EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS-
STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Opposing Views in a Year of Political Decision
ien Opinions are Free,
rrutb Will Prevail
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers or
the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
NDAY, MARCH 18, 1956
NIGHT EDITOR: GAIL GOLDSTEIN
Solving Segregation; Two Views
For Legal Force
WHETHER racial segregation is right or
wrong is no longer an issue. Neither is the
question of whether it is a matter for the
nation to decide any longer a real issue. The
Supreme Court decision ordering desegregation
was in part a decision that it was a matter for
the nation as a whole. r
It will not later &ecide that it did -not have
the power to make such a decision. And the
chances for a Constitutional Amendment nulli-
fying its desegregation action are too slim to be
Whether we are right or wrong, we have
decided one way. We must enforce that way,
else the question of its rightness or wrongness
will dissolve into a meaninglessness.
So far the federal government has not taken
steps to see that the Supreme Court's order to
desegregate is carried out. President Eisenhower
has not made a strong stand on the issue.
The explanation, the rationalization for the
hesitancy is that desegregation cannot be ac-
coniplished overnight. Recent events in the
South make this a realistic appraisal. Southern-
ers have been raised to believe in.segregation.
It is an emotional thing which is not readily
cured by a rationality that operates on a
different level in human experience.
A man may realize that his emotional reac-
tion to something is wrong without being cap-
able of correcting himself. Perhaps he can
over a period of time, but not at the drop of a
Supreme Court decision.
So a policy of gradualism is given as the
answer. But how gradual is gradual? It is
quite possible that some proponents of gradual-
ness are not proponents of desegregation, but
see an opportunity to defeat it if it is slowed.
It is possible that a policy of gradualness will
eventually lead to a desegregation of the South.
It is also possible that it will not. Yet, the
Supreme Court did not decree that desegrega-
tion should be possible. It ordered that it take
THIS DOES NOT call for obstinacy, but per-
suasion to get the South to realize that seg-
regation, whether right or wrong, is inconsistent
with the national ideals which the South in
word supports. What remains is to determine
the kind of persuasion to be used.
Shouting at the South and preaching to it
will not work; it has not worked. Something'
calm and firm is needed to convince them that
the Supreme Court is supreme and at the same
time means business. People do not overcome
misplaced emotions unless under pressure.
The persuasion, therefore, should be legal.
SThe federal government should use every
legal means at its disposal, under the direction.
of President Eisenhower, to implement the
Supreme Court's decision.
Legal force seems the only way to get the
South on the right track to discarding its own
prejudices. TO adopt a policy of gradual waiting
is to leave the South to its own desires and to
forget the national objective.
We might have desegregation eventually, but
maybe not until the recent decision becomes as
historical as John Marshall, unless the federal
government acts now.
--JIM DYGERT, City Editor
RAPID E14FORCEMENT of the Supreme
Court's desegregation ruling is widely advo-
cated on the grounds that segregation is both
immoral and illegal. It is. But the crucial
issue is not one of morality or legality but one
We have moral standards and Constitutional
interpretations opposing segregation because we
feel that separation of the races works to the
economic, soc'iological and' psychological detri-
ment of the Negro.
But in the long run, the Negro's status in the
South can only be substantially improVa(
through unproved attitudes on the part of the
dominant white population. Where forced de-
segregation will only worsen those attitudes; it
is futile to defend it on the grounds of abstract
morality or Constitutional interpretation.
The Supreme, Court decision has provided an
invaluable impetus to desegregation of border-
state schools. Where the tension surrounding
integration does not too greatly pervade class-
room and after-school experiences, desegrega-
tion is well calculated to greatly improve race
relations in the long run.
