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October 24, 1952 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1952-10-24

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Red Writers Still Searching

For Ideal Corn
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the third in a
series of interpretive articles dealing with So-
viet culture and extent of state control over
the endeavors of Soviet artists, writers, musi-
cians, scientists and educators. Today: Soviet
SINCE THE break with the Allies in 1946,
Russian literature has expanded one
theme and reversed another; first, Russian
nationalism has been developed to the ex-
treme, and second, what is non-Soviet has
been blackened. Soviet literature has in
the first case tried to portray "typical" So-
viet life and work, and this includes the
life and work in the outlying parts of Rus-
sia which gives sort of an "e pluribus unum"
ring to the idea. The second trend is a
loathing beyond all common sense of west-
ern "bourgeois art" which is incorporated
into any "'good" book along with the first
Ever since the 1840's Russian literature
has tried to produce a "positive hero -
someone who would act instead of just
talking about it, but Turgenev, Dostoievsky
and even Leo Tolstoy failed to write this
gharacter. And before the revolution he
didn't exist.
Now what of Soviet literature? It weather-
ed a siege of confusion until 1932, then set-
tied into a period of comparative stability
until World War II when like all litera-
tures it waved the banner of patriotism.
After the war and its stimulus, the Soviets
renewed their demand for a positive hero,
and where is he? Andrei Zhdanov, govern-
ment watchdog of literature, outlined him
briefly in 1934: "In our country the main
heroes of works of literature are builders of
a new life-working men and women, col-
lective farmers, Communist party members,
business managers, engineers, managers of
the Young Communist League, pioneers."
This was in 1934, and ever since then there
has been a snobbish pride that the heroes
of literature were "toilers" almost entirely.
Since the war there is a positive hero
in almost every acceptable Russian book.
He is usually strong, forty-ish, and a Co-
munist party member. If he has any
faults or doubts, they are personal and
trivial things. His judgement is perfect,
and he inspires men to work by his own
super-human energy. He is a serious Dick
Tracy, Brick Bradford and Joe Palooka
rolled into one, and as the Russian scho-
lar Ernest Simmons wrote in The Nation:
"Today the positive hero of fiction is near-
ly always a Communist, cast in the father-
image of Stalin." This last is almost too
much to believe, but of the few Soviet
books and stories that I have read I find it
largely true.
But there are exceptions; it can probably
be said that the best work of the Soviet nov-
elists is Sholokov's "The Silent Don." It is a
full book with exciting, real characters and
a wonderful, sometimes wistful picture of
Cossack life and times around the civil war,
but at the end the hero more or less me-
chanically changes from the Whites to the
Reds and seems to accept the Communist
order. So even Sholokov, who has been hail-
ed as a latter day Tolstoy, has buckled o1
the party shoes.
THERE ARE other cases where Soviet au-
thors get away unwittingly from black
and white characterization. Vera Dunham,
a professor at Wayne University, said in ef-
fect in an article, "The Villain in Soviet
Literature" that the "official" villain should
serve to point the phrase "Next to a good
example a bad example is the best thing."
"However, she points out that the vil-
lain is often treated at a distance by the
author, and yet in spite of the author's
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writer only.
This must be noted in all reprints.

