Scanned image of the page. Keyboard directions: use + to zoom in, - to zoom out, arrow keys to pan inside the viewer.

Page Options

Download this Issue


Something wrong?

Something wrong with this page? Report problem.

Rights / Permissions

This collection, digitized in collaboration with the Michigan Daily and the Board for Student Publications, contains materials that are protected by copyright law. Access to these materials is provided for non-profit educational and research purposes. If you use an item from this collection, it is your responsibility to consider the work's copyright status and obtain any required permission.

May 12, 1953 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1953-05-12

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.



T'iJE;S Dt3 i, 4A)e 1Z, 1953


Possible Peace and the GOP

FINAL SETTLEMENT of the peace talks
in Korea may well be the political wind-
fall 'the Eisenhower administration needs if
it is to maintain or increase its precarious
hold on Congress in the 1954 Congressional
elections. With a one seat margin in the
Senate and seven legislators to spare in
the House it would seem to require some-
thing less than a miracle to continue the
Republican lease on Congress.
A number of facts and figures of the ef-
fect of a possible truce in Korea should be
pointed up.
Item: With a peace settlement in Ko-
rea, or even a truce, the administration
could automatically pare abort two bil-
lion dollars from its military budget.
Total annual expenditures in Korea to-
day; are about five billion including the
cost of feeding, arming and maintaining
our army and the South Koreans. Of this
sum two billion represents ammunition
costs. It becomes rather obvious that a
saving of this size in defense spending
would enable the treasury to balance the
budget, while at the same time vote-
conscioqus legislators could strip away the
administration's only argument agjinst
tax cuts in the immediate future.
Item: The end of a shooting war in Korea

would undoubtedly have a very significant
impact on the minds of the American peo-
ple. Disgusted with a seemingly futile war
and decidedly opposed to sending any more
of their sons to Korea, the voters would
very likely act decisively in favor of the
party that makes the peace.
Item: In listing his suggested campaign
strategy for winning the 1954 Congression-
al elections, Senator Robert Taft last month
said that the attack must be focused on the
blunders of the late Truman administra-
tion. Certainly peace would add stinging
emphasis to that attack, as one of the chief
sore points of the Democratic 'regime was
its inability to end the stalemate in Korea.
The peace would tend to obscure the
blunders of the GOP in getting its legis-
lative ptogram underway in the transi-
tion of administrations, while on the
other hand the failures of the Truman
administration would appear in sharpest
Should the peace come between now and
the elections of 1954. a strongly Republican
Congress for the next two years will be
pretty much of a certainty and the long
standing rule of American politics dooming
the party in power to losses between the
presidential races will be thwarted.
--Gene Hartwig

EVERY SECTOR and every culture of the
world is represented by the 900 foreign
students who have come to Ann Arbor for
the same purposes that bring Michigan and
New York residents here.
This week being International Week af-
fords an appropriate opportunity for ev-
ery foreign and American student on cam-
pus to realize just how much he has, or
might have, benefited from a year's pre-
sence in a community as truly interna-
tional as the University.
While opportunities to mingle with for-
eign or American students, as the case may
be, are manifold throughout the year, there
is a special abundance of them this week.
Wednesday night Student Legislature will
bring India's ambassador to the United
States to the campus' doorstep, via an ad-
dress at Rackham.
On exhibit throughout the week is a col-
lection of paintings by a Korean student.
Thursday's customary open house at the
International Center is scheduled in anoth-
er effort to broaden student horizons.
Ann Arbor itself is attempting to give
foreign students a taste of community life
through a series of dinners at churches, civic
clubs and homes.
Support for activities student organiza-
tions sponsor this week, however, is not
enough. The current international obli-
vion can't be improved without a wide-
spread individual effort on the part of
every concerned student, foreign or other-
wise, to deviate from his entrenched and
restricted path.
Such a seemingly idealistic goal as all-
encompassing international understanding
is closer to reality than most students think.
Opportunities for closer relationships exist
in every corner of campus life. "Imperson-
al" classes, residence halls, student organi-
zations and social activities are all affluent
with an untapped mixture of cultures. The
International Center features an especially
concentrated variety of people and their
backgrounds, yet it is seldom visited by any
but a few habitues.
"Cultural advantages" need not be the
trite phrase it now is. Although nobody can
predict spectacular results from seven days
of emphatically international relationships,
the University may foresee an immediate
future in which its cosmopolitan atmosphere.
could contribute generously to the campus
experiences of every student.
--Jane Howard

