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December 12, 1953 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1953-12-12

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The Democratic Oppostion--
How Effecti~veIs It.?

IN THEIR first year as an opposition par-
ty after twenty years in power, the Dem-
ocrats have not shown much talent for the
role. In fact, only recently have the Dem-
ocrats siown any signs that they regard
themselves as an opposition party at all.
Although it has been repudiated by the na-
tional committee, the remarks of many
Democrats show that they would like to
take advantage of the still considerable
popularity of President Eisenhower by
boasting that they are the real, genuine 100
per cent Eisenhower supporters and that it
is only through their efforts that any Re-
publican legislation gets pased.
While it is true that in the last session
of Congress Democratic votes passed at
least half the President's bills, there is a.
good deal of danger in the Democrats de-
claring themselves ever loyal and true
to Eisenhower. At election time he is cer-
tain to come out in support of any Repub-
lican anywhere, as he did in giving his
support to McCarthy and Jenner. Also
the Democrats must not forget, in the lo-
cal issues of the 1954 Congressional cam-
paigns, that in 1956 they may have to
defeat him and will definately have to
criticize his Administration and its leg-
There has been a lot of ambiguous talk
about constructive opposition. The Demo-
crats are out of office because they held difa
ferent views than the Republicans, but the
outcome of the election should riot change
those opinions. So far the Democratic op-
position has been diffused and uncoordi-
nated. This could be corrected by setting

up a party committee in the House and
Senate to work out weekly strategy; in this
way very little opportunity would be missed
for the criticism of the Administration that
is the chief function of the "outs." The
present Administration is much concerned
with "selling itself" to the public, and the
important thing is that the Democrats of-
fer the public an alternative.
After Adlai Stevenson's return to the Unit-
ed States, a reporter asked him if he still
regarded himself as the titular head of the
party. "Did I ever?" he replied.
In his speeches, however, he frequently
talks as the pa- ty head, and many Dem-
ocrats wish he were more active in that
capacity. His eloquence will certainly be
needed in the Congressional elections, and
many wish it was being more widely dis-
persed now.
Stevenson was unknown to the public be-
fore the last Presidential campaign and it is
particilarly important for him to be active
The "one party press" has little room for
Democratic views now that the party has no
President whose remarks must be printed
and whose speeches must be broadcast and
telecast. McCarthy has been on TV many
times, both in his committee hearings ind
on opinion programs; Eisenhower and Nix-
on have appeared several times. It is vitally
necessary for Stevenson to have a regular
radio or TV program. As the Eisenhower
crusade begins to sag, it is of greatest im-
portance to the Democrats that Stevenson
go on "talking sense to the American pub-
--Marge Piercy

President Eisenhower's Speech--
Its Relation to Bermuda, Berlin

THE PRESIDENT has found a way to bring
the dread subject -of atomic warfare
within the range of serious discussion. He
has done this-quite evidently-not as an
exercise in psychological warfare but as a
result of a, serious re-examination of Ameri-
can, policy.
The great virtue of the new proposal is
not only that it is very attractive to all
mpen of good will but that its sincerity can-
not be disputed. Its sincerity is attested by
the fact that the proposal reflects he en-
lightened self interest of this country.
In a matter of such terrible consequence
as the preparation for atomic warfare, it is
worse than useless, it is very dangerous, to
trifle with Utopian self-denying and self-
sacrificing schemes. They can cause only
deep suspicion and distrust because no pro-
posal by a government will be believed which
might jeopardize its ultimate security.
The new American proposal does not pre-
tend to limit or even to regulate atomic
weapons. That is in its favor. It is healthy
to give up the pretense that we think the
Soviet Union would, or that we ourselves
would, agree to international control and
inspection of the top-most secret military
operation. It was embarrassing to be involved
in the pretense that the Congress would
ratify or that the people would support a
system of what would be denounced as li-
censed international espionage.
As long as we were entangled in such pro-
posals, the public discussion of atomic is-
sues, could lead to nothing except ever
greater fear and suspicion. For our real
policy was bound to be different from our
Utopian proposals. It was bound to be
that far from disarming, we intended to im-
prove our atomic armaments, relying upon
them to maintain a balance of power be-
tween the enormous population of the Com-
munist orbit and the limited population of
the Atlantic Community.
The new proposal abandons the pre-
4ense that we could or would renounce
the mainstay of our military power. It
proceeds, then-if I understand it right-
ly-from the fact that our production of
fissionable material has become so big
that there is a surplus beyond our military
requirements. It is from this surplus that
we are proposing to contribute materials
for international development of the pa-
cific uses of atomic energy. Since we have
the surplus, since we are not pretending
that we are making a military sacrifice,
there is no reason- why the world should
doubt that genuineness of the proposals.
Yet the scheme, if the Soviet Union is
willing to accept it, might achieve some of
what the old scheme of control and irspec-
tion was designed to do. The willingness and
the ability of the various nations to con-
tribute surplus atomic material to an in-
ternational agency, the rate of delivery and
the continuity of it, might be indices of the
volume of atomic production. This might
do something to reduce the danger and
the fear of surprise attack, in that the in-
ternational agency might serve as a kind
of early warning system.
** * * -