But the "deep South" presents an entirely
different problem. In many areas a large ma-
jority of the white population bitterly and even
violently opposes any form of integrated school-
ing, and attempted. enforcement can only de-
feat its own purpose. The atmosphere of ten-
sion and hatred which desegregation would
create would only serve to complicate the basic
problem of improving relations between the
DEEP SOUTHERN attitudes have been wors-
ening in recent years. Many whites, whose
attitudes were slowly evolving away from the
deep racial enmities of old, are now frightened,
by threats of enforced desegregation by the
federal government. Their fears are giving
rise to demagoguery the likes of which the
South has not known for several years and
"White Citizens' Councils" strongly reminis-
cent of the Ku Klux Klan.
In drawing the line betwen those areas
which are actually ready for desegregation and
those which are not, great prudence will be
required, not a religious observance of a priori
moral and legal abstractions.
Of the two "evils" facing those who sincerely
wish to improve the Southern Negro's status-
non-enforcement of desegregation and long-
run worsening of attitudes-the moderate
course will prove the more fruitful.
The Negro at last has the power to force in-
tegration. Abstinence from its rash use will
gain him more friends in the end, without in
any way diminishing his power of ultimate re-
course to the law of the land.
It is often claimed that non-enforcement
renders the law meaningless. Overenforcement
can render it even more meaningless. It is
hardly wise to observe the letter of 'the law so
strictly as to trample its spirit. If. the law
and morals involved havebeen developed tq aid
the Negro, let them be our servants, not our
Fortunately for all concerned, the Supreme
Court decision is flexible enough to allow a
maximum of service to the cause of better race
relations and a minimum of domineering of the
means of advancing that cause.
THE American people were prom-
ised a new dynamic foreign
policy three years ago. To imple-
ment this policy Dulles immed-
iately "unleashed" Chaing Kai-
Shek. At the time of this writing,
Chaing refuses to bite.
We have witnessed a barrage
of slogans-"I will go to Korea,"
"massive retaliation," "seizing the
initiative," and most recently the
Secretary of State has brought us
to the "brink of wr."
Despite this linguistic offensive
the communists have made tre-
mendous gains throughout the
world. Indo-Chiria is a good ex-
ample of a policy of bluff and
blunder. The Middle East is a cur-
rent illustration of Republican
bungling in the face of the new
Soviet economic offensive. The
Eisenhower Administration has
consistently refused to increase
expenditures for our Point Four
and other economic aid programs.
Ike's present negative policies
can only lead us to new disasters.
SINCE the GOP is relying on the
"prosperity" slogan as a major
campaign issue, it might be prof-
itable and enlightening to ex-
amine certain specific considera-
tions which follow directly from
the question-Presperity for Who?
a. Profits of large manufacturers
in 1955 were up 26% after taxes.
Profits of the smaller size group
of manufacturers were down 66%.
b. Business failures for large
firms were down 15% in 1955.
Failures of small business estab-
lishments were up 21%. In fact
the number of wholesale failures
increased 33% over the previous
c. Dividends for 1955 were up
10%; stockholders' earnings up
33 %; an4 wages increased by only
And who gains from the tax leg-
islation passed by the 'GOP Ad-
ministration of businessmen for
businessmen? The large manufac-
turers an dstockholders who may
now take advantage of such pro-
visions as the faster write-ofs and
additional dividend exemptions.
Eight percent of the people bene-
fited from 92 % of the 1954 tax re-
visions. The guy earningless than!
$5,000 per year, who makes up
the-majority of the population, got
In fact the total population is
fairing so well from the manipu-
lations of the Big Business influ-
ence that total liquid savings in
the U.S. (those funds a person
can get hold of in a hurry if caught
in a financial pinch) declined from
$3.2 billion per quarter in 1952 to
$1.7 in the first quarter of 1955.
The YD club believes in an
economy where there exists pros-
perity for all; not one in which
the small are getting smaller and
big are getting bigger.
WE BELIEVE in and will af-
firmatively work for equal
treatment and equal rights for all
Americans, irrespective of race,
religion or national origin.
We believe all states should com-
ply fully and speedily with the
Supreme Court's decision order-
ing racial integration in all public
schools. We favor the removal of
Senator James Eastland of Miss-
issippi, an avowed proponent of
racial segregation, from the chair-
manship of the Senate Judiciary
Committee. We favor the revision
of the Senate. Cloture Rule to pre-
vent the obstruction of civil rights
legislation through the filibuster.