.. e B 0teri to tie 6d[q0

Investigations of the Press--
In Argentina

THE VIRTUAL exclusion from the news-
papers of Argentina of dispatches from
all three major United States news services
is a revealing illustration of what happens
to freedom of the press under a dictatorial
Especially Interesting is the way in
which Argentine top-man Juan Peron
pushed dispatches of the Associated Press,
United Press, International News Service
and even those of the New York Times
off the pages of his nation's already ser-
vile press.
Peron requested his rubber-stamp Con-
gress to start an investigation of foreign
news agencies. 'He accused the agencies of
conducting an organized campaign to de-
fame, him abroad and of taking orders
from the United States State Department.
The Argentine Congress ordered the in-
vestigation Saturday, and the pro-adminis-
tration Buenos Aires press cooperated by
making United States agency releases con-
spicuously absent.

Also Saturday night, the Peron govern-
ment took its first direct action against the
U.S. wire services when the Ministry of
Communication ordered the United Press to
stop distributing news to papers outside of
Buenos Aires.
That Peron should continue to tighten
his control of the press is not surprising.
Saturday's actions are but the latest of a
long series of attempts to insure that only
,one side of the news is presented.
This sort of thing is necessary in a .
dictatorship. And for the same reasons
that Peron fears a free press, we in the
United States must strive to prevent any
tendencies toward the kind of press con-
trol Peron finds expedient.
It should especially be noted that threats
to real freedom of reporting in our country
are now also coming from Congressional
investigators with power to ruin the repu-
tation of newspaper editors who refuse to
be "co-operative."
-Jon Sobeloff



WASHINGTON - 'The Administration's
new defense policy is not going over
very well. The claim that less defense will
make us stronger has aroused a certain in-
terest in the new General Motors Miracle
Model--Will it be a longer car with a
shorter wheel base, a narrower car with
more room for the family, a car with half
the horsepower and twice the speed and
pick-up? But there is sure to be a bitter
row before Congress consents to such steps
as tossing the 143 group Air Force program
into the wastebasket.
None the less, Congressional critics
ought to begin by acknowledging the real
difficulties of the task inherited by Sec-
retary of Defense Wilson and Under-Sec-
retary Kyes.
There were worse things wrong with the
Truman defense program than superfluity
and extravagance. Messrs. Wilson and
Kyes should be generous enough to -admit
that some waste is a usual feature of any
great and rapid rearmament effort. But
they may justly complain that we have been
buying'a World War II defense program in
a revolutionized world situation.
The Soviet atomic bomb has existed since'
September, 1949. The 'explosion of the So-
viet atomic bomb in Siberia and the aggres-
sion in Korea were the two stimuli that
produced American rearmament. Yet it is
fair to say that the Joint Chiefs of Staff
have never adjusted their planning to the
new and central fact of the world stra-
tegic situation-the rapid accumulation of
a defective Soviet stock pile of atomic wea-
The ground forces have spent untold
millions to develop an atomic cannon that
could hardly cross any existing bridge in
the world, and an atomic shell that ex-
pends fissionable material as though it
were cheaper than TNT. But the ground
force plans offer no answer to the vul-
nerability to air-atomic attack of the
West European ports, on which the whole
NATO supply kystem depends.
The Navj has spent billions on carrier
task forces, with the primary aim of shar-
ing the Air Force's mission of atomic at-
tack on the enemy. But the Navy has no
known answer to the vulnerability of these
carrier task forces to underwater atomic

These failures were tacitly admitted in
the last major National Security Council
policy paper of the Truman regime, NSC-
141. This was, in effect, a disillusioned
re-examination of the effects of the So-
viet atomic bomb and other new weapons
on the American world position. As dis-
closed in this space, NSC-141 called for
greater American effort to fill the widen-
ing gaps in our defenses, and especially
to fill the air defense gap. NSC-141
might also have directed the Joint Chiefs
to cease their practice of making a maxi-
mum play with American new weapons,
without making any serious allowance to-
ward new weapons in Soviet hands.
On these grounds, then, the angriest com-
plaints were justified, both of President
Truman's defense leadership and of the
working of the Joint Chief's planning sys-
tem. No such complaints have been heard,
however. And this is upsetting, since the
reason seems to be that the emphasis on the
gaps in our defenses would undermine the
present policy as well, as displaying the
failures of the past.
Over a fairly .long period, great savings
can certainly be achieved by cutting out
waste, although cutting out defense waste
without impairing national strength is as
painful and time-consuming as reducing
physical fat by honest exercise and calorie-
counting. By the same token, great savings
can almost certainly be accomplished too,
by re-studying force requirements in the
light of the new weapons.
But these kinds of true saving must go
hand in hand with great increases in cer-
tain categories of expenditure, in order to
fill the widening gaps in the American de-
fenses. No such increases are as yet re-
quested. Indeed the heaviest slash of all, a
meat axe chop of $5,000,000,000 is in the
Air Force program. Yet the most urgent
needs are for a truly effective American
air defense and an American strategic air
arm strengthened to stake home through
the improved Soviet air defense.
The wiser men in the Administration
offer an excuse that may well be legiti-
mate, for the time, being. These men say
that first priority iust be given to "get-
ting control" of the defense problem-
to establishing sounder managerial &rac-