If I am right in thinking that there
is a general tide running.towards a relax-
ation of the tension without settling con-
clusively any of the great issues, then this
speech and the Berumuda communique
are running with that tide.
The President's new proposal is that the
tension of the atomic race should be low-
ered without attempting or pretending at
this time to end the race. The Bermuda
communique shows an agreement that
though no settlement is reached to unify
Germany and to fix an eastern frontier,
or to roll back the iron curtain, the West-
ern nations are ready to reduce the tension
by saying, again that they will not use force
to settle these issues and to change the
status quo.
It is tempting to speculate on what the
Soviet Union may propose at Berlin. Let us
make the assumption that she will not agree
to a unified re-armed Germany within the
Atlantic Community.-What, then, might she
be preparing to offer which will (a) delay
German re-armament and (b) relax the
tension in Europe? It will not be prudent
to assume that the Russians have accepted
the invitation to go to this conference and
yet that they will go there in order to pro-
mote ratification of E.D.C. They may, of
course, do that. But we had better not
count on it.
There are in circulation abroad a num-
ber of notions some of which, it seemed
to me when I heard them, might have
been feelers put out by the Soviet govern-
ment itself.
The most formidable of these notions was
that the number of troops in the armies of
occupation should be reduced by four pow-
er agreement. To do this it would not be
necessary to re-unite Germany or to settle
any of the big issues of a German treaty.
Yet a concrete proposal to reduce the num-
ber of divisions in Germany might have
very considerable effect.
It would undoubtedly reduce the ten-
sion in Germany and in Europe. If the So-
.viet army in Germany were reduced sub-
stantially-as it has been in Austria-it
would cease to be capable of a surprise at-
tack against Western Europe. This change
of the military situation would have far-
reaching effects on the whole disputed
problem of German rearmament.
I heard several variants of this notion, of
which the most effective was that in addi-
tion to reducing the number of divisions,
there should be a four power agreement to
create a demilitarized zone in the center of
Germany which would include Berlin.
We should be well prepared before we go
to Berlin for proposals of this type.
(Copyright, 1953, New York Herald Tribune, Inc.)
Absent Witness
Servants of foolish hope or dark design,
Driven by guilt, or, worse, by innocence
To sudden death-you are now free to
To testify again in your defense.
Earth is a safer sanctuary now
,n fa hFif-t Amp~ndAmsv at . T(i111' IVAmted

