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September 21, 1955 - Image 12

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Michigan Daily, 1955-09-21

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Uaiw ftr4qan t!iai4j
Sixty-Fifth Year

"You Sure That Cloud Will Hold Both Of Us?"

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only. This must be noted in all reprints.
elcoe From Paper
Tha Serves You

. - -YX

r y

Daily Managing Editor
ANNUALLY The Daily, with its freshman
supplement, takes opportunity to introduce
you to the University of Michigan. For many
of you, especially from outstate areas, this may
be the most intimate contact you have had
with the University so far and we hope the
pages of this paper will better familiarize you
with Michigan: We know anticipation of col-
lege life precipitates numerous questions. This
introductory issue is aimed at surveying the
different facets of campus like and should help
to answer some of them.
What you have before you is actually a sam-
ple copy of the newspaper University students
publish here six days a week whenever school
is in session. Perenially among the top four
or five college newspapers in the country, The
Daily has tradition dating from pre-1900 days.
It's prestige is nationwide, sometimes even
catching the spotlight in competition with
community newspapers.
Two years ago The Daily won a nationwide
typography contest with all the country's news-
papers with circulation under 10,000. Helped
by the latest deadline in the state, The Daily
has on various occasions been the only morn-
ing paper to carry leading news stories. The
Daily was the first paper to carry news of Joseph
Stalin's fatal illness and last April was the
first paper in the country to hit the streets with
news of the Salk vaccine success.
In college circles The Daily has long been
recognized as a leader. Daily Managing Editor
of two years ago Harry Lunn is presently pres-
ident of the National Students Association:
Last year's editor, Gene Hartwig, chaired the
National Association for a Free College Press
during its first year of existence and this writer
chaired the "Student Press" subcommission
during this past summer's NSA convention.
THE DAILY recognizes its role and responsi-
bility as the newspaper of students at the
University. The Daily is proud of its rise from
a tiny nine-by-1i-inch sheet to its present pro-
fessional like operation in a $500,0000 publish-
ing building. The years since the turn of the

Can the Liberal Survive?

century have been marked by ups and downs
evolving finally to the present six to twelve
page daily publication. More than 175 people
spread among the editorial, business, sports
and women's staffs have a part in getting out
each morning's production. The paper gives
complete coverage to all campus news and
important international and national happen-
ings are picked up over the news wires.
With all this apparent excellence The Daily
still received criticism. It comes from a va-
riety of segments of the University population
and some of it isn't veiled with any great deal
of subtlety. However, the most serious refuta-
tion of the Daily comes from disagreement with
the paper's method of presentation of opinion
and not with the paper as a day-to-day jour-
nalistic productiont This kind of criticism we
welcome and it is, in a sense, praise. It points
up what the Daily cherishes most-its freedom
to print the news and viewpoints it wishes. The
Daily has no qualms with outside criticism of
what we have said but cherishes only the right
to say it. For this editorial freedom we owe a
long record of responsible journalism. It's a
record including courage to print opinion when
that opinion in backed by truth and logical
The University is proud to have a free stu-
dent newspaper while more and more 'Uni-
versity administration with the foresight to
editorial freedom in college journalism. A Uni-
versity administrration with the foresight to
realize the value of a free student press de-
serves commendation. This is especially true
when Daily writers occasionally speak out
against the administration on controversial is-
The Daily is now looking forward to anoth-.
er year of service to the campus and com-
munity. Our new speed graphic cameras are
poised to give top picture coverage. The sports
stag and women's stag are ready for another
year of complete reporting of the sports and
society scene. And the editorial staff is again
ready to exercise its editorial freedom-to crit-
icize constructively when the need arises and
praise when the situation merits. Altogether
we hope to keep you and returning students to
the University well informed.


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'" '?: " '" "" ~-,Xt7 9S tier I4Tan 'POST Gay.