THE CONSTANT WIFE, presented by the
Drama Season, starring Katharine Cornell
THE FEMINIST PLAY and the drawing
room comedy, are not much with us any
more, largely perhaps because they became
the staple of an era that seemed to have
nothing more momentous to worry about
than vague social proprieties and keeping it
gay, keeping it crisp.
As the type sunk into a disrepute among
the playwrights, an eventually the pro-
ducers, the stars that had been developed
in that general atmosphere found them-
selves at a loss for new roles which suited
their talents. Some of the leading ladies
compromised with the new drama; others
faded away. A few, like Katharine Cornell,
the star of the opening production in this
year's drama season, returned chiefly to
the classic repetoire, and continued to
score by dint of tremendous personal tal-
In the current revival of "The Constant
Wife," by Somerset Maugham, Miss Cor-
nell demonstrates once more what was fa-
shionable on Broadway back in 1927. Because
her tremendous versatility has been tried by
such a number of roles since this kind of
thing was in style, it is altogether pleasing to
find that drawing room comedy, even the
aggressively feminine sort, can be As en-
tertaining as Miss Cornell makes the current
production. For sheer efficiency of effort,
warm consistency of tone, and almost per-
feet timing, she is supreme.
The plot of the show (and plot is very im-
portant to well-made comedy) revolves
around the "constant wife" of a prosper-
ous Harley Street Doctor, who discovers her
husband philandering with her best friend.
Because she is a modern woman, one does
not expect her poise overe to be seriously
threatened. The manner in which she takes
her revenge, however, is another matter; and
it is a compliment to Miss Cornell's perform-
ance that the calculating brutajity of it
never deprives her of the sympathy of the
masculine members of her audience.
Other members of the cast, all of the
original company now completing a na-
tional tour, include Robert Flemyng and
John Emery as the husband and lover,
respecitvely. Flemyng keeps his role agree-
ably light and remains the protesting pawn
at the end. John Emery is slightly stuffy,
but manages the worst' lines in the play
with some grace. The rest of the perform-
ers are expect, if professionally arch, par--
ticularly in the too brittle first act in
which Miss Cornell is long in arriving on-
The staging by Guthrie McClintic and set
by Donald Oenslager bear the mark of thor-
ough experience. The director has kept his
cast in ton form for the Ann Arbor opening.

'Palestinitis' .. .
To the Editor:
IN MR. AWADA'S letter on "Pal-
estinitis," several questions were
raised which we would like to ans-
wer. Is the Jewish people a race or
a religion? Actually it is neither.
It is a group whose characteristics
cannot be compared to any other
group in the world, and therefore
cannot be classified. It is not a
race as it has no racial features.
The Jewish people has representa-
tives in all races-Mongoloid, Ne-
groid, and Caucasian. Nor is it
merely a religion; for unlike other
religions, it has not only religious
customs, but a language, a land,
and a rich secular culture over
4000 years old. Today, the state
of Israel is the spiritual center for
Jewish people all over the world
(as Rome is to Catholic people).
But as a nation, Israel is founded
neither on religious nor racial
principles. It is a democratic na-
tion, run by both Arab and Jew.
Mr. Awada speaks of Jewish
"persecution;" of Jews driving
Arabs from their homes. But let
us examine the facts. The Jews
stole no land; they evicted no one.
In 1882 the first Jewish settlers
came to a barren, almost unin-
habited land; the most fertile
parts were malaria-infested. Most
of the land was owned by absentee
Arabs, a few of whom hired peas-
ants to cultivate it primitively.
The Jews paid dearly for every
piece of land they bought, in-
cluding the swamps. In time they
were successful, and began to
teach their Arab neighbors some
of their modern methods. This is
what the absentee owners feared;
this might lead to the end of the
feudal system in Israel and then
spread to the rest of the Arab
world. So they incited riots and
mistrust between Jew and Arab.
On the very day that the British
Mandate expired in 1948, the sur-
rounding Arab states began clos-
ing in on Israel. These Arabs is-
sued warning to the Israeli Arabs
that unless they left their homes
and joined the Arab ranks, they
would be killed with the Jews.
The Jews, however, asked the
Arabs to remain. They were pro-
mised protection and full citizen-
ship in the new state. Still most
of them fled. Even when the
fighting had ceased, the Arabs
were invited to return to their
homes-but few did. They chose
to play the role of "homeless,
evicted" people and seek UN sym-
pathy. As for the Arabs who re-
mained, they are now first class
citizens, enjoy voting .privileges,
have seats in parliament, and help
form government policies.
This, Mr. Awada, is how Israel's
Jews have been "persecuting" the
-Jo and Dick Sanders
* * .
Clean & Obscene..-.
To the Editor:
LOOK WITH great misgiving
upon County Prosecutor Ed-
mond DeVine's attempt to separ-
ate 'the clean from the obscene'
in newstand literature and I sug-
gest that he is acting in abroga-
tion of the time-honored doctrine
supporting the separation of
Church and State, in that this
elected official is confusing a di-
vine function with a De Vine func-
The rationale in support of this
censorship is that it will prevent
MINORS from being exposed to
morally detrimental literature.
Unfortunately, the law overlooks
the fact that by removing these
books from sale, it is also 'pro-
tecting' adults who are ostensibly
mature enough to be permitted to
exercise their judgments inde-
pendent of a County Censor