WASHINGTON-As this is written, every
sign suggests that Malenkov is going to
turn down President Eisenhower's proposal
to create a world pool of fissionable mater-
ials, just as flatly as Stalin turned down the
Marshall Plan. And this turn-down is just
as fortunate for the United States and
the Western World as was the earlier one.
For a simple fact was rather gener-
ally overlooked in the first spate of justi-
fied enthusiasm for the President's speech.
If the Soviets had agreed to turn over a
limited quantity of fissionable material
to international control, this would not
have reduced by one iota the threat to
national survival inherent in what the
President called "the awful arithmetic
of the atomic bomb."
Production of fissionable material (which
used to be measured by the thimbleful) is
now measured by the ton. If both the So-
viet Union and the United States were to
hand over to international control a few
pounds of the deadly stuff-or even many
pounds-this would in no way effect the
world balance of nuclear power, nor the
threat of nuclear aggression.
As long as the Soviet Union continues to
produce fissionable material, and to turn it
into nuclear weapons, this threat will hang
over the United States and the Western
Yet it is easy to imagine the reaction
in this country and throughout the West
if the Kremlin had complacently agreed
to hand over a limited quantity 'of fis-
sionable rawstuffs to an international
HOWER PLAN," the headlines would read.
And this might be just as fatal to the
whole NATO system of alliances as a Rus-
sian agreement to participate would cer-
tainly have been to the Marshall Plan.
This is not to suggest that the President's
proposal was unwise or that he should not
have made the speech he did make. On the
contrary, in terns of the American world
position, it was absolutely essential that he
make such a speech, despite the danger
that Malenkov might not make the same
mistake that Stalin made when he rejected
the Marshall Plan.
This danger now appears past. But the
"awful arithmetic" which the President des-
cribed remains. For the first time, the
President confirmed that "hydrogen bombs
in the range of millions of tons of TNT
equivalent" can be produced. He did not
say whether these collossal weapons could
be delivered by any known aircraft-and
this no doubt remains a problem for both
the American weaponeers and their Soviet
opposite numbers. Yet in view of what the-
President said about atomic bombs, this
problem looks essentially academic.
The President said that we are now
producing atomic bombs "25 times more
powerful" than the bombs which des-
troyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From a.
technical point of view, this was the only
real surprise in the President's speech.
For the awful arithmetic in this case
works out to mean bombs with a power of
half a million tons of TNT-500-giloton
bombs, to use the technical jargon. This
is just about double the highest previous
unofficial estimate of the power of the
largest atomic bomb.
Given the large-scale production of ato-
mic bombs of this caliber, it does not matter
a great deal whether the hydrogen bomb
is presently a deliverable weapon or not. A
single 500-kiloton atomic bomb will de-
vastate an area of 54 square miles. One
such bomb, in short, provided it can be de-
livered on target, will rip the guts out of
the greatest city on earth.

A few hundred of these bombs will
therefore be quite sufficient to accomplish
"the annihilation of the irreplacable heri-
tage of mankind," by destroying the
earth's larger population centers, The
President did not (as he once considered
doing) go into the awful arithmetic of
nuclear stockpiling. But it is no secret
that we are now capable of producing
large atomic bombs in the thousands and
that the Russians are not very far behind.
And when the President indicated we were
producing 500 kiloton atomic bombs, he
must have been certain that this would
come as no great surprise to the Russians.
In short, the President's speech served to
confirm that the United States and the So-
viet Union are already, to use Dr. Oppen-
heimer's striking phrase, "like two scorpions
in a bottle." The Kremlin's reaction is in
turn serving to demonstrate that mutual
agreement to control the terrible new wea-
pons will provide no way out of the bottle.
This being so, a second Presidential speech
--the speech "primarily for the American
people" which the President had originally
planned to make-seems clearly called for.
Short of genuine international control,
nothing on earth, as the President said,
can guarantee absolute safety for the ci-
ties and citizens of any nation."
But safety is a relative thing. In view of
the Soviet reaction to the President's speech,
there is only one way for this country to
nr.hiev e a a h tolerableminimum of safe

"Can You Spare Enough To Light A Lamp?"


