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May 05, 1954 - Image 4

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Michigan Daily, 1954-05-05

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It Li AL;SLA Y, MAX 5, 1954


The Wayne Faculty Suspensions

bers have been suspended "automatically
and without pay" because they refused to
testify Monday before the House Un-Ameri-
can Activities subcommittee hearing in De-
Possibly the two men were at one time
members of the Communist party; pos-
sibly they are still in some way connected
with the Communist party. The important
point is that the men are temporarily
unemployed and quite possibly will be
fired,; the evidence for their incompe-
tency will have been their refusal to an-
swer the Clardy probers-today an indica-
tion of guilt.
The well worn argument that a man's
competence in the teaching field cannot be
determined by his political affiliations is
being batted back and forth. Although it
may seem a stale defense of retaining fac-
ulty members, the argument still holds: a
mathematics or physics instructor's know-
ledge and capability in the classroom will
not be stifled because he believes in a Marx-
ist creed.
The usual cycle of argument shows that
the next point to be brought up is: there
are some fields in which a man's political
affiliations do make an important difference

in his teaching. In the social sciences or
literature or economics courses, Communist
thinking will have a dire effect in times of
internal insecurity, therefore we should not
allow them to teach at all, this argument
And so on . . . The fact is this: in the
Monday hearing, Communist Party member-
ship of these two faculty members was not
proved. Neither was the incompetence of
the faculty men. Yet they have been sus-
pended from their teaching duties because
they used the Constitution's rights to keep
It is possible that next week when Clar-
dy's committee opens another set of hear-
ings in Lansing, three University faculty
members will be called to testify. The
question facing them and all of us is
what will the University do?
Today, the faculty members are operating
in their classes to the best of their ability.
Next week they may desire to keep to them-
selves past (or present) political affiliations.
And yet, by some strange quirk, the ability
they have today as members of the faculty
may no longer be considered enough for
them to remain on the faculty.
And this is the great danger of investigat-
ing committees.
--Pat Roelofs


Rig Black Cloud Over Geneva

HE TIME has not yet come, not nearly,
to regard the big black cloud over Geneva
as meaning that all is lost, that there is
nothing further to do except to have a bitter
quarrel about fixing the blame.
This is not to deny that things are go-
ing badly for the Western allies. But only
if we become panic stricken, and fall to
quarrelling with all our allies and with
ourselves, is there any objective reason
for thinking that we are headed unavoid-
ably towards catastrophe.
Western diplomacy had a bad set-back
last week which was caused by a mishandl-
ing of the question of intervention by Ameri-
can naval aviation in the battle of Dienbien-
phu. The crux of the matter is that the
French government should never have been
allowed to make the request unless it was
certain that the request would be granted.
Somebody blundered, as Tennyson said, in
not making it unmistakably clear in Paris
to Mr. Laniel and to Mr. Bidault that they
mnust not put the Western Alliance on the
spot. For unless we knew and had made up
our minds to intervene before we were asked,
it was a grievous mistake to be asked, or
for us to let ourselves be asked. Quite ob-
viously someone blundered and it was a cost-
ly blunder.
It is a blunder that cannot be repaired by
some more public statements, or by some
more leaks and inspired statements-be the
statements bellicose or pacific or just con-
fused. The blunder that has to be corrected
is whatever has been done to cause a very
probable misunderstanding in the minds of
Mr. Molotov and of Chou En-lai. They may
be tempted to think that there will be no
resistance in Indo-China so long as they
do not commit the kind of overt act which
would precipitate "massive retaliation" and
a general war. The opportunity should not
be lost at Geneva, and at the key capitals of
the world, to explain that such an interpre-
tation would be a dangerous misreading of
the temper and intentions of the West.
The next thing needing to be done is to
repair a diplomatic mistake which was made
at Berlin. This was the agreement to leave
the making even of a cease fire to the
Geneva conference two months later. When
this extraordinary agreement was published,
it seemed to me necessary to suppose that
there had been a private agreement to make
at the very minimum tacit cease fire in the
long interval between Berlin and Geneva.
It is hard on the morale of any army which
is not fanatical in temper-to tell the men
to fight when an armistice is in sight. Men
do not like to be killed or maimed in the
last meaningless battles of a war. Further-
more, it was only common sense to assume
that for the admission of Red China to a
conference of the Big Four, a price had been
exacted-at the least an agreement looking
to the acceptance of an armistice. To let
them get what they wanted-namely to
come to Geneva - without getting what
France was to want-a cease fire-was a
poor bargain indeed. Chou En-lai is now
able to sell at Geneva at a price as yet
unknown to us what he should have had to
pay for a ticket of admission to Geneva.
After all, in Korea we had refused to en-
gage in a political conference until after
there was a cease fire on the battlefield.
The United States is not for the time
being able to make a constructive contri-
bution to repairing these mistakes. For
with the military sitiation considerably
worse than it was when we were in Berlin,
any armistice that can be negotiated is
bound to be unpalatable. We have put
ourselves into a box. We do not like, be-
cause of the attitude in the Senate, to join
our allies in negotiating an armistice;
they will not join us, assuming we really
wanted to be joined, in waging war.
The business of arranging at least a cease
fire and, if possible, an armistice has now
to be done at Geneva whereas it should have
been done before Geneva.