e Ida o The Fourth Estate

Conspiracy and Opinion:
An Important Distinction

Daily City Editor
rHE UNIVERSITY of Michigan has a high
reputation for academic standards all over
the world. It's reputation for excellence extends
into many fields. Through the University's
138-year history, this has been made possible
by the atmosphere of intellectual freedom
which has been maintained by the University
and which is essential for academic and in-
tellectual, as well as material, political and
social progress.
With teachers, scholars and students free
to think for themselves and develop their
ideas, new inventions are possible. In any area
where this freedom is supp'ressed, invention,
innovation and progress are stifled.
It is this same freedom of opinion and belief
that has lead to another reputation of the
University which is popular in some circles -
that of being a hotbed of Communism. For,
when people are left free to hold any opinion,
Communism, like any other opinion, attracts
some of them. Because of the threat to
America of the Communist conspiracy, the
University has attempted to cleanse itself of
that reputation, both by outwardly disclaiming
knowing employment of faculty members with
Commuhist leanings, and by inwardly ridding
itself of Communist influences.
But the University has not been careful.
In its desire to protect itself, as certainly it
should, it has, to a beginning but certain
extent, suppressed the intellectual freedom that
has made it great. In recent years, bitter con-
troversies have arisen over the University's
handling of faculty members who refused to
The Daily Staff
Editorial Staff
Dave Baad .,........................ Managing Editor
Jim Dygert ............................. City Editor
Murry Frymer....................... Editorial Director
Debra Durchslag. ............. Magazine Editor
David Kaplans.................... ..,Feature Editor
Jane Howard .. ....... ............... Associate Editor
Louise Tyor ...... ........ .. .. Associate Editor
Phil Douglis............Sports Editor
Alan Eisenberg...............Associate Sports Editor
Jack Horwitz .................Associate Sports Editor
Mary Helthaler ... ... .. .. .. ........ women's Editor
Elaine Edmonds........, .. Associate Women's Editor
John. Hirtzel.-.................Chief Photographer
Business Staff
Dick Alstrom................... Business Manager
Bob Ilgenfrtz........... Associate Business Manager
Ken Rogat ..................... Advertising Manger

answer questions of a House Sub-committee on
Un-American Activities.
The Communist conspiracy is a definite
threat to this country. As a nation, or as a
university, we must guard ourself against it.
But the distinction must be recognized be-
tween- conspiracy and 'mere holding of opinion.
To fail to recognize this distinction is to either
destroy freedom to hold unpopular opinions or
to naively defend even true subversives when
their freedom deserves wo be destroyed as a
New students will do well to remember the
distinction between actual conspiracy and
mere holding of opinion. One should be pun-
ished for the former, but never for the latter,
if freedom is to be retained.
Daily Associate Editor
She's paid her registration fee, she's got a
trunkful of name-taped clothea (guaranteed to
overflow whatever closet she's assigned) and
she's uncertain.
Whether she's a three-time legacy who's
heard strains of sorority songs since the playpen
era or a complete novice to Panhellenic proced-
ures, she's somewhat scared by the ordeal
She and at least 1,000 others like her will be
ushered in a few weeks through the campus'
19 sorority houses. Two weeks of smiles and
subtle attempts at "impressions" (from both
sides) will determine whether she's to be among
the 400 or so who, come October 9, will wear
pledge pins.
With sharp accuracy this process is known as
rushing. From both sides of the fence it is
alternately harrowing, amusing, disappointing,
sentimental, artificial, pleasant and triumphant.
Few other experiences deserve such a medley
of contradictory adjectives.
The intelligent rushee will bear in mind that
she might not be among the 40 per cent who
pledge. She won't attribute this to the grossly-
exaggerated cruelty of sororities - one of the
most ridiculous rumors about the system - nor
to any hopeless shortcoming on her part.
Rushing must be taken with a grain or so

(EDITOR'S NOTE: Thirty-four years
ago, on May 5, 1921, the "Manchester
Guardian" celebrated its centenary as
a newspaper. C. P. Scott then contrib-
uted to the centenary number an ar-
ticle that has become something of a
classical exposition on the ideals of
journalism. The Daily reprints the
editorial on the occasion, this year, of
the "Guardian's" centennial as a daily
A HUNDRED years is a long
time; it is a long time even in
the life of a newspaper, and to
look back on it is to take in not
only a vast development in the
thing itself, but a great slice in
the life of the nation, in the pro-
gress and adjustment of the world.
In the general development the
newspaper, as an institution, has
played its part, and no small part,
and the particular newspaper with
which I personally am concerned
has also played its part, it is to
be hoped, not without some use-
fulness. I have had my share in it
for a little more than fifty years;
I have been its responsible editor
for only a few months short of its
last half-century; I remember viv-
idly its fiftieth birthday; I now
have the happiness to share in the
celebration of its hundredth. I can
therefore speak of it with a cer-
tain intimacy of acquaintance. I
have myself been part of it and
entered into its inner courts. That
is perhaps a reason why, on this
occasion, I should write in my own
name, as in some sort a spectator,
rather in the name of the paper
as a member of its working staff,
In all living things there must
be a certain unity, a principle of
vitality and growth. It is so with
a newspaper, and the more com-
plete and clear this unity the more
vigorous and fruitful the growth.
I ask myself what the paper stood
for when first I knew it, what it
has stood for since and stands for
now. A newspaper has two sides to
it. It is a business, like any other,
and has to pay in the material
sense in order to live. But it is
much more than a business; it is
an institution; it reflects and it
influences the life of a whole com-
munity; it may affect even wider
destinies. It is, in its way, an in-
strument of government. It plays
on the minds and consciences of
men. It may educate, stimulate,
assist, or it may do the opposite.
It has, therefore, a moral as well
as a material existence, and its
character and influence are in the
main determined by the balance
of these two forces. It may make
profit or power its first object, cr
it may conceive itself as fulfilling
a higher and more exacting func-
I think I may honestly say that,
from the day of its foundation,
there has not been much doubt as
to which way the balance tipped
so far as regards the conduct of
the paper whose fine tradition I
inherited and which I have had
the honour to serve through all
my working life. Had it not been
so, personally, I could not have
served it. Character is a subtle af-
fair, and has many shades and
sides to it. It is not a thing to be
much talked about, but rather to
be felt. It is the slow deposit of
past actions and ideals. It is for
each man his most precious pos-
session. and so it is for that latest

