EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
en Opinions Are Free,.
Truth Will Prevail
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only. This must be noted in all reprints.
Y JANUARY 18. 1956'
NIGHT EDITOR: DICK SNYDER
Faculty Leadership Needed
During Formative Years
P COMPLAIN of apathy is something like
hitting a giant wet sponge. Everyone agrees
hat no one cares, and with equal lamentation,
and continues on not caring. .
A University is by definition and intention
a place where people expect to be intellectually
stimulated, a place where the vital issues of
he ages as well as of the day may be thrashed
out on all sides. But in this area there is
apathy, to which everyone agrees.
To blame the faculty for the apathy is not
entirely fair, for the students are also to
blame. But to blame the faculty for not assum-
ing the responsibility of leading us out of the
apathy is justified, for the student' is not
expected to take the intellectual leadership.
[f he was we would need no faculty.
That the faculty has been faltering in this
responsibility is a proposition with which the
majority of the faculty agrees. Even one pro-
fessor who disagreed so far as to call a Daily
ditorial "contemptible" unintentionally rati-
ied the charge that faculty members are afraid
o stand on their opinions by refusing to allow,
his name to be revealed in connection with his
Y ET, NO ONE has shown any intention of
changing. The administration may be
charged with blindness for refusing to admit
he problem exists; but with what can we
charge the faculty: who admits the charge and
still takes no steps or indicates no intentions
of taking any steps to correct the situation?
Perhaps they take it lightly. Perhaps they
ise the bigness of the University as an excuse
o exclaim, "What's the use?" and'go on about
he business of making their daily bread. Per-
haps. there! really is an. element of fear that
what one says today, though causing no im-
nediate excitement, may be used ag'ainst him
someday when a promotion is at stake.
And, perhaps they just don't realize the im-
portance of assuming the responsibility of
leadership in handling controversial problems
and issues. No doubt the large majority of the
faculty, though not all, would agree that to
avoid controversial' problems is not the way
to solve them. To subscribe to a consensus
of thought for convenience's and safety's sake
is not the thing to teach young people of col-
lege age. What kind of national or interna-
bional leaders, or even community leaders, will
they make if all they have learned isto accept
what they are told?
It is fine to teach students how to be critical
ogically and how to base opinions on fact, but
they must also be taught that these methods
must be applied to more problems than can be
found in t e textbook. They must be taught
that problems are not to be avoided, and that
hesitancy to face them might become, under
certain circumstances, disastrous.
IT IS UP TO the faculty to teach them these
things. And the faculty cannot teach these
things if they violate them with their own
inaction when they refuse to express an opinion
except privately to their best friends or anony-
mously in print.
The student cannot be expected to learn
these things despite the apathy of the faculty.
The student who presumably comes to the
University to develop and mature actually has
his maturity delayed. If he had stayed home
and worked, he would assimilate into a pattern
of life that did not have very many conflicting
But at the University, he is in a unique situa-
tion. It does him not much good to adjust to
it, because he will have to adjust to another
and entirely different environment after he
graduates. At the same time, he is subjected
to an incredible number of conflicting stand-
ards-one should be interested in public prob-
lems, one should not' speak out,: one should be
an intellectual, one should appreciate art and
music, one should be free, one should accept the
University as a paternal figure, etc.
TO CHOOSE from all these standards those
that are proper, he needs leadership and
guidance. That is what the faculty is for. And
the first thing he should be guided into at a
university is a realization that he must not be
afraid to think for himself and act upon what
he finds to be true for him. A faculty cannot
teach him that if it contradicts it by example.
The student should not be hoodwinked into
believing that to object to the status quo in-
stead of adjusting to it is always a sign of
immaturity. Very few faculty members would
submit that conformity equals maturity. But
this is one of the conflicting standards-adt-
justment versus independent thinking: which
is maturity? how much of each is maturity?-
that besets every student. And faculty leader-
ship is needed to find the answer.
These are the formative years in students'
thinking, and therefore in their lives. So it is
of the utmost importance that they have the
best and most fearless of leadership both by
word and by example. It is of the utmost im-
portance that they have a faculty who is will-
ing to shake off apathy and assume the respon-
sibilities of leadership. Else they might turn
out to be useless to mankind.