Reality ...
T HE PEOPLES of the United
States and the World, includ-
ing those behind the Iron Cur-
tain, certainly should be grateful
to Eisenhower for bringing into
focus once again our real problem.
There can be no doubt that we all
agree wholeheartedly with these
noble aspirations. However, in
terms of concrete applications in
order to give some effect to these
ideals, the leaders of the world
tragically refuse to look at the
truth or reality. In Russia states-
men foolishly spend their valuable
time arguing the sterile polemics of
"capitalist imperialism" & "dic-
tatorship of the proletariat." Here
in the U.S. men are concerned
with falling cattle prices and
waste great efforts intellectually
and economically on a futile dis-
cussion between "subversives in
the Government" and "Academic
Yet man the world around, like
the ostrich, doesn't like to cast his
eyes on facts if they seem unpleas-
ant, and fatelistically he takes
great joy in ignoring the real prob-
lems presented by Eisenhower. As
the primitive caveman who felt
helpless before the awes of thun-
der & lightning and supplicated
himself before quack medicine-
men,stoday the average man and
[his so-called leaders love to de-
ceive themselves, because securi-
ty, even if it is false, feels good.
Unlike the caveman, however, ra-
tional men today could modify
their environment, if they had the
will to sacrifice the sovereignty of
the state. But this would be trea-
son in the U.S. and in the USSR.
The Eisenhower speech may
touch off discussion, but in actual
accomplishment probably nothing
will be done to control atomic en-
ergy. Following the Heroshima
blast, way back in 1945 when the
world was given the same warn-

ing, shockingly little has been done
in even recognizing that any prob-
lem exists, not alone beginning
to attack its solution. Instead
dreamers have clouded the issue
with charges of "Communist Con-
spiracy" and 'World domination"
on one side, while in the other
camp they have been content with
nonsense about "Capitalist encir-
In short the root of the prob-
lem, as I see it, is a fervent nation-
alism, almost verging to the point
of facism, raging in all countries
whether you look at the U.S., the
USSR or India.
I predict that the world will soon
forget this speech and. return to
politics as usual, which is the real
tragedy. -Robert Whealey
* * *
G.I. Bill.,
GEORGE Zuckerman and Jasper
Reid would be increasing the
value of their public service if aft-
er informing Senator McCarthy
that "Dwight Eisenhower was elec-
ted President to carry forth a con-
structivesprogram for the benefit
of the entire nation" they would
leave a similar message at the
White House. -Dave Kornbluh
THISlegislation entrusted to a
regional agent of the Federal
government twenty years ago flood
control, navigation improvement,
and power generation in the Ten-
nessee Valley area Today, there
are thirty major dams in the. Ten-
nessee River system,, and half a
dozen major interconnected steam
This system provides security
from floods to thousands of acres
of land in the Tennessee Valley
and reduces flood hazards to an
additional 6,000,000 acres ,ofpro-
ductive land along the Mississippi
River. Flood savings average about
$11 million a year, with more
than half these benefits outside
the Tennessee Valley. -
-The Reporter


WASHINGTON-Grumpy Winston Churchill groused and grumbled
backstage over Ike's atomic-energy speech, because it empha-
sized Bermuda do-nothingness. But actually the speech should be a
great break for England . . . . What England needs most is cheap
power. Her coal, once the backbone of British factories, is getting
low. Iranian oil has been taken away. But cheap atomic powers could
revolutionize British industry . . . . England and U.S.A. were ready
to swap atomic secrets once again, just before the Harry D. White
expose broke. This made Ike shy away from it. (Bad political re-
action.) However, if Russia turns down the atomic-energy pool-as
expected-the United States and England can go full-steam ahead
.... Australia, France, Belgium and South Africa would also be in-
cluded in an atomic pool of raw material and scientific information
operating just as the automobile companies swap new patents.
Lanky, publicity-minded C. D. Jackson, the White House
psychological expert, masterminded the U.N. atomic energy speech.
The speech was 'written and rewritten so many times, Jackson des-
cribed it privately as a "mice nest"-nothing much left of it but
tatters . . . . He argued first that it must be delivered, second
that it must be delivered dramatically, so the entire world would
listen. Hence the idea of cutting short the Bermuda confer-
ence and the brilliant idea of flying direct to New York.
This also served to cover up the futility of the Bermuda meet-
ing which Ike never wanted in the first place and which was held
only "to please Winston." . . . . Churchill finally accepted the atomic
speech only after Anthony Eden insisted. To please Winston, Eisen-
hower toned down portions referring to H-bomb damage in Europe, or
rather he let Churchill tone it down. Both Churchill and Premier
Joseph Laniel called attention to the fact that American atomic
cannon were already in Europe and there was no use scaring Western
allies with too many headlines on the holocaust of hydrogen warfare.,
W HITE HOUSE ADVISERS are walking on eggs since the New Jer-
sey Supreme Court handed down its decision that the Protestant
St. James Bible could not be distributed in schools even when parents
request in writing that their' children have it. The court ruled that
this infringed on the separation of church and state.
Reason for White House skittishness is what happened across
the Potomac River at Fort Myer, Va., recently.
There, the commanding officer, Col. Donald Galloway, has been'
using government-owned and -operated buses to transport Catholic.)
children to local parochial schools. About 100 Catholic children of
Army officers and enlisted men at Fort Myer have been transported
daily across the river to Catholic schools in Washington, or to Arling-
ton, Va.
However, Defense Department economy moves, plus belief that no'
one religious group should benefit from the use of federal money to
the exclusion of others, caused an order that the bus service be stop-
ped. The order to Colonel Galloway came from the Pentagon.
Within a matter of hours, the White House stepped in, counter-
manded the Pentagon's order. Colonel Galloway was told to continue
the transportation of Catholic children.
Importance of the incident lies in the fact that the Army was
preparing to cancel all bus transportation for Catholic schools at
all Army posts, partly for economy, also in accord with earlier
court rulings for separation of church and state.
The New Jersey court ruling that a protestant bible cannot even
be distributed in schools where -
parents request it has heightened
the issue. The Army is passing all
queries on to the White House.