nor in what it does not give, nor
in the mode of presentation must
the unclouded face of truth suffer
wrong. Comment is free, but facts
are sacred. "Propaganda,'' so call-
ed, by this means is hateful. The
voice of opponents no less than
that of friends has a right to be
heard. Comment also is justly sub-
ject to a self-imposed restraint.
It is well to be frank; it is even
better to be fair. This is an ideal.
Achievement in such matters is
hardly given to man. We can but
try, ask pardon for shortcomings,
and there leave the matter.
But, granted a sufficiency of
grace, to what further conquests
may we look, what purpose serve,
what task envisage? It is a large
question, and cannot be fully ans-
wered. We are faced with a new
and enormous power and a grow-
ing one. Whither is the young gi-
ant tending? What gifts does he
bring? How will he exercise his
privilege and powers? What in-
fluence will he exercise on the
minds of men and on our public
life? It cannot be pretended that
an assured and entirely satisfac-
tory answer can be given to such
questions. Experience is in some
respects disquieting. The develop-
ment has not been all in the direc-
tion which we should most desire.
One of the virtues, perhaps al-
most the chief virtue of a news-
paper is its independence. What-
ever its position or character, at
least it should have a soul of its
own. But the tendency of news-
papers, as of other businesses, in
these days is towards amalgama-
tion. In proportion, as the func-
tion of a newspaper has developed
and its organization expanded, so
have its costs increased. The small-
est newspapers have had a hard
struggle; many Qf them have dis-
appeared. In their place we have
great organizations controlling a
whole series of publications of var-
ious kinds and even of differing cr
opposing politics. The process may
be inevitable, but clearly there are
drawbacks. As organization grows
personality may tend to disappear.
It is much to control one news-
paper well; it is perhaps beyond
the reach of any man, or any body
of men, to control half a dozen
with equal success. It is possible to
exaggerate the danger, for the
public is not undiscerning. It re-
cognizes the authentic voices of
conscience and conviction when it
finds them, and it has a shrewd
intuition of what to accept and
what to discount.
This is a matter which in the
end must settle itself, and those
who cherish the older ideal of a
newspaper need not be dismayed.
They have only to make their pa-
pers good enough in order to win,
as well as to merit, success, and
the resources of a newspaper are
not wholly measured in pounds,
shillings, and pence. Of course the
thing can only be done by com-
petence all round, and by that
spirit of cooperation right through
the working staff which only a
common ideal can inspire. There
are people who think you can run
a newspaper about as easily as you
can poke a fire, and that know-
ledge, training, and aptitude are
suerfluous endowments. There