We wish laws enacted abolish-
ing poll taxes, lynching, and guar-
anteeing equal job and economic
opportunities to all.
THE GOP platform of 1952 said
"The Republican Party will
create conditions providing for
farm prosperity and stability
Instead of accomplishing this, the
GOP farm-policy has achieved the
In order to cover up the failings
of their farm policy, the "Madison
Avenue Merchandisers" are cur-
rently spending $2,500,000 in order
to impress the American people.
with the "accomplishments" of the
present administration in farm
matters. It appears as though this
money would be better spent as
compensation for the farmers'
losses under the Eisenhower Ad-
The American farmer must. be
returned to the prosperous condi-
A.debate By Campus Partisan Groups
This is a year of political decision.
A hectic debate between the Democratic and Republican parties will continue to grow
until November. The issues will be formulated, the viewpoints of both parties given, and
the decision made by the voters.
The Young Democrats and Young Republicans are campus groups organized and
run by students who wish to take a more active part in the campaigns. The Daily has asked
the two groups to formulate their views on the key election year issues--not necessarily ;
the views of the national party.
George Zuckerman is presently acting president of the Young Democrats; Lewis Eng.
man heads the Young Republicans.
In future issues, debate will be presented on other current controversy, i.e. the Arab-
Israeli conflict; moderate and forced integration; liberalism and conservativism.
This YD-YR debate was compiled by Daily political reporter Jim Elsman.
"Don't Be Silly-It's Just A Few Little Words"
p I2-:.'4:;2 -- -
WE SUPPORT the continuation
of the realistic Eisenhower-
Dulles foreign policy which aims
at peace both directly and through
full cooperation with the United
Under the Democratic unrealis-
tic approachCommunism advanc-
ed steadily in Korea, Indo-China,
and Guatemala. The GOP record
speaks for itself: the Korean War
was ended 6 months after Ike
took office; the Guatemalan Com-
munists were .overthrown in July,
1954; and the Indo-Chinese truce
is now established fact.
This nation has shown that it
will not tolerate acts of aggres-
sion. This policy must be. made
particularly clear to the nations
of the Middle East. The U.S. must
act as a mediator in this area.
We favor a policy of freer world
trade and the encouragement of
Under Eisenhower and Dulles,
America has given new leadership
to the world, while at the same
time increasing the prospects of
G EORGE MEANY, president of
the- AFL-CIO, stated the
strongest point in the GOP plat-
form: "Right now we never had
it so good." National income is at
an all time high. So are the num-
ber of jobs, take home pay, and
After the Korean conflict, the
conversion from a war-time to a
peace-time economy was accomp-
lished with a minimum of fric-
tion, in spite of Democrat attempts
to scare the nation into believing
otjerwise. Government spending
has been cut; no longer does the
government go in debt every year,
Republicans have given the na-
tion the biggest tax cut in history.
Labor and management have
shown that they can work to-
gether for the good of all. We dis-
approve of Democrat attempts to
stir up class antagonism in the
closest thing to a classless society
in Western civilization.
Improper concentrations of eco-
nomic power have been and should
continue to be vigorously prose-
cuted. Public utility enterprises
should be regulatod but not run
by the Federal government. There-
a. We oppose government power
projects in cases where private
enterprise has shown itself ready
and competent for the job.
b. We heartily endorse Presidtnt
Eisenhower's veto of the natural
gas bill as being in the best in-
terests of the consuming public.
WE COMMEND President Eisen-
hower and his GOP Admin-
istration for replacing Democratic
lip service ahd opposition to in-
tegration with an active program
of breaking down the barriers of
Since 1952 segregation and dis-
crimination have been reduced or
eliminated in all areas. The dis-
criminatory practices w i t h i n
Washington, D. C. proper have
been eliminated and the federal
government has refused to grant
contracts to any corporation or
business which engages in discrim-
inatory practices. S e g r e g at i o n
within the armed forces is also a
thing of the past.