our affairs, we shall have to face the fact
that there is much deeper trouble. Our for-
eign policy rests upon alliances. It has to
rest upon them. We are only six per cent
of the people of the globe, and we cannot
insure our own security or play a leading
part in the world without reliable allies.
There is no one so crazily ignorant of the
reality of things as the American isolationist
who wants to have all of Asia and Europe
say yes sir when we speak, and feels deeply
hurt when they don't.
Now our alliances, which we began to
form as the cold war proceeded, have been
affected by two epoch-making developments.
Both, as it happened, occurred in 1949. One
was 'the atomic explosion in the Soviet
Union, which ended the American monopoly
of atomic weapons. The other was the de-
feat of Nationalist China by the Red Chinese
on the Asian mainland.
: * * *
The solidarity of our alliances-the Unit-
ed Nations charter, NATO, our special de-
fensive pacts with Japan, with West Ger-
many-calls for readjustment to these new
developments. The simple doctrine of con-
tainment, as proclaimed under Truman,
antedated and took no account of either
Yet the situation of all our allies has
been radically altered by these develop-
ments. Most of them have no defense, in
the sense of being able to repel or ward
off atomic attack. All the Asian coun-
tries, and all the European countries with
organic ties in Asia, have been confronted
with the enormous fact that China has
become a Communist power.
Since 1950 our alliances, founded upon the
obsolete premises of the Truman doctrine,
have had to be readjusted if they were not
to become so fragile that they would break
up in an emergency. But the moral climate
in this country has been too full of violence
and suspicion to permit American opinion to
adjust itself-as I believe President Eisen-
hower and Secretary Dulles have long known
was necessary-to the new realities. They
have been forced, especially by the leading
faction of their own party, into what is an
extreme and irreconcilably dogmatic version
of-ironically enough-the Truman doctrine.
Since in Washington there has been no
true appraisal of the new situation of our
alliances, our allies have had to reappraise
their alliances with us. In so far as we have
been inflexible, they have been pushed by
their own people in the direction of being
more flexible than it was wise, or necessary,
or expedient to be.
* * * *
And so our alliances are shaken, and will
almost certainly deteriorate further, as long
as Congress refuses to face the facts of life.
The most important of all the facts of life
for us is that the solidarity of our alliances
is of infinitely greater importance than
what happens on this or that spot on the
great surface of the globe.
(Copyright, 1954, New York Herald Tribune, Inc.)
THE ESSENTIAL THING is to find a way
in which the energies of all of the Euro-
pean countries which form a natural com-
munity will be pooled in common construc-
tive tasks rather than perverted to struggles
by one to dominate the other. That vision
is already being translated into reality.
Under the leadership of France, six nations
of continental Europe are establishing a
community. Already, the Coal and Steel
Community exists. The same six countries
have signed a treaty to create a defense
community, and other aspects of community
association are being actively explored.
We have welcomed the steps which the
United Kingdom has taken to associate it-
self with and support this community. The
United States also, although not itself a
European power, would associate itself
durably with the community through the
North Atlantic Treaty, which, I recall, is
much more than a mere military alliance.
-John Foster Dulles.