The Daily welcomes communications from its readers on matters of
general interest, and will publish all letters which are signed by the writer
and in good taste. Letters exceeding 300 words In length, defamatory or
libelous letters, and letters which for any reason are not in good taste will
be condensed, edited or withheld from publication at the discretion of the





The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the University
of Michigan for which the Michigan
Daily assumes no editorial responsi-
bility. Publication in it is construc-
tive notice to all mem~bers of the
University. Notices should be sent in
TYPEWRITTEN form to Room 2552
Administration Building before 3 p.m.
the day preceding publication (before
11 a.m. on Saturday).
VOL. LXIV, No. 68
February Teacher's Certificate Candi-
dates. The Teacher's Oath will be ad-
ministered to all August candidates
for the teacher's certificate during the
week of Dec. 14, in 1437 U.E.S. The )of-
fice will be open from 8 to 12 and 1:30
to 5. This is a requirement for the
teacher's certificate.
Mary L. Hinsdale Scholarship. Under-
graduate women who are wholly or part-
ly self-supporting and who do not live
in a University residence hall or so-
rority house may apply for this schol-
arship, the interest on the endowment
fund, $104.72. Girls with better than
average scholarship and need will be
considered. Application blanks may be
obtained at the Alumnae Council Office
in the Michigan League. The applica-
tion blanks should be filed before De-
cember 19, and letters of recommenda-
tion from three professors or others
qualified to write in behalf of the ap-
plicant should be sent directly to the
Alumnae Council Scholarship Commit-
tee, Michigan League. The winner will
be notified before the end of the first
Co-ops. The Inter-Cooperative Coun-
ci, 1017 Oakland, Tel. NO-8-6872, is now.
accepting applications for the spring
semester from men and women inter-
ested either in living or boarding in a
co-op. Rates, approximately $12 weekly
for roomers, $8 weekly for boarders.
Lecture by Prof. Sydney Chapman,
auspices Departments of Astronomy,
Aeronautical Engineering, Physics, and
Geology, Mon., Dec. 14, 4:10 p.m., at the
Observatory. Topic, "The Advance of
a Neutral Ionized Solar Stream into
the Geomagnetic Field."
Academic Notices
School of Education Makeup, Senior
Personality Tests may be taken either
on Fri., Dec. 11, at 3 p.m., in 1025 Angell
Hall, or on Sat., Dec. 12, at 8:30 a.m. in
Aud. B, Angell Hall.
Geometry Seminar, Mon., Dec. 14, 7
p.m., 3001 Angell Hall. Prof. G. Y.
Rainich will speak on "Apolarity in Two
and Higher Dimensions."
Interdisciplinary Seminar in the In-
tegration of the Social Sciences. (Eco-
nomics 353: Mr. Bolding). This seminar
will be held ;n the second semester
on Wednesday from 4 to 6, and will
coincern itselfEwith the general field of
the theory of information and commu-
nication. Faculty members and gradu-
ate students who are interested in par-
ticipating are invited to communicate
with Professor K. E. Boulding (Ext.