The GOP has unanimously ad-
hered 'to the Supreme Court's de-
cision oi the ending of segrega-
tion in the public schools. One
third of the Democrats in Con-
gress are trying to preserve second
class citizenship for American Ne-
groes. ThenDemocratic party is
thus an ineffectual organization
for ending segregation. The GOP,
however, is united in their stand
to stop it whether it be in Ann
Arbor or Tuscaloosa, Alabama.
ces ' - ' r'rr
+Urvs'k --*, wA~sf4,na"rb*a 'POcsT
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
Answers As Readers See Them
!M TODAY AND TOMORROW-
AS MR. DULLES finishes
more than ever neces.
consider whether these l
Washington permit him t
responsibilities of his office
travelling in South Asia an
fic, the situation in North
Middle East has been de
There is an almost desper
cation and of decision abo
North Africa, Cyprus, Pal
sian Gulf states. What .
doing is to argue the Adr
be a kind of travelling V
Karachi, New Delhi, Color
That would be all very
were two men, and if the
of fhe two were in Washi
about North Africa and t
it is, Mr. Dulles has spec
when he is most urgently,
ton for the grave business
The visible evidence of
each of the disputed area
Africa, in Cyprus, Palestin
and Saudi-Arabia-we find
izing both sides. Our Co
wrecked by Frenchmen wh
porting the dissident Ara
have provoked the British
noyed the Greeks. In Pa
trusted by the Arab states
by the Israelis.
It is true that in internal
power cannot expect to pl
at times to please anybody.
The Absent Secretary
By WALTER LIPPMANN
his latest tour, it is TIME has just about run out on the policy
sary to ask him to of drift and muddle. What can be done
long absences from about it? What can be done about it is to
o carry out the real make up our minds as to where we stand and
While he has been what we can and what we will support.
d in the South Paci- In French North Africa, we and the British
h Africa and in the should consult seriously with France. We should
eteriorating rapidly. then decide what we shall regard as a settle-
rate need of clarifi- ment that we mean to support wholeheartedly.
gut Western policy in We should give France our - full support if
estine and the Per- France will offer the Arab population the full
ir. Dulles had been - measure of freedom which liberal French opin-
ninistration case-to ion already favors.
oice of America-in In Palestine we should convert the \1950
mbo and Jakarta. declaration into a firm international guarantee
well if Mr. Dulles against aggression by either side, and we might
more important one then take our stand for the neutralization
ngton making policy of Israel within frontiers that have been modi-
he Middle East. As fled and rectified by international arbitration,
nt his time talking We should face up to the tactics of Saudi-
needed in Washing- Arabia in using the .profits from oil for sub-.
of deciding. version by corruption and bribery and propa-
all this is that. in ganda throughout the Middle East. In dealing
s-in French North with Saudi-Arabia we should cease acting as
e, as regards Egypt if we were helplessly dependent upon its rulers,
i ourselves antagon- who must be appeased and placated lest they
nsulate in Tunis is deprive us of our oil concessions. Saudi-Arabia
o suspect us -of sup- is more dependent upon us for the exploitation
bs. , In Cyprus we of its oil than we are on Saudi-Arabia for the
z and we have an- right to exploit it. If ever it was true that
destine we are dis- appeasement is an unworkable policy, it is
and we are scolded true here.
Decisions of this kind are grave and momen-
tional affairs a great tous and they cannot and should not be made
ease everybody, and , except with the full attention of the highest
But in the present responsible officials of the government. The
-I ...r' A..,s )rrc +,.h oifis , a u rithAs m. in a axwav r%" hi
Referring to Methods...
To the Editor:
IN MY original letter to The Daily
I made a statement that there
had been an overemphasis on
school buildings "Almost as if to
insinuate that a'good school build-
ing automatically means that Jun-
ior will get a good educational
background." I hope all of the
readers didn't overlook that word
automatically. I had assumed that
most people know effective teach-
ing can't be done in an overcrowd-
ed school-however, isn't there
more to teaching than a modern
building and small classes?