munist 'Hero'
attempts to be very disinterested in him,
the villain pops out with phrases that are
all too human-usually in disgust at an
overdose of ideology or self-righteousness
on the part of the hero who is trying to
reform him in wooden, memorized phrases
which would produce disgust in anyone
with some feeling. The villain, says Pro-
fessor Dunham, "stems from Soviet re-
ality, which is very complex, whereas the
positive hero is to a large extent a sim-
plified educational project."
The good people are portrayed as self-
less, generous, terribly hard-working people.
That is fair enough, but in return for this
selflessness, etcetera, the most common, sel-
fish, creature comforts are their re-
ward. This, new and ever-increasing em-
phasis on materialism seems a paradox in
contrast to the ideal of selflessness.
There is little study of the inner com-
plexities, regrets, and frustrations of the
individual. Sentiment and weakness have no
place; everything is in "steely eyes and
strong backs" as Gleb Struve said in his
history of Soviet literature. To live a per-
sonal life without prime consideration for
the people is as much an absurdity in a
Russian hero as in Hopalong Cassidy.
Here I am equating Hoppy or Joe Pa-
looka to Russian literature, but it is with
a definite purpose in mind. In the United
States book sales are often very low un-
less you happen to be a Mickey Spillane.
or the author of a Naked and the Dead
where success depends on sensationalism
or smut. The sale of periodicals like Mc-
Call's, Woman's Home Companion, and
the ever-present Reader's Digest are ris-
ing every year. The reason is pretty ob-
vious: where a book by William Faulkner
or a short story by Eudora Welty requires
a little thought, a story in The Saturday
Evening Post or in Collier's asks only an
exclamation of "Gee, that's right" or
"Oh boy, I wisht I had adventures like
In the Soviet Union, the "Gee, that's
right" school is over-shadowed by the "Oh
boy, I wisht I had adventures like that"
school, but with a difference. The stories of
the latter school are about factory and col-
lective workers. Their "adventures" are a
narrative of their work, made exciting by
the gay, fantastically healthy and energetic
way in which they attack it.
** *
RUSSIAN LITERARY periodicals are al-
ways sellouts, and they often carry
novels, later published as books which are
also sellouts, often to the tune of a million
copies. The Russians have a product and
they know how to sell it. Don't make the
people think about the product; make them
feel that it's theirs for the taking. The "ad-
ventures" in a novel are not distant, im-
possible things to dream about. They seem
to be within the grasp of the worker, who
will bend just a little more effort on his
work, who will transfer the "adventure" on
the written page to his everyday life.
There are exceptions like the two Stalin
Prize winning novels of Vera Panova which
are not virulently connected with ideology
or a complete whitewash of the "good"
characters. Both are concerned with peo-
ple as people, not as happy machines. But
their frequency is demonstrated by one
Soviet critic who said in confusion "One
cannot tell which character is positive
and which is negative . . . . I find it in-
teresting to meet such imperfect people
who change and towards whom my atti-
tude changes."
Stalin said when he was addressing the
newly formed Writers Union, "Writers are
engineers of the soul," and that is indeed
what Soviet writers try to be on the whole.
In the future they may become mere pro-
pagandists, but that is unlikely because
there is constant agitation for greater lit-
erature. They may become great artists,
but that is unlikely because of the con-
stant restriction. They will probably remain
in a constant state of flux, changing often,
but remaining faithful to Stalin's definition.

Daily Associate Editor
A TRIP TO Northwestern last weekend was
like a Russian trip beyond the iron cur-
tain-at least as far as flash card sections
are concerned. Open-mouthed Michiganders
gazed with awe as a neatly drilled group of
Northwestern students depicted everything
from "Hello Mich" to a moving rocking
chair, and all in several colors.
The contrast between our own flash
card section and the Evanston variety was
sharp, and too many thought, provoking.
Those thousands of University seniors who
saw the choicest seats in the stadium gob-
bled up for the Block 'M' section by as-
sorted underclassmen must have done
some thinking when they saw or heard
about the NU spectacle.
When the flash card idea was sprung on
the campus, there were those who grumbled,
but most of us felt that the sacrifice was
worth while, so long as Michigan could keep
pace with other top-grade schools that have
successfully put on this type of entertain-
But the disillusionment came fast. First;
we learned that there were to be no prac-
tice sessions. Then we learned that the
shows would only be put on at three games,
not six. Then came the show at the Michi-
gan State game. A shaky block M was about
all the section could muster, and this with
a maximum of fuss and a minimum of
Now that we've seen how it's done in the
Big Leagues, we ought to demand more
from our own crew. We'll be looking for
results at tomorrow's game, while nearly
one hundred thousand fans crowd into
the stadium. Northwestern showed us
that it can be done, even if their flash
card section gets 20 yard line seats.
Those seniors who don't have as good
seats as they would like will be watching.
And we all will be thinking of next fall.
WASHINGTON-It is an axiom of mili-
tary strategy that the best defense is
to attack. But in political strategy it looks
as if the best defense against income tax in-
vestigation is to charge that the Govern-
ment is full of Communists.
If you repeat that charge often enough
and shout it loud enough, you can get
away with all sorts of things as far as
your personal taxes are concerned-or at
least that seems to be the experience of
Wisconsin's Senator Joe McCarthy.
This may be because Government offi-
cials know that they raise the cry of "mar-
tyr" and "revenge" if they prosecute a cri-
tic who has attacked them.
It is a safe statement that the average
newspaperman who kept financial records
the way McCarthy does, and juggled his fi-
nances the way he does, would have landed
in the jug some time ago. However, it is a
known though never officially admitted fact
that Senators and members of the House of
Representatives never have their tax re-
turns too carefully scrutinized.
This is the unwritten rule of the Bureau
of Internal Revenue.
The fact that McCarthy merits investi-
gation and scrutiny, however, is indicated
by the amazing fact that during the past
six and a half years the Senator from Wis-
consin deposited $24,185.44 to his bank ac-
THE AVERAGE citizen does not deal in