Daily City Editor
f yy tQ
FROM THE OTHER SIDE:
Negative Influence Hurts
Prison Education Plan
(EDITOR'S NOTE: How much importance can 'positive' edu-
cation be when the convict spends his major time in cell-block
association with 'negative' values? This problem is discussed in
this fourth in a series of prison articles by Earl Gibson, editor of
the Jackson prison 'Spectator.')
By EARL GIBSON
THERE ARE FOUR TYPES of education available in the modern
prison: academic, vocational, social and "informal." In some pris-
ons the academic program ranges from elementary grade school work
right on up to extramural university work.
Social education, a newcomer, includes sociodrama and role play-
ing groups, Dale Carnegie training and Alcoholics Anonymous groups.
The fourth, oldest and perhaps most influential, is that informal
education gained on the prison yard and in the cell block. It teaches
you to perceive society as "they," the "free world group" and "the
other side" of the fence. Under its tutelage you can learn how to crack
a safe, swipe a locked car and forge a check. It's as negative (from
society's point of view) as the others are positive in their influence.
Johnny is an example of an inmate who participated in the aca-
demic program as thoroughly as anyone ever has. Serving a long sen-
tence for burglary and being a third offender he knew he had a long
time to serve with little chance for parole. This dismal view contributed
to his changed attitude. He would try improving his academic training
with the thought in mind that education would help him adjust on
his return to free society.
Roy Cohn Back in Spotlight
By DREW PEARSON°
THERE ARE probably no two
people President Eisenhower
likes less than Sen. Joe McCarthy
and his bosom pal, Roy Cohn,
former counsel for the McCarthy
committee. This duo did more to
cause dissension in the Republican
Party than any other two men in
the USA, culminating in the Ar-
my-McCarthy hearings in 1954.
However, the White House, with-
out knowing it, has just let Roy
Cohn appoint a new member to
the all-important Civil Aeronau-
tics Board-Joseph Minetti.
Minetti is an old friend of
Cohns and might be expected to
lean in Roy's direction when cases
arose affecting Cohn's client, Na-
The way Cohn got his friend
Minetti appointed to the Civil
Aeronautics Board was astute but
simple. Cohn's law partner is Tom
Curran, Dewey's Secretary of State
and a high-up Republican. So
Cohn got Curran to push Minetti's
appointment with Chairman Len
HALL ALREADY knew Minetti's
father-in-law, Fred Ahern, a
Brooklyn Republican leader so,
with Curran's endorsement, Chair-
man Hall went all out for Minetti.
He knew that the Republican par-
ty needed to do something to make
up for the kick-in-the-pants John
Foster Dulles gave Italians when
he fired Ed Corsi as immigration
adviser. So he insisted on Minet-
Inside fact is' that Louis Roth-
schild, the Kansas City depart-
ment store owner, now Undersec-
retary of Commerce, didn't want
Minetti. He opposed him. But
Chairman Hall reached over his
head, and Minetti was appointed.
So without the White House
having any idea Roy Cohn was
behind the scenes, ex-Sen. Josh
Lee wasuousted and Roy Cohn's
friend put in his place.
Members of the palace guard
are rubbing their eyes over what
happened but haven't figured out
what they will do about it.
Note-The CAB vacancy, under
law, had to go to a Democrat.
Minetti is a bona fide Democrat
and close to Carmine Di Sapio,
head of Tammany Hall. Some
Democrats are grooming him as
a possible candidate for Mayor of
New York-another reason why
the White House is irked over
Roy Cohn's neat trick.
* * *
SEN. DICK NEUBERGER of
Oregon is planning an important
showdown with the White House
on education by moving to restore
the education provisions of the
GI Bill of Rights.
Nothing in years had more im-
pact on American education than
the provision giving veterans free
tuition to continue their studies.
It trained 180,000 doctors and
nurses, 450,000 civil engineers, 36
preachers, 83,000 policemen and
firemen, 113,000 physicists and re-
search scientists, and 711,000
Yet it was dropped by the pres-
ent Administration on Jan. 31,
"While Ike talks about people
staying in school longer," says
Senator Neuberger, "he abandoned
a program which during and after
the war raised the average educa-
tional level of veterans from the
second year of high school through
the freshman year of college.