of it should equally understand
and respond to the purposes and
ideals which animate it. Between
its two sides there should be a
happy marriage, and editor and
business manager should march
hand in hand, the first, be it well
understood, just an inch or two
in advance. Of the staff much the
same thing may be said. They
should be a friendly company.
They need not, of course, agree on
every point, but they should share
in the general purpose and inheri-
tance. A paper is built up upon
their common and successive la-
bors, and their work should never
be task work, never merely dic-
tated. They should be like a racing
boat's crew, pulling well together,
each man doing his best because
he likes it, and with a common
and glorious goal.
That is the path of self-respect
and pleasure; it is also the path
of success. And what a work it is!
How multiform, how responsive to
every need and every incident of
life! What illimitable possibilities
of achievement and excellence!
People talk of "journalese" as
though a journalist were of neces-
sity a pretentious and sloppy writ-
ter; he may be, on the contrary,
and very often is, one of the best
in the world. At least he should not
be content to be much less. And
then the developments. Every year,
almost every day, may see growth
and fresh accomplishment, and
with a paper that is really alive,
it notonly may, but does. Let any-
one take a file of this paper, or
for that matter any one of half a
dozen other papers, and compare
its whole make-up and leading
features today with what they
were five years ago, ten years ago,
twenty years ago, and he will re-
alize how large has been the
growth, how considerable the
achievement. And this is what
makes the work of a newspaper
worthy and interesting. It has so
many sides, it touches life at so
many points, at every one there is
such possibility of improvement
and excellence. To the man, what-
ever his place on the paper, whe-
ther on the editorial or business,
or even what may be regarded as
the mechanical side-this also vit-
ally important in its place-noth-
ing should satisfy short of the best,
and best must always seem a little
ahead of the actual. It is here
that ability counts and that char-
acter counts, and it is .on these
that a newspaper, like every great
undertaking, if it is to be worthy
of its power and duty, it must rely.
ahead of us. There is a fluid
quality in all things political-
particularly in the diplomacy of
nations. Our leaders are right in
telling us not to expect miracles,
yet it is proper that they them-
selves work toward certain specific
miracles. If they continue to fol-
low a wise course, this truly defen-

(Editor's Note The following arti-
cle, written by the distinguished
English philosopher Bertrand Russell,
appeared in a recent issue of the
Saturday Review.)
connected with John Hopkins
Medical School in Baltimore a
very learned professor, some forty
years ago, made a careful investi-
gation into the psychology of new-
born infants. He discovered (what)
no one would have guessed) that
few of them like being dropped.
He discovered also that a certain
percentage enjoy being gently tick-
,led. But it is not these discoveries,
profound as they are, with which I
am concerned. I am concerned
with his third discovery, that bab-
ies get into a rage when you pre-
vent them from moving their arms
or legs. He had not the means of
investigating the subsequent home-
life of these scientifically valuable
specimens. But I suspect that
brothers, twor or three years their
seniors, enjoyed constricting the
babies' limbs and watching the
resultant furies, though no doubt
this pastime could only be enjoyed
during Mother's absence.
We have here, in the baby and
the elder brother, the roots in
human nature from which spring
love of liberty and love of govern-
ment. Love of liberty is the grown-
up form of the baby's dislike of
having his arms and legs held.
Love of government is the grown-
up form of the brother's pleasure
in exercising power over the infant.
Both of these impulses lie so
deep in human nature that neither
is likely to achieve a complete and
permanent conquest. From the be-
ginning of civilized times there has
been an oscillation between em-
phasis on order. Society needs
both, but there is at almost all
times a tendency to undue em-
phasis upon either one or the
other. What are called "liberal
ideals" are, broadly speaking,
those which are concerned with
personal freedom. The man who
values liberal ideals is concerned
tjo say, though with some limita-
tions, that individuals should be
free in the expression of their
opinions whether in speech or in
writing, and that private enter-
prise should be permitted wher-
ever there are not strong positive
arguments against it. There is an
opposite set of ideals some of
which, at least, also have their
place in making up a satisfactory
society. These are: discipline, co-
operativeness, obedience, ortho-
doxy, and respect for law. We may
distinguish these two sets of ideal
as individual and governmental.
When a society has too much of
the one it become important to
emphasize the other, and vice ver-
sa. It has seemed in recent de-
cades that most parts of the world
are traveling towards a tighter
system in which individual liberty
is increasingly sacrificed to the
behests of governments. There are
those who thing that this tendency
will continue indefinitely, and that
the emphasis upon the individual
whichpcharacterized liberalism
must permanently disappear. I do
not myself believe this. And I think
that history affords grounds for
my disbelief.
What may be called broadly the
At the
EW STUDENTS taking advan-
tage of local cinema diver-
sions for the first time are prob-
ably in for a few shocks.
Principally, and most startling
for the novice, is the fact that
first-run commercial theaters are
addicted to the one-feature pro-