y large amounts of cash. Cash is the me-
dium of the underworld, where pay-offs and,
protection money must be concealed. How-
ever, here is the record of the cash deposited
by a member of the distinguished United
States Senate. the most important delibera-
tive body in the world:

. "e. - - .
enr to the Cdor

W ho's a Captive? . . .
To the Editor:
TUESDAY'S editorial page pro-
vided an interesting contrast in
political opinion. Mr. Alan Luckoff
wrote an article calculated to show
that Ike will "not stand up for his
principles when practical politics
is in question," while Mssrs. Joseph
and Stewart Alsop proceeded to
point out in a syndicated, national
piece just below this that both Ike
and Adlai have compromised. Now
I have more faith in the Alsop
brothers and their record than I
have in Mr. Luckoff but let's pro-
ceed to examine the charges con-
tained in the first column.
Gov. Stevenson didbnot knuckle
under to Southerners by soft-soap-
ing the civil rights issue. I may
point out that his position was
hardly a calculated risk at this
stage of the game. The state offi-
cials down South have largely de-
serted him already and the Con-
gressmen will never desert him be-
cause of the power they have held
and will hold in a Democrat con-
gress. Let him howl to high heaven,
for the benefit of Northern Ne-
groes, "liberals," etc., about civil
rights. These Southern gentlemen
will still be the chairmen of the
Congressional committees if Adlai
wins, and as Woodrow Wilson re-
marked, "this nation is run by the
chairmen of Congressional com-
mittees." I may point out that Ike
reiterated his determination to
work for the equality of all people
on his southern tour-it was one of
his less enthusiastically received
statements. But what did the Gov-
ernor say about tidelands in
Texas? Very little. This time the
theme was the old bogey of de-
pression, in spite of Adlai's earlier
Gov. Stevenson's abandonment
of a high level campaign to join
President Truman in the lower re-
gions definitely indicates affinity,
if not captivity, of the candidate.
But of course, I forget, they are
only pouring it on. And as with
the ditty, "don't let them take it
away, "what, Sir Soothsayer, is IT?
-Patrick McCormick
The 'Other Party' .. .
To the Editor:
JUST WHAT is the appeal that
the "Other Party" seems to have
for poor, disillusioned Democrats
in this election year?
On this campus, Bernie Back-
haut, formerly an ardent worker
for the Young Democrats, seems to
have slipped over into the fold of
the Republicans. Reason-the fail-
ure of the Young Democrats to
ratify the party program as ex-
pressed at the convention, and as
modified by the State's Rights line
of the South, and the subsequent
adoption of the party program as
interpreted by the presidential
candidate, Adlal Stevenson.
On the national level, witness
the endorsement of the Republican
candidate by Governors Shivers of
Texas, and Byrnes of South Caro-
lina. These are the same men who:
1) Claim that the Tidelands oil-
lands belong to the states in the
face of a Supreme Court decision
to the contrary, and 2) States that
he (Byrnes) is so adamant as re-
gards State's Rights that he is
willing to close the public schools
system of his state if it is deter-
mined by the Supreme Court that
the state has not the right to seg-
regate white and negro students
within that school system.
A reading of our National Con-
stitution discloses the following
information: 1) That the Federal
Government derived its powers
from the people, and not from the
states (as was specifically set out
in the Articles of Confederacy),
2) The Judicial power of the Unit-
ed States is vested in the Supreme
Court, and not in the respective
governors of the states.
In my opinion, the Constitution