"Furthermore, the GI Bill was
abandoned at a time of unprece-
dented armament profits and when
aircraft stocks, based largely on
military orders, had soared off the
* * *0
SO NEUBERGER will reintro-
duce the GI Bill of Rights.
a Note-One of the great pleas of
Admiral Strauss, Chairman of the
Atomic Energy Commission, is the
need for more education and more
young American scientists.
John Hollister, law partner of
the late Sen. Bob Taft, now Ike's
head of Foreign Aid, is due to
resign. He is boiling mad at John
Foster Dulles for increasing aid to
India by $10,000,000-without even
cnosulting Hollister. As a result
Hollister will probably bow out,
then team up with right-wing Re-
publicans in opposing foreign aid.
(Copyright, 1956, by Bell Syndicate, Inc.)
U Student Sees Red Danger Here
IN A SIX-YEAR period he completed his high school work, a
complete course in mechanical drafting and several credits toward a
university degree. Facilities were available for practical experience in
drafting work and his future looked bright when he was paroled
five years after having completed his academic training.
In six months he was back in prison much to his own consterna-
tion and disappointment as well as to the officials who had held such
bright hopes for him. What happened?
Certainly he had not been lacking in sincerity and ambitions. Nor
had he lacked an opportunity upon being released from prison. He had
been successful in getting a job in a draftingoffice, and an average
middle class family home in which to live.
"I just didn't fit in. People would be friendly to me and I'd feel
strange and out of place. I'd forgotten a lot of little things: the every-
day courtesies. And how do you explain to fellow employees where
you've been for the past eleven years?
"What do you do when you know that your girl friend has been
told of those years? It was all those things, when added one to the
other, that made me feel like a square peg in a round hole. I started
to drink again and from there one thing led to another. So, here I
This sort of pattern is an old story among the inmates. As an in-
mate I feel the answer lies in the fallacy of believing that academic
training alone is the answer to rehabilitation. It gives you knowledge
without wisdom and fails to prepare you for what will be encountered
in the free world.
* s n s
IT WAS PERHAPS with this realization that social education was
started not too long ago on a formal basis with some of the younger
inmates. Through role playing and sociodrama groups some effort is
made to prepare the inmate for what he will meet when he returns to
his home town.
When a man knows how to handle rejection, non-acceptance, and
the status of an ex-inmate, he is well on the road to successful com-
The cQmments on academic training also apply to vocational train-
ing in prison. Equipping the inmate with a trade is not enough. A car-
penter or a painter is just as apt to commit a felony as an unskilled
laborer. Something more is needed in the way of social education.
A further problem presents itself in the way of experience for the
inmate learning a trade in prison. Even well-equipped vocational schools
cannot provide an equivalent of practical experience that is needed.
George learned tinsmithing during his last sentence and found
work in a large shop when he was paroled.
"In prison I worked about five hours a day and the rest of the
time was taken up with marching to the dining hall, sick parade, in-
terviews, standing counts and the many other forms of necessary prison
life. I found it hard to get used to getting to work at seven, an hour
off for lunch and working through to five.
"In the free world shop where I found work, they did things differ-
ently. In prison I had something in common with the other inmates
in the shop. In this free world job, the other guys were always talking
about their clubs, wives and families. I just couldn't get into their
THE INFORMAL education that works its influence upon every
inmate is similar to that environmental influence effective in every
community. What every citizen becomes is not entirely a result of his
formal training in the home, the school or vocation.
Instead it is the informal influences of daily life. In prison it is
the association on the yard, in the cell blocks and shops that is, in
many cases, most effective in determining what ]habits an inmate will
acquire and what direction his attitudes and ambitions will take.
George repeats a conversation he had had with an older brother
after his, George's, release from prison.
"But George, you were never like this before you went to prison.
You never missed a day's work and were happy on your job. Now you
sleep late in the mornings and always hang around with a fast crowd."