WASHINGTON - Busiest backstage hud-
dler in the effort to call it quits-on the
McCarthy-Army hearings has been GOP
Sen. Everett Dirksen of Illinois, close friend
of McCarthy. He has talked with Len Hall,
GOP National Chairman; Vice-President
Nixon, also friendly to McCarthy; and to
Assistant President Sherman Adams.
Chairman Hall is especially anxious to
put a quietus on the McCarthy probe. He
has booked the rambunctious Senator from
Wisconsin for three months of political
speeches prior to the elections-despite
Ike's disapproval of Joe-so he doesn't
want Joe's political value depreciated.
At this writing, Sen. Karl Mundt, acting
chairman of the McCarthy Subcommittee,
is the only one who's come up with a way
out. He proposes announcing that he will
have to preside over an Appropriations Sub-
committee beginning Thursday; therefore,
the McCarthy hearings will have to be sus-
pended for a few days.
Then, if public reaction is not too critical,
the hearings will either not reconvene at all
or else convene intermittently, after which
a compromise report would be written two
or three months hence when people have
Whether Democratic committee members
will stand for this Republican face-saver
remains to be seen.
Most interesting feature of the St. Law-
rence Seaway Bill, being voted on in the
House of Representatives today, is the back-
stage reason why, after 25 years of haggling,
it is on the verge of being passed. The rea-
sons are twofold:
1. Two of the President's most potent
friends, one of them in the cabinet, want it
passed. They want it passed because they
represent big steel, and because the iron
ore of the future must come from Labrador,
not Minnesota.
2. The present St. Lawrence Seaway is not
the real seaway proposed by Herbert Hoover
by which ocean-going vessels could steam all
the way to Duluth. Th current seaway bill
will take ocean-going vessels only to Lake
Erie, which will take care of the Labrador
ore needed by Buffalo, Cleveland and
Youngstown. Going farther west than Lake
Erie does not interest the steel companies,
since their plants are largely in the Ohio-
Pennsylvania area.
The record of lobbying fees filed in Con-
gress tells part of the backstage St. Law-
rence Seaway battle. The private confes-
sions of certain Congressmen tell the rest.
In brief, Secretary of the Treasury
George Humphrey, most potent adviser to
the President; and James Black, one of
Ike's closest friends, put the seaway across.
Black gets over $100,000 a year to act as
Washington representative of Republic Steel,
partly because he has access to the White.
House at almost any hour of the day or
Secretary of the Treasury Humphrey, head
of the giant Hanna Holding Company, also
head of National Steel, Hollinger Steel and
closely associated with Wheeling Steel, is
credited with being the first to foresee that
Minnesota's once rich ore deposits were run-
ning out and that American Steel must im-
port from Labrador. So his companies
bought tremendous deposits in Labrador,
along with Republic Steel, ARMCO and
Youngstown Sheet and Tube.
It's also why some of the lower Mississippi
and New England opponents of the Seaway
are talking about a probe of Secretary Hum-
phrey on the ground that he did not sell
his stock in the Hanna Company before
entering the government.
Actually the Wiley-Dondero Bill now
before the , House was virtually written
by Humphrey's attorney, Ed Schorr, form-
er Republican State Chairman for Ohio.
Between Humphrey, Schorr and Black,
terrific political pressure was put on Ohio
Congressmen to change their position a'nd
vote for the seaway.
GOP Congressman Harry McGregor of
West Lafayette, Ohio, for instance, has al-
ways been depended on by the railroads and
anti-seaway interests to bottle up the sea-

way bill in the Public Works Committee, of
which he is a high-ranking member.
But this year, McGregor told Republican
colleagues that Jim Black had warned that
if he didn't switch, he would defeat him for
re-election. So, apologetically, McGregor
told his anti-seaway friends: "I've got to
get the heat off me."
He also went around to every Republican
on the Public Works Committee and said
in effect:
"As you know, I've long led the opposition,
but now I think we have a compromise that
is satisfactory."
On top of this, GOP Congressman Clar-
ence Brown, also a seaway opponent, told
Republican colleagues in brief: "These fel-
lows are our friends. They were heavy
contributors to the campaign. I can't say
that I'm really for the seaway, but at
least we should get it out on the House
floor for full debate."
And when the seaway bill got deadlocked
in the Rules Committee some time ago, Sec-
retary Humphrey used persuasion on GOP
congressman Leo Allen of Illinois, chairman
of that committee, to pry it loose.
The funny part of it is that Humphrey
himself used to be against the seaway. And
when his Ohio friend, Congressman George