which has lasted us for almost two
hundred years is pretty fair. I feel,
therefore, that if the Republicans,
in their 1952 platform, are advo-
cating a mass overhaul of this doc-
ument, and consequently in our
form of government, they are
merely supplying free advertising
for the Democratic Party.
-Hubert J. Brandt, '53L
SQ Cookies...
To the Editor:
A RATHER odd thing happened
Sunday nignt in the South
Quad dining halls-it seems as
though the dietitians took the li-
berty of throwing away about a
barrel of perfectly good cookies.
Persons going through the cafe-
teria line were forbidden to take
more than two of these same
cookies. Seems silly, some may
say, to grieve the loss of a few
cookies, but it also seems silly not
to have placed them on the coun-
ter with a sign-"Take all you
want." Didn't dorm rates go up
this year?
-Neil Letts
* * *

"Who Cares About Oil?"

.r ' '.... , } ' t. ,
- , -.. z f .
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, -.
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. "
> .y' , ,: .._ . '. ® 9.f s T'NE v~htNlraiteN Pb'i't''U'

Rush Holt, McCarthy, Revercomb,
Jenner, Malone, Etc. Eisenhower's
enthusiasm in clasping to his bo-
som this sordid crew has even con-
vinced the Dixiecrats that his feel-
ings are quite safe, and he has the
dubious distinction of winning the
support of Byrnes, Shivers, Ken-
non, and their ilk. And Col. Mc-
Cormick, Gen. MacArthur, and
Gerald L. K. Smith are reportedly
rapidly developing an appreciation
of what the General really stands
Mr. Lunn's false accusation is a

move his head from the ground
and read it.
On FEPC: As a member of the
Senate Labor Committee in 1952
he and Taft filed a minority re-
port which opposed the establish-
ment of a Fair Employment Prac-
tices Commission.
Nixon voted for the McCarran
Act, voted against amendments to
it, and helped override the Presi-
dential veto. This law has been
described by Senator Lehman as
"a bill specifically designed to cre-
ate a second class group of citi-


Dance will measure up successful-
ly to those of past years. Its suc-
cess, however, is solely dependent
on the support of the student
body. For this support I can only
Hope to see you November 1 at
Autumn Nocturne.
-Bob Steinberg
Chairman, SL Annual Fall Dance
Adai 'ii Karl Club*...
To the Editor:
[ AGREE with Mr. Sterling Sa-
der's views expressed in his let-
ter to the Daily ofnOctober 19,
but I am afraid I can only agree
with the last sentence. Adam
Smith was a pioneer in the devel-
opment of economic science and I
have every admiration for him. To
understand the present economical
and political problems of the world
we have to study it from a histori-
cal basis (how the economic and
political doctrines developed and
some of the important landmarks
and great thinkers.) In the latter
category we cannot ignore Adam
Smith or Karl Marx, though we
may not agree with any of their
ideas. We students must try to
know their views but form our
own judgments. The former is no
less important than the latter for
the solution of our present day
problems. To form individual judg-
ments after full knowledge and in-
dependent thinking is to my mind
the essence of Democracy.
Mr. Sader has overemphasized
the financial aspect of an educa-
tional institution and their associ-
ations. We students should be more
concerned with the best possible
educational facilities. Their fi-
nance is mainly the concern of
educational authorities.
The Karl Marx Society accord-
ing to its constitution is a study
group and a non-political organ-
ization. Persons like Mr. Sader are
welcome in the Society meeting to
express their views in an academic
manner and without any political
I hope after one visit Mr. Sader
will recover from his shock.
-Tom J. Boden
* * **
New Zealand .. .
To the Editor:
FEW WILL quarrel with L. V.
Naidoo's opinions on Malan
and fascism in South Africa. But
when he speaks-quite irrele-
vantly-of discrimination in New
Zealand he is witness to his own
abysmal ignorance. As a New Zea-
lander, I would challenge L. V.
Naidoo to give me any example of
discriminatory policy practised to-
day against the Maoris. I venture
to suggest he could not.
New Zealand has been a modest
pioneer in many fields, one of them
racial relationships-and not all
the emotive nonsense penned by
L. V. Naidoo can alter the fact.
(New Zealanders, incidentally, are
bitterly opposed to South Africa's
policies of intolerance.) As for
Australia, I cannot speak with
anything like L. V. Naidoo's au-
thority, as he apparently has much
closer experience of Australia than
I have; but as far as I know, the
Australian aborigine has proved
so little amenable to civilizing in-
fluences and efforts that he has
been allowed to remain in his na-
tive areas. Perhaps if L. V. Naidoo
were to get in touch with me and
have a talk about this question (or
even read some impartial text-
books for a change), he would
more nearly approach the truth
about racial relationships in New
-Gordon Gapper, Grad.