"Look; I was in for manslaughter with an automobile-not for
stealing. Nor am I stealing now. So lay off!"
What happened to George during his three years in prison?
Informal influences are at work in prison as they are everywhere
where men associate in groups. The natural inclination is to desire
acceptance when society has incarcerated you for breaking its laws.
You feel rejected and the only solace is acceptance from the prison
ASSIMILATION WITH the group within the prison necessitates
at least an understanding of its customs and habits. Codes of conduct
and views of right and wrong differ between the free and the prison
world. When you come under the influence of the latter it is most
difficult to return to the former.
Here, then, is the informal type of education as it works upon the
prisoner. He may digest the lessons of the academic or the vocational
school and learn much through the role playing and other groups, but
he spends the greater part of his time outside these classes and groups.
The time spent with the general group is the most influential and
what he learns there seems to have a greater moulding effect upon
him. This negative Influence does much in the way of negating the
results of the formal-educational programs.
SDAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
(EDITOR'S NOTE: The following is a letter to
the editor of the "Wall Street Journal" (Dec. 29,
1955) in answer to an article appearing in that
newspaper on "Collectivism. on the Campus."
Written by University student Robert A. Moeller,
a senior in the journalism department, the letter is
here printed as one viewpoint concerning "collec-
tivism"3 on. the? Michigan campus.)
WITHIN THE LIMITS of my college experi-
ence I can testify to the fact that speakers'
lists are loaded to the Left in almost unvarying
consistency,. Textbooks in many sensitive back-
ground courses on world and domestic political
affairs arg stacked decks for the fellow-traveler
Far too many speakers and professors end-
lessly lean over backward to apologize for
Soviet dictatorship and territorial aggrandize-
muents, while applying with equal fervor, the
label of "unconscious Fascists" to those indi-
viduals who oppose Communism and Commun-
ists here and abroad, as well as any other form
of totalitarianism, anywhere, at any time.
'To the extent that all this is opinion, the
right to entertain such beliefs cannot be denied.
But to the extent that this interpretation in-
vades the curriculum and the speakers' lists to
the total exclusion of opposite viewpoints and
the neglect of historical fact, it is mis-educa-
tion in its most bigoted form.
Reader, Patterson misses the point when he
implies that since college students constitute
only 10 percent of the total population, there
is no reason to be alarmed at the effects of their
continual subjection to pro-Communist or anti-
anti Communist propaganda.
It is a fact that a very considerable majority
of that 10 percent becomes the most articulate
and active opinion-makers and leaders in their
professions and communities across the nation.
The embryo businessman, lawyer, doctor, pub-
lic official, or journalist of today is getting the
"hard sell" from the Leftists. Many of his
regular assignments call for an exclusive diet
of Leftists' books or publications, his class notes
consist entirely of the economic or political
pronouncements of a collectivist or Soviet apolo-
gist, and the only speakers he can listen to are
of the same ilk.
He is preponderantly conditioned to accept
their point of view, and in far too many cases
he does because he lacks the time or is not
offered the opportunity in his courses to study
both sides. If he chooses to be an individualist,
searches for the facts on his own time, and
onme nn with a nonservative view his intel-
swallowed it in a process of forced feeding.
Mr. Patterson again misses the point when
he implies that the variety and extent of offer-
ings in mass media in the U.S. demonstrate
that collectivist professors and speakers are
but a small influence on the student mind..
For the most part, the college student is
exclusively exposed in his curriculum to the
Leftist line of books, magazines, newspapers,
speakers, commentators, and columnists, not
merely Leftist professors. Readership studies
show that individuals tend to seek only those
opinion mediums that reinforce already en-
trenched viewpoints. Since he is taught in
college that the Leftist line is the truth, the
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, while
opposite 'views are written off as dishonest,
reactionary propaganda, he seeks only those
opinion mediums that reinforce this viewpoint,
regardless of the 'extent and diversity of the
media offerings available.
Thus the vicious circle of mis-education by
total elimination of the conservative viewpoint
from the college curriculum steadily widens.
Brother, Can You
Spare A Dime?
THE WASHTENAW COUNTY March of
Dimes is more than half over, and it is
almost $50,000 under its goal.