Lei; "'+


Excitemehat ofFirst World
War Endangers Freedom
(Continued from Page 1)
public schools who belong to the Communist Party. We have no room
in the public school system for any members of that organization.
We won't have their doctrines circulated or preached in the class-
An article by Howard K. Beale in the January, 1934, issue
of "Progressive Education" reports many of the incidents con-
cerning academic freedom after the First World War. He tells of
teachers who attempted to apply to the war the intelligence and
critical standards which education purports to inculcate and were
silenced and persecuted. Fear of the charge of disloyalty kept
many teachers silent against their will, he wrote, and penalties
for failure to support the war followed some teachers through
the years.
Beale reported, "After the war came a long period of hysteria
when anything which could be labeled 'radicalism' was sought out
and punished in teachers." He went on to describe new laws pre-
scribing religious exercises in the schools, laws in many states pro-
hibiting the teaching of evolution, and constant attacks on attempts
to discuss peace views and internationalism in the schools.
According to Beale, an edict was issued in Washington, D.C.,
that no teacher might mention the League of Nations even in current
events classes. Summarizing, he wrote, "There are countless cases of
suppression of peace views and internationalism."
* * *
ALTHOUGH MANY of the controversies revolved around ele-
mentary and secondary schools, the colleges and universities did not
escape their share. A number of battles over dismissal of professors
made the headlines, but most of them were fought in magazine articles.
Few college presidents stood behind their teachers, for the trustees
held the pursestrings and, as The Nation said in 1921, "Trustees of
American universities are overwhelmingly on the side of reaction."
Notable among the few who did fight for academic freedom
was A. Lawrence Lowell, president of Harvard University, who
defended two of his professors against attacks and refused to
dismiss them. Of Lowell, The Nation said, "In President Lowell's
general position there is that admirable note of liberalism which
he almost alone among American university presidents during the
past five or six years has had the courage to strike."
Perhaps the most extreme example of suppression was the Lusk
Committee of New York, set up by the legislature in 1919 to investi-
gate seditious activities and report to the legislature. The committee,
headed by Senator Lusk, effected the passage of two anti-subversive
bills in 1919 which were vetoed by Governor Alfred E. Smith.
* * * *
THE MOST FAMOUS case that arose from the committee's raids
on "radical" institutions was the Rand School case. The Rand School
of Social Science was a Socialist and labor college maintained by the
American Socialist Society in New York City. A suit was brought
against the school, but since no statute then on the books had been
violated, the suit was dropped. The Committee, alarmed by the num-
ber of "radicals" on the teaching staff of the school and the revolu-
tionary character of some of the books and pamphlets on sale in its
store, pushed through some new legislation in 1921 after Governor
Smith had been defeated for re-election.
The new legislation required private schools, other than
parochial or denominational schools, to apply for a license without
which they could not teach. The Rand School refused to do so,
and when an injunction barring it from teaching was issued, took
the case to court where it suffered its first loss.
While the appeal was pending, Governor Miller, who had signed
the Lusk bills, was defeated in November, 1922, by Governor Smith,
who had vetoed them. Smith's return to office was followed by the
repeal of the Lusk legislation, and the proceedings against the Rand
School automatically lapsed. In his book, Free Speech in the United
States, Prof. Zechariah Chafee, Jr., Langdell Professor of Law at
Harvard, wrote, "The cause of liberal education was won, not in the
courts but at the polls."
* * * *
THE STRUGGLE for academic freedom was fought in many in-
stances by the students. In the spring of 1923, two foreign students
asked President Burton of the University why there was a Board in
Control of Student Publications. Burton's reply was to assert his
faith in "the ability of a democratic people to shape and to admin-
ister the education of its children."
Earlier that year, on January 14, readers of The Michigan
Daily found the usual Sunday magazine section missing. The 14
members of the editorial staff of the magazine section had re-
signed after arguments with the administration on what should
and what should not be published.
In the early fall of 1921, the publication of articles by outspoken
G. D. Eaton in any student periodical was forbidden. Eaton was a
University student. And in May, 1922, the editors of Gargoyle were
forbidden on pain of dismissal to publish any more jokes on prohibi-
tion or coeds.,
These incidents evoked a surging wae of student protest in
defense of academic freedom. In the March 7, 1923, issue of The
New Republic, John Rothschild summed up the situation saying:
"These illustrations could be multiplied many times over, and

they leave no doubt of the fact that the morale of college admin-
istration in America has ebbed a great deal.
"But there is no reason for hysteria. When the institutions of1
learning have got the money they want from business and the public
-when the era of endowment drives is over-they will return to the
old fearless conception of the university.