The County's position seems hy-
pocritical at best, in that it pro-
scribes the sale of books from
newsstands because they are deem-
ed obscene, while allowing these
same books to be circulated at the
University's General Library-
which caters to many students stil
in their minority .. . Or is the Ann
Arbor Police Department contem-
plating a directive to the Univer-
sity as the next step in its anti-
vice campaign?
-Conrad Fazoo and wife, Bertha
* * * *
To McCarthy
To The Editor:
THIS IS A NOTE to McCarthy
Up until recently I had
tiought that one should have a
critical attitude on political ques-
tions. Now I see my mistake quite
clearly. How if we are to be criti-
cal could we come to the conclu-
sion that everything is for the
best? We might begin to wonder
whether your efforts and those
of ourv c ollegu, "Professor


political economic and intellectuals
tyranny over the people by av
handful of corrupt self seekingc
despots, previous habits of demo-t
cratic and scientific thought be-
come detrimental to this Greatv
Aim, it becomes imperative thatc
all previous systems of values bec
ruthlessly trampled down. i
Therefore it follows that while
under a democracy informers and
people who bear false testimony
in order to obtain a political con-
viction may be looked down uponr
by the general body, quite the op-
posite considerations hold under
conditions of tyranny (as far asj
,the rulers are concerned).
Hence I would like to call to
your attention the works of a
rather "obscure" author, Thomas
Jefferson. His ideas expressed in
the Declaration of Independence1
are beginning to have a dangerous
circulation at home and abroad.t
Upon painstaking investigation I
have found that the great major-
ity of these ideas are in directc
conflidt with the Political Morality
for which you have dedicated the1
last measure of your devotion.
This man's works if investigated
thoroughly will undoubtedly go a1
long way in exposing subversive
influences nationally and inter-I
--Robert Schor1
* *
Mind & Mus~c ...
To the Editor:
MR. CHARLES H. Risdee (Grad.t
Ed.) has, like Gridley, firedI
the shot for Dewey. Let no teacherI
presume to draw from his own ex-
perience conclusions which thei
(Continued from page 2)
Wisdom of the Mind" (illustrated), Dr.
CRobert Gesell, Professor of Physiology
and Chairman of the Department of
Physiology. Announcement of the Henry
Russe) Award will be made at this
time. 1Lackham Amphitheater, Tues.,
May 12, 4:15 p.m.
University Lecture, auspices of the
Department of Geology, "Mapping Meth-
ods of Today," Gerald F. FitzGerald,
Chief Topographic Engineer, United
States Geological Survey, 4:15 p.m.,
Tues., May 12, 2054 Natural Science
University Lecture. Dr. Carlos Cueto.
Dean of the School of Education, St.
Mark's University, Lima, Peru, and Vis-
iting Professor of Education, Teach-
ers' College, Columbia University, will
give the second of his lectures Tues.,
May 12, 4:15 p.m., Auditorium A, An-
tgell Hall. His subject will be "A Cor-
parison Between Education in Latin
America and in the United States."
University Lecture, auspices of the
Department of English, "Literature and
Society," Basil Willey, King Edward VII
Professor of English Literature. Pem-
broke College, Cambridge University,
England, wed., May 13, 4:15 p.m., Au-
ditorium A, Angell Hall.
Academic Notices
Doctoral Examination for Thomas
' Mitchell Sawyer, Jr., Speech; thesis:
"Shift of Attitude Following Persua-
asion as Related to Estimate of Majority
Attitude," Tues., May 12, 3219 Angell
- Hall, 9 a.m Chairman, W. M. Sattler.
Doctoral Examination for William
- Henry Louisell, Physics; thesis: "An
Experimental Measurement of the
Gyromagnetic Ratio of the Free Elec-
r tron." Tues., May 12, 2038 Randall
e Laboratory, at 1:30 p.m. Chairman: R.
r W. Pidd.

