especially the compon-
ent Strontium-90, is the result of
atomic fission, which is the specific
reaction in existing small atomic
The question we may ask about
this not very clear sentence is, why
did fall-out acquire increased im-
portance with the first hydrogen
bomb tests? The answer of com-
mon sense is that the much bigger
bombs caused a much bigger fall-
The President's own statement
confirms the conclusion that there
is a real difference between the
smaller and the bigger bombs. In
spite of the casuistic argument
that all bombs have some fall-out
-so why single out the big ones-
the President says, "It is true that
tests of very large weapons would
probably be detected when they
occur. We believe we have detected
all such tests to date." Why have
we detected them? Because the
fall-out is not confined to the ter-
ritory of the Soviet Union. This
would seem to settle the issue as to
whether or not the big hydrogen
bombs are a special problem. a
THE PRESIDENT and the Gov-
ernor have also had a difference of
opinion as to how an agreement to
suspend the testing of the big
bombs could be enforced. The Gov-
ernor has said that if the Soviet
Union broke the agreement by ex-

enough to cause fall-out and big
enough therefore to be detected-
may not be exploded. Let us sup-
pose, which I believe we ought to
insist upon, that the treaty stated
that the illegal explosion of such
a big bomb is an international
crime of which the United Nations
shall at once take cognizance.
The violation of the treaty would
at once precipitate an internation-
al crisis. The United States and
its allies would have the right to
take the position that the violator
of the agreement has committed an
act which was preliminary to war,
like mobilizing on the frontier of
a country, and that counter-
measures, collectively if possible,
singly if necessary, were justified.
The reply to a violation would
not be, it seems to me, anything so
tame as Gov. Stevenson's sugges-
tion that our own testing be re-
sumed. Nor would it be anything
so abject as doing nothing except
complain that we had lost the race
of armaments. What would happen
is that the violation of an agree-
ment of this critical character
would either precipitate war or
sanctions that were the very near-
est thing to war.
suspend the testing of bombs big
enough to be detected abroad, big
enough therefore to pollute the
air abroad, would - if it were
properly negotiated - stand no
greater chance of being violated



Examination of Self-Liquidation Plan

AT THEIR last meeting Student Government
Council tabled a motion which would auth-
orize -its Campus Affairs Committee to "inves-
tigate all phases of financing of residence halls
at the University of Michigan." The obvious
target of this motion is a thorough examina-
tion of the self-liquidation plan for residence
halls financing.
The hesitancy of the Council to act imme-
diately on a motion of this importance cannot
he anetinned After aweAft hnuihtanh the

ent financing system and a comparison of self
liquidation in relation to financing systems at
other schools. The motion also calls for an ex-
amination of self liquidation and its relation-
ship to rising enrollment.
IT IS time that somebody took the initiative
to find the complete story on self-liquidation
Admittedly it is a big task, one which only
SGC, as a representative organ of campus opin-
ion, can adequately handle. It is essential that



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