"How Would You Like To Be A Good-Will
/ .
- t



The Daily welcomes communications from its readers on matters of
general interest, and will publish all letters which are signed by the writer
and in good taste. Letters exceeding 300 words in length, defamatory or
libelous letters, and letters which for any reason are not in good taste will
be condensed, edited or withheld from publication at the discretion of the
Vote on Calendar.. CISION IS LEFT UP TO THE
To the Editor: STUDENTS-it would be unfor-
ODAY AND tomorrow the stu- tunate if they failed to do their
~DAYANDtomorowthe tu-duty. VOTE-(even the lawyers).
dents of the University willdy Owar-( em ersi
have the opportunity to go to the Lucy Landers
polls to express their opinion on Ruth Rossner
a future academic calendar. The John Black
results of this election will be pre-Eric BetBer
sented to the Calendar Committeec
for serious consideration and will
play an important role in the deci- OnLeague Houses ..
sion of this committee ON ONE To the Editor:
CONDITION: the vote must be DEAN BACON is surely to be
heavy enough to indicate student commended for declaring that
interest. There are many students she doesn't like discrimination. In-
on this campus whose major claim deed, a noble stand! However, this
to fame is a loudly-voiced com- impression is quickly dispelled by
plaint that students government her apparent intention of not do-
is silly, stupid, ineffective, etc. They ing a thing about the recent in-
should realize that effective stu- cident at one of the League
dent government depends on an Houses.
appreciable demonstration of stu- Her reasons seem to be these:
dent interest at the polls. Unless 1) since League Houses are pri-
there is a large turnout, the ad- vately owned and since private
ministration can easily u homes set their own standards,
any complaints from student rep- h.et eionswhchar
resentatives with the time-worn then there is nothing which ought
phrase that they don't really rep- to be done to force League Houses
resent student opinion. In fact, the to accept one particular outlook,
students on the Calendar Commit- and 2) because there are not
tee have been advised that if the enough women's residences she
usual poor turnout at the polls (Dean Bacon) "needs every single
occurs today and tomorrow, the high quality place for girls to live
results of the Calendar Refer- that (she) can find"
endum will not receive much con- The first reason might be con-
sideration by the Comittee. t sidered valid if the League House
will be interpreted as an obvious were a family in the common
lack of interest by the students. meaning of the word. We could
It is our fervent hope that such and would not force any family to
will not be the case; the support of do things to which it objected. But
the entire campus population is the League House is not a family,
essential in this election. EVEN IF it is more nearly a hotel at which
A STUDENT FEELS THAT NO accommodations are made on a
CHANGE IS NECESSARY, HE long term basis. In many states
SHOULD CAST HIS BALLOT IN hotels are forbidden to discrimi-
THE ELECTION, since the PRES- nate. Moreover, the university has
ENT SEMESTER SYSTEM is of- within its power the right to forbid
fered as a choice. It is obvious that such discrimination by refusing
the decision of the Calendar Com- approval of such houses. Not only
mittee will affect the entire stu- can 'the university do this but it
dent body; the time for the famous should for the matter is no longer
Michigan student apathy is over an individual problem but reflects
-FOR ONE OF THE FEW TIMES badly on the moral make-up of
IN THE HISTORY OF THE UNI- the University as long as such dis-
VERSITY-AN IMPORTANT DE- criminatory actions are uncon-
demned and nothing is done to
prevent recurrences.
.Dean Bacon's second objection
is in reality not valid since expedi-
OFFICIAL ency, as far as we are concerned,
can never be a criterion. However,
since it seems to be a chief deter-
BULLETIN rent to action it must be discuss-
ed. Our suggestion is: more senior
girls be allowed to leave the girls'
(Continued from Page 2) dormitories and the girls from the
League Houses take their place
Pershing Rifles: All Pershing Rifle- i.e., if the obnoxious policies are
men erport to T.CB. at 1925 hours. Uni-
forms need not be worn. Attendance is not dropped by the League owner.
requised for briefing on bivouac. All in- Only through strong student in-
terested cadets are to attend also. terest will the university take a
L____w mtd stand. We would surely not expect
aLe pCercie Francaish wil meettoday modern university students to put
at a p.m. in the Michigan League. In mdmuiest tdnst u
answer to many inquiries on how a typi- up with such nonsense-or are
cal Frenchman views America, we have people too concerned with studies
invited Etenne Thil, a Parisian French- to worry about such "trivial" mat-
man, to tell of his "Humorous mpres-t
Evervone is invited ters as these?