good example of the old trick of zens by holding the fear of de-
accusing your opponent of one's naturalization over the heads of
own principle defects of character. hundreds of thousands of natur-
This is one of the varieties of the alized citizens."
"big lie" technique. For certainly Public Housing: In 1952 Con-
the techniques of false accusation gress agreed to have 50,000 public
and calculated smear have of late housing units built in 1952, out of
been developed to a new perfection a total of 135,000 to be built even-
by the party of Nixon, McCarthy, tually. Nixon was one of those in
Jenner, Mundt, et al. the senate fight to have the num-
However, as the campaign pro- ber decreased from 50,000 to 5,000.
gresses, there appears to be little Public Health: Nixon voted
else the Republicans can do. For against the 5-year emergency pro-
they started out with a candidate gram of assistance to medical,
who was never falsely accused of dental and nursing schools and
being profound, who himself ad- against federal health insurance.
mitted his abysmal ignorance on Cost of Living: Nixon voted
basic issues, but who it was said against meat controls and other
had integrity, leadership, and legislation designed to prevent ex-
would lead us on a great "cru- cessive rises in the cost of living.
sade." Yet two weeks before the Tax Program: Besides fighting
election we find him led like a lit- against price controls, Nixon led
tle boy by Taft; the integrity myth the fight against plugging up tax
has been dissipated as he has sac- loopholes.
rificed all principles for political Korea: Nixon helped gum up
expediency as he talks out of a two opportunities to end the Kor-
different corner of his many-sided can War. First when the UN troops
mouth in every state; and the crossed the 38th parallel for the
morality of his "crusade" has been first time, and second, when India
demonstrated by his endorsement won acceptance by the Chinese of
of the Millionaires-Keep-Nixon- a resolution passed by the UN
Fund. which would have established a
-Neil J. Weller cease-fire with subsequent negoti-
ation of all problems. Nixon and
Lecture Committee other members of the China Lob-
by wanted no action which would
To the Editor: have given recognition to the Chi-
iN SPEAKING at housing groups nese Reds. Along with Taft, Mc-
on campus, to explain to the Carthy, Knowland, and MacAr-
students the functions and activi- thur, Nixon supports the corrupt
ties of their legislature, I have met government of Chiang Kai-shek
with much criticism of SL for their with the idea in mind of using his
recent delay of action on the Lec- forces to fight Red China.
ture Committee speakers' ban. So we see that Poor Richard
Shoulders were shrugged and apa- goes down the line on all the re-
thy was registered that SL was actionary policies of the GOP Old
mererly talking, and had little in- Guard.
tention of acting. -Shirley Danielson, '54
At last Wednesday's meeting I
voted to delay the submission of a
brief to the Regents for one month, SL Dance . . .
and to estabish a committee to re-




1 WO

......... ....... . .
s......e. ... .... es
. e...... .. .....a.... .

94 068.

examine our, case. Let me explain To the Eaitor:
my reasons to those who disagree. IN A RECENT iss'
Student Legislature received a se- there was anf

ue of the Daily
explanation of

Architecture Auditorium
SPECTER OF THE ROSE, with Judith An-
THIS PICTURE is an excellent example of
of what American film-makers can do
with a fantasy if they don't ,try to make it
lavish. For "Specter of the Rose" is a fan-
tasy, and can only be appreciated at that
level. The characters are not real people,
nor were they intended to be; they are
exaggerations, almost caricatures, of human
traits and behavior. Since they are artists,
they attempt to emphasize characteristical-
ly artistic mannerisms.
Judith Anderson, portraying a once-great
ballerina sunken into the glories of her past,
stands out for her almost surrealistic per-
formance. She is regal, fluttery, and more
than a little neurotic, and yet seems to move
in a sphere somewhere above the action.
Her final lines-the last of the picture-
form the central theme of the story: an
artist must remain at his best at all times;
for the performers, art and life are insep-
-a r l