Male Chorus and the Ann Arbor High
School Chorus conducted by John Mer-
rill; University High School' Choir,
Frank McKowen, conductor; St. Thomas
Boy Choristers, Charles H. Clarke, con-
ductor; and the Ped-Ford Chorus, Lu-
ther, Fenker, conductor. Miss F., Ei-
leen Lay is Pageant Director, and Sid-
ney F. Giles will present a special pro-
gram of Carillon music one half-hour
preceeding the Sing. Hill Auditorium
doors will open at 7 o'clock. No admis-
sion charge.
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra,
Fritz Reiner, Conductor, Nan Merriman,
contralto soloist, will give the fifth
concert in the current Choral Union
Series, Sun., Dec. 13, at 8:30 in Hill
Auditorium. The program is as fol-
Brandenburg Concerto No. 3.......Each
"Iberia" Images No. 2....... .Debussy
"Till Enlenspiegel".............Strauss
"El Amor Brujo .................Falla
Nan Merriman, soloist
Overture to "Tannhauser". Wagner
Tickets are available at $1.30, $2.00,
$2.50, $3.00 at-the office of the Vniver-
sity Musical Society in Burton Memor-
ial Tower, and will also be on sale aft-
er 7 o'clock on the night of the per-
formance at the box office in Hill Au-
Pi Lambda Theta, honorary organi-
zation for women in education, will
hold its fal initiation this afternoon at
2 p.m. in the Assembly Room of Rack-
Hillel. 9 a.m.-Community Seros;
7:30-Hanukah Treasure Hunt spOnlt-
ed by the married couples.
Annual Hillel Residence Pwrty will be
held tonight.
Coming Events
Undergraduate Math Club. Meetlng
Monday evening, Dec. 14, 'at 8 p.m, in
Room 3L of the Union. Pref. Lohwater
will speak on "Real Numbers." The
faculty members are asked to Te-
mind their classes. All interested are
invited to attend.
Newman Club will sponsor a C(4m-
munion Breakfast after the 9:30 Mass,
Sun., Dec. 13. Judge Joseph A. Moy-
nihan, presiding Circuit Judge of
Michigan, will be the featured speaker.
Tickets may be obtained at the Cen-
Economics Club. Meeting Mon., Dec.
14, West Conference Room, 8 p.m. G.
R. Gregory, George Willis Pack As-
sistant Professor of Resource Econom-
ics, School of Natural Resources, will
speak on "Conservation, Economics,
and Resource Use.'
The Philippine-Michigan Club will
hold its regular monthly meeting
Sun., December 13, at 3 p.m., in the
Michigan Union, Room 3-S. *Merienda
will be served.
The Graduate Outing Club meets
at 2 p.m. Sunday at the rear of the
Rackham Building. There willbe a
cross-country hike followed by supper
at Rackham. Those who have cars are
urged to bring them to help with
transportation to the country. New-
comers welcome.
Spanish Club. Rehearsal of "Las


Supreme Court debate over
segregation figure that the death
of Chief Justice Vinson and the
appointment of Earl Warren may.
possibly spell the difference one
way or the other. Chief Justice
Warren's record as Governor ofj
California shows that he is likely
to vote against school segregation.{
In San Bernardino, Calif.,
when a Catholic priest of Mexi-I
can ancestry was barred from a
public park, Governor Warren
acted promptly. Writing to U.S.
Appeals Court Judge William
Denman, he said: "I do not see
how we can carry out the spirit
of the United Nations if we deny
fundamental rights to our Latin-
American neighbors.",
Warren also appointed a Negro,
Walter Gordon, as chairman of,
the vitally important California'
Parole Board. Warren had play-
ed football on the same team with

Sixty-Fourth Year
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the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Control of
Student Publications.
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Helene Simon...........Associate Editor,
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Business Staff
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