I am referring to the -methods
used in teaching, not to physical
facilities. So that no misunder-
standing willhresult, the words
"used in teaching" mean under-
lying teaching methods such as
plotting group movements within
the classroom, etc.
I can't understand- why issue
was taken to my statement "Is it
that all teachers are underpaid,
or that the good ones are under-
paid?" Did I say in that letter or
this one or anywhere else that I
didn't think teachers are under-
paid? No. What I was question-
ing was whether it is right to pay
teachers with the same education
and the same seniority, the same
wage. Shouldn't there be an extra
reward for the -teacher who does
a good job of teaching?
--John Buckmaster, '57 BAd.
'Uninformed Idiots'... .
To the Editor:
IT IS ALWAYS gratifying to see
a paper fearlessly put forth its
views, disregarding any views or
developments which might dis-
prove the editors' opinions.
I refer to your series of consis-
tently uninformed, biased, and at
times outrightly stupid editorials
1. Study the South's history since
1800, and reach a sympathetic
understanding of why a South-
erner's attitude towards certain
situations is different from a
2. Explain to your readers, in
an objective way, why differences
do exist between Northern and
Your duty to both the North
and Southris to snow your readers
why the problem of the South are
our problems too. For if Dixie can't
solve her problems alone, she will
surely drag the rest of us down
If a chain is only as strong as
its weakest link, America is the
chain, and the Black Belt, where
democratic processes are breaking
down, is the weakest link. The"
South needs understanding, sup-
port and, at times, she needs most-
ly to be left alone.
What Dixie needs least is crit-
icism from sadistic, uninformed
idiots playing at running a news-
-Roy Reynolds, '57
AT THE MICHIGAN:
Tour de Force
THE SCREEN translation of
Tennessee William's "R o s e
Tattoo" brings little glory to the
playwright, but provides actress
Anna Magnani with a brilliant and
startling dramatic tour de force.
Miss Magnani portrays the wid-
ow Serafina Della Rose who loses
her husband, a virlie, Italian-im-
migrant truck driver whom she
feels was "the best-not the sec-
and best, but the first best, the
only best" man. She is content to
live in her little world of dreams,
remembering "the love of a man
that was mine-only mine."
The irony, apparent to the audi-
ence from the beginning, is that
Serafina's liusband has been un-
faithful. When she learns this, the
memory of that beautiful rose tat-
tooed on her husband's chest, the
rose that is a symbol of ideallic
love, withers for her. She thinks
the sailor (Ben Cooper) whom her
15-year-old daughter (Marisa Pa-
van) loves is out to seduce the
girl. However, when another truck
Magnani is one of the few actres-
ses capable of spanning such a
range. Unfortunately, the tre-
mendous emotions she conveys are
quite unworthy of Williams' play
and character, and the author al-
ways seems to be demanding hu-
man greatness from his people
which is unjustified by his crea-
Nonetheless, Miss Magnani is
unforgettable. With huge rings
under her eyes, excess pounds of
floppy flesh, straggly hair and a
face that can express anything,
she is the perfect exponent of
down-to-earth acting. Much of her
power may come from being one
of the few actresses willing to
appear in such a sloppy physical
state, but hers is the added talent
of an artist who understands life
as few understand it.
* * *
MISS PAVAN as the daughter
gives a delightful and sensitive
performance; and the minor char-
acters are excellently handled 'by
Daniel Mann's direction. Cooner
RECOGNIZING that the level
of farm prices has fallen, we
support the Eisenhower-Benson
program to replace the unrealistic
policies of the Truman Adminis-
This Democrat policy has proved
a failure-a drastic failure--and
it must be replaced. We favor
a. The Benson Program which
provides for flexible price sup-
ports. It does not try to disregard
the law of supply and demand.
b. The soil bank which would
take uneeded land out of produc-
tion, protect farm income, reduce
the accumulation of surplusses,
and further extend sound conser-