Michael Chekhov, a slightly crooked and
procrastinating ballet impresario, is the most
extreme character. He is surely a carica-
ture, and appearing as he does among more
nebulous personalities he seems at times to
be a misfit.
Ivan Kirov and Viola Essen, the principle
dancers of the "Specter of the Rose" ballet,
are childlike and simple, and do not attempt
anything beyond their acting abilities. They
both speak haltingly and rather unsurely,
but are justified in the adolescent, unsteady
roles they enact.
With a ballet picture the natural ques-
tion would be: how does it compare with
"The Red Shoes"? Since it is more fan-
tastic and does not try to capture the
eality which the British picture attempts,
"Specter of the Rose" is more genuine and
and uncompromising. And since it is in
black-and-white, it escapes the obligation
of technicolor movies to be as spectacular
as possible. It seems to achieve a higher ar-
tistic level, if only for these two points,

IV I .. ... . .. .. . .. . .. ..
1952 up until June 30 ...
6ven more amazing is the


money received by the Senator from Wis-
consin from unidentified sources. Deposits
turned up in the Senator's accounts with
no record by the bank or brokerage firm
as to where they came from.
For this and other reasons, McCarthy was
able to parlay $70,490 of income during elev-
en years (1935 through 1945) up to stocks
that cost him $180,000.
McCarthy did this long before he began
his Communist campaign. But since he took
up the Communist issue he has continued
to gamble on the stock and commodity mar-
ket. And though the public generally has
the impression of a man dedicated to the
cause of ridding the world of Communism,
the Senator's bank accounts indicate that
he is chiefly out to make something for Mc-
Public office seems to agree with Mc-
Carthy financially. For after he got into
public office he really began to make
money. In 1935 he earned only $777.81.

vere slap when its Bias Clause Bill
was vetoed. The Lecture Commit-
tee Bill, similar to the Bias stand,
is a significant issue of policy.
Rather than receive a second "no,"
because we were not as fully pre-
pared as possible, I believed we
should pause for a moment and
check ourselves. In action of such
consequence, chances must not be
taken. I did not, in pausing, de-
clare myself opposed to the Spring
student-opinion-poll that voted 2
to 1 against the speakers' ban. On
the contrary, I hoped to better in-
sure the carrying-out of that ex-
pressed opinion, by thinking before
rushing headlong into action. I be-
lieve I may here take the liberty
of speaking for the other legis-
lators who so voted.
The Student Legislators are try-
ing to carry out their responsibili-
ties to the expressed will of the
-Steve Jelin, SL
'Nix on Nixon' . .

the change in date of this year's
Homecoming Dance from October
25 to Novemeber 1. I should like to
explain further the reason for this
change. It was an attempt on the
part of the Student Legislature to
present the students with the cali-
ber of entertainment to which
they are accustomed. It was not a
step toward the abolishment of
tradition as has been quoted of
many students, but instead it was
designed to offer an enjoyable
evening of dancing entertainment
with the best orchestra available
at this time.
The Student Legislature was
faced with two alternatives con-
cerning this dance. That of hir-
ing a local band from Detroit and
using a "name" vocalist with them
or that of postponing the dance
one week in order to secure one
of the top bands in the country,
namely Tommy Dorsey. They
chose the second alternative with
the hope that the students would
realize and understand their po-

Sixty-Third Year
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Control of
Student Publications.
Editorial Staff
Crawford Young... ..Managing Editor
Cal Samra..........Editorial Director
Zander Hollander...Feature Editor
Sid Klaus.......Associate City Editor
Harland Britz.......Associate Editor
Donna Hendleman ....Associate Editor
Ed Whipple.....,......Sports Editor
John Jenks.....Associate Sports Editor
Dick Sewel.... Associate Sports Editor
Lorraine Butler........ Women's Editor
Mary Jane Mills, Assoc. women's Editor
Business Staff
Al Green...........Business Manager
Milt Goetz.......Advertising Manager
Diane Johnston ..Assoc. Business Mgr.
Judy Loehnberg..... Finance Manager
Tom Treeger.......Circulation Manager

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