501 n11 iu . Zv V lu1 l vt'L.
All members are urged to attends
The 48th Annual French Play: The
picture of the cast of "Ces Dames aux
Chapeaux Verts" is ready. Call for it
in 112 Romance Language Bldg.
Xi Chapter, Pi Lambda Theta, willf
hold initiation for new members at
7:45, in the Assembly Hall, Rackham
Coming Events
All Music Education students are urg-
ed to attend the Student M.E.N.C. meet-
ing Tues., May 11, 7 p.m., Hussey Room,
League. Election of officers.
Literary College Conference Steering
Committee meeting Thurs., May 6, at
4 p.m. in Dean Robertson's office in
Angell Hall.
Fourth Laboratory Bill of Plays will
be presented by the Department of
Speech Thursday and} Friday, May 6 and
7, at 8 p.m. in the Women's Athletic
Building. No admission, and seats are
not reserved. Arena-style staging will
be used for this bill of plays staged, di-
rected and costumed by the students
in the advanced theatre courses. Pro-
gram: Wen Shun T'ang's Chinese play,
THE DRAGON; scenes from Eva Le Gal-
lienne's dramatization of Lewis Car-
Anatol France's THE MAN WHO MAR-
Christian Science Organizationo. Tes-
timony meeting Thurs., May 6, 7:30
p.m. Fireside Room, Lane Hall. All are
Deutscher Verein-Kaffeestunde will
meet Thurs., May 6, 3:15 p.m., in the
alcove of the Union taproom. Prof. H.
Penzl, of the German Dept., will be
present. All students wishing to make
active use of their German are urged to
come. Everyone welcome.
The International Tea, sponsored by
the International Center and the Inter-
national Students' Association, will be
held Thurs., May 6, from 4:30 to 6
o'clock at the International Center.
The National Association for the Ad-
vancement of Colored People presents
Prof. Harold Levinson, Economics De-
partment, discussing "The Economic
Costs of Discrimination," 7:30 p.m.,
Thurs., May 6, Auditorium B. Angell
Orthodox Students Society. Meeting,
Thurs., May 6, at 7:30 p.m., Lane Hall.
Rev. Harry Magoulias, Pastor of St. Con-
stantine and Helen of Detroit, will give
a lecture illustrated with slides, on the
Orthodox Liturgy. Refreshments to fol-
low. Public invited.
la -,. _____

-Dave Darsky
Art Olelnick
Tag Day Thanks...
To The Editor:
1HE American Cancer Society
wishes to thank the many Uni-
versity of Michigan co-eds for
their part in making Tag Day in
Ann Arbor a success. The students
who were stationed in both cam-
pus and Main Street areas col-
lected $700.00 during the last day
of the American Cancer Society
drive for funds.
-Irene Lashmet



Sixty-Fourth Year
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Control of
Student Publications.
Editorial Staff
Harry Lunn..........Managing Editor
Eric Vetter. ........... . City Editor
Virginia Voss..... ... ,Editorial Director
Mike Wolff........ .Associate City Editor
Alice B. Silver. Assoc. Editorial Director
Diane D. AuWerter.... Associate Editor
Helene Simon........ .Associate Editor
Ivan Kaye.................Sports Editor
Paul Greenberg.... Assoc. Sports Editor
Marilyn Campbell. Women's Editor
Kathy Zeisler. .. .Assoc. Women's Editor
Chuck Kelsey ......Chief Photographer
Business Staff
Thomas Treeger.:...Business Manager
William Kaufman Advertising Manager
Harlean Hankin....Assoc. Business Mgr.
William Seiden. .......Finance Manager
Anita Sigesmund.. Circulation Manager
Telephone NO 23-24-1




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