gram, the feature ranging in artis-
tic degree from "Chief Crazy
Horse" to "Marty."
Oven in the hard-seated prem-
ises of Architecture Auditorium,
Student Government Council runs
a weekend theater, older films
which are often glaringly cut.
The Orpheum, Ann Arbor's only
commercial art theater, shows the
best of the foreign output, al-
though the seats here, too, are
decidedly not designed for com-
There is also the Wuerth, which
reruns second-rate double features,
and Gothic Film Society, one of
the artiest of the nation's art
societies, which allows cigarette
smoking and opens its doors only
about once a month.
LOOKING at the entire cinema
pictures realistically, one will
probably find little that is very
good, if previous experience proves
a gauge. Yet, each of these estab-
lishments has appropriate excuses:
the commercial houses are com-
rnitted to showing major Hollywood
releases; Architecture Auditorium
cannot obtain anything except 16
mm. prints; the Orpheum and
Wuerth have trouble filling their
auditoriums; Gothic Film allows
cigarette smoking - nothing else
matters much.
The end result, after a two-
semeter neriniAs, Lo -.a.lln a

liberal outlook began in certain
city-states of ancient Greece. In
Greece it was largely destroyed by
the Macedonian conquest, but for
a long time it was influential in
Rome. Rome, after a period of
civil wars, achieved re'st and order
under the Empire. Experience of
anarchy turned men against liber-
ty, and government ideals pre-
vailed for about twelve centuries.
Liberal ideals revived with the
growth of commercial cities in
North Italy, whence they spread to
the Hanse towns and ultimately to
Holland and England. Throughout
their history liberal ideas have
been associated with wealth and
commerce. The fact that they are
now more or less in eclipse is due
to the impoverishment of the
world and to the decay of com-
merce owing to economic national-
It is due also, and perhaps even
more fundamentally, to the growth
of fear. A schoolteacher who has
to take a collection of unruly
children for a holiday outing may
have great difficulty in controlling
them. But if they are all frightened
by a bad thunderstorm they will
for the time being become com- '
pletely docile. War and the fear
of war have the same effect upoxn
adult populations as the thunder-
storm has upon children. Fo'
this reason danger always increas-
es the sphere of government, and
diminishes the sphere still claimed
for individual liberty.
Not only the danger of war, but
other dangers also, such as pesti-
lence and starvation, have the-
same effect. In China, from the
very beginnings of its history down
to the present day, the Yellow
River has been a source of terror,
The silt which it brings downl
from the mountainsraises the
river-bed and from time to time
causes the river to chdnge its
course. Whenever this happens
millions perish. Owing to lax gov-
ernment the evil has never been
adequately coped with. Now at
last the Communist Government
is engaged in putting an end to it.
This, I should think, has much
more effect in converting Chinese
peasants that the abstruse doc-
trines of Marxist ideology. The
peasants say, "What is the use of
being free if you are dead?" and
to such a questi , in certain situ-
ations, the liberal can give no
adequate answer.
IF, however; it is permissible to
make any optimistic forecast as
to the world's emergence from its
present troubles, it is also per-
missible to believe that liberal
ideals will revive. If we can in-
dulge the hope that the danger
of war will be averted by the
creation of an international gov-
ernment, and the danger of star-
vation by n odern technique and
control of liopulation, then it is
also permissible to hope that fear
will cease to dominate us to the
extent to which it does at present.
And, in that case, liberty may
again be allowed to hive its legiti- 4
mate sphere.
What will this sphere be? It
cannot be quite what is possible
for a nomad in an empty land.
When Adam and Eve left Paradise,
"The world was all before them
from where to choose their place
of rest."
N THE modern world this degree
of freedom is not possible. The
Japanese would like to settl6 their
surplus millions in Papua, and ser-
ious limitations of liberty are nec-
essary to prevent this. Such limi-
tations are unavoidable in a popu-
lous world. If you possessed the d
only vehicle in existence, there
would be no need of a rule of the
road to control you. But the den- *-
sity of modern traffic makes an
elaborate code indispensable. In
all men's dealings with nature the
modern density of population is

making control important. It .is
beginning to be realized that an
agriculturist must not be allowed
to earn quick temporary profits.by
denuding the soil. Such interfer-
ences with liberty, though they
may be innovations, are becoming
The most important sphere of
liberty in the future must be not
in economics, but in the things of
the mind. Although most govern-
ments think otherwise. it is still
desirable that men should be
allowed to form their opinions
freely, that evidence for unpopular
views should not be suppressed,
and that propaganda should be 1
free so long as it does not urge
Individual freedom is important
not only in matters of opinion but
in all creative work in art and
science and literature. People who "
conceive themselves m e r ely as
obedient soldiers in an army are
not likely to produce anything of
value in the realm of culture. Disci-
pline beyond a point is fatal to
individual existence. Goering used
to say, "When I hear the word
culture I reach for my revolver."
This is the natural attitude of dis-
ciplinearians, whether Nazi, or
Communist, or of brands to which
we are accustomed nearer home.
Unless- individual liberty can be
preserved in the cultural sphere, '
the things that give mnst value to

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