Of the $57,600 expected, only $9,570 has
been collected to date. Ann Arbor residents can
be proud, that $6,703 of the amount collected
belonged to them.
However, it is only fitting that Ann Arbor
totals should top the rest of the county, since
it was here that the first weapon against the
dread polio was forged.
The success of the Salk vaccine, despite the
Cutter problem last year, is probably one of
the main reasons contributions this year are
so low. People may think that, now that the
vaccine has been proven, there is no longer
any need for the March of Dimes.
Quite the contrary-the need has never been
greater. Money is needed desperately for fur-
ther research into therapy and improvement of
the vaccine. The March of Dimes also helps
pay for the free vaccine received by so many
If there is to be a complete victory over the
paralyzing disease, more vaccine must be made
n-- iT h n#n r+nn - -mTorsof stitir n ,i
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
Asks for More Discussion,
To The Editor:
WHILE I can quite understand
the indignation of some of my
colleagues at the accusation that
they are intimidated or cowed in-
to conformity by social and ad-
ministrative pressure (which, I
think, has been much exaggerat-
ed), I prefer to raise another sort
of question arising out of recent
articles and editorials in The
Daily. Do we have enough discus-
sion of public affairs on this cam-
pus? In pointing this matter up,
I think The Daily has done us a
real service. Too often, the friction
of mind against mind is lacking,
both within and without the class-
room, and without friction we do
not get intellectual sparks.
I hope it will be possible to re-
vive the old Spring Parley, in
which a student-selected faculty
panel had to answer student ques-
tions on topics selected by a stu-
dent committee. I think it was one
of the best things which ever hap-
pened to Michigan. There might
also well be a considerable exten-
sion of other public debates and
discussions. Thisbeing"a campaign
year, we may hope that Young Re-
publicans and Young Democrats
(and any young third party which
the year may produce) will be ac-
tive; but I wish also for a revival
of non-partisan political clubs
which were once flourishing on
this namnis _s u nchas FrdFd-
ciologist, an economist and a biolo-
gist on the good and evil possibili-
ties in the rising birthrate.
Or such topics as: "Shall We
Rearm Germany?", "Who Should
Represent China?", "Is 'Abstract
Act' a Discovery or a Racket?",
"Should Atomic Power Be Made a
Monopoly of the United Nations?",
"Should a Quota System Be Main-
tained for Immigration?", "Should
College Education Be for the Ma-
jority?"-all of which intersect
several departments. The life of
the medieval university was the
"disputation" and I do not think
it has lost its value.
.-Prof. Preston Slosson
Department of History
Realization of Fact...
To The Editor:
OLNE OF THE functions of a
newspaper is to serve on oc-
casion as the voice of conscience
of the community. Daily senior
editors last week gave voice to that
conscience in anaeditorial long
That the intellectual vitality of
this University community has
been stagnating over the course
of the last several years is an
alarming and lamentable fact.
That it has come to a point where
students themselves are aware of
the situation is an indication that
the process must be rather ad-
the heritage which is its very rea-
son for existence and becomes a
mere trade school for turning out
successful scientists, business men
and professional people.
-Eugene L. Hartwig, '58L
Different View ...
To The Editor:
EDITORIALS have a great deal
of merit in that in taking an
extreme point of view, they prick
people's minds and prompt serious
The five points cited by the
senior editors in Friday's Daily
must be evaluated in terms of the
obvious functions of any good
newspaper and tempered with' as-
pects of the matter not presented
in the editorial.
I have never found any profes-
sor unwilling to discuss any perti-
nent question. Such discussion
need not always occur in the class-
room. There are legitimate reasons
for any teacher not to discuss all
issues thrown to him by his stu-
dents; they may not be particu-
larly pertinent to the current task
of the class, or a teacher may hon-
estly feel unprepared to discuss
them and still be of intellectual
use to the student in his class.
There are other reasons but the
important consideration is that
teachers are not only willing, but
anxious to discuss matters of in-
tellectual importance with any
THE Daily Offidial Bulletin is an
official publication of the University
of Michigan for which the Michigan
Daily assumes no editorial responsi-
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