space cadets of the academic
world have not approved in their
dynamic groups, conferences, and
testing programs.
Surely no one who had read
with care McFlitch and Thrilby's
Studies in the Correlation, of So-
cial Adjustment, Leadership Qual-
ities, and Gross Income with the
Retention of Certain Phrases from
"Maud Muller" Memorized in the
Sixth Grade by Selected Students
of Crabtree County, Oklahoma,
1938, would ever again think "the
mind a muscle."
-E. Whan
B~ook Lists . .
To the Editor:
NOW, WITHOUT bothering to
define terms, all or most com-
munities insist on some sort of
"obscene literature" statute. Un-
til basic attitudes have changed,
which takes a long time, those who
want to guard against the purges
of book purists must relate their
activies to the limits of current
public opinion.
They can, for example, work to
see that the contents of any book
black lists are made public.
In all honesty to voters, govern-
ment officials must do their part
in enforcing existing obscenity
laws. But they need not shroud
their activities with such secrecy.
Perhaps dealers would become
our censors if they were not pre-
sented with lists of items subject
to prosecution. Rather than risk
trial, they might tend to with-
hold books which list-compilers
would never consider.
The real sore spot in the list
making policy lies in the secrecy
Study of the Dynamometer Strength of
Adult Males Ages 30 to 79," wed., May
13, East Council Room, Rackham Build-
ing, at 2 p.m. Chairman, P. A. Hun-
Doctoral Examination for Patarasp
Rustomji Sethna, Engineering Mechan-
ics; thesis: "Steady State Motion of 1
and 2 Degrees of Freedom Systems with
a Non-Linear Restoring Force," Wed.,
May 13, 411-A West Engineering Build-
ing, at 4 p.m. Chairman, Jesse Ormon-
Doctoral Examination for Rev. May-
nard James Brennan, English; thesis:
"Organic Unity: The Principle and its
Application in the Criticism of Cole-
ridge," Wed., May 13, 2601 Haven Hall,
at 7:30 p.m. Chairman, C. D. Thorpe.
A UNESCO Lecture. The public is in-
vited to hear a lecture by Professor Rob-
ert C. Angell on the topic "The UNESCO
Approach to International Problem
Solving." This is one of a series of lec-
tures in the course "Social Forces in
Our Changing World," offered by the
University Extension Service. Tuesday
evening, May 12, 7:30. Auditorium C.
of Angell Hall.
Engineering Mechanics Seminar. Pro-
fessor W. W. Hagerty will speak "On the
Decay of Secondary Motion in a Round
Pipe," at 3:30 p.m. on Wednesday, May
13, in 101 West Engineering Building.
Seminar in Complex Variables will
meet Tues., May 12, at 7 p.m. in 247
West Engineering. Dr. E. L. Griffin Jr.
will continue his talk on "Riemann
Seminar in Mathematical Statistics
will meet Tues., May 12, 2:00-4:00 in
3217 Angell Hall. Mr. Samuel Knox will
Part II Actuarial Ciass, Tues., May 12,
2:10 p.m., 3201 Angell Hall. Three-hour
comprehensive examination.
r _ _ --

IY SIG:- i .'.
'4f IrZICAJ t
ETE fI _
A~ O
tlNls3 'I i6 WM1J!{!I l6Y0+1 f?'

Are dealers to judge for the
whole community? And when
they do feel a book has been er-
roniously listed, will they always
be willing to take the case to
court? In point of fast, past events
show that these salesmen are often
too easily intimidated.
Somehow the Daily managed to
peek through this secrecy and
found some surprising items on
Ann Arbor's list. Laurels to The
Daily for its effort, but the effort
should not have been necessary.
If we do have such lists, they
should always be made public.
Then any willing and interested
citizen could bring any or all
listed items to a jury trial.
-Howard Wolfe, '54
Books & Readers.
To the Editor:
THE RIGHT to avail ourselves
of the million odd volumes in
our University libraries is a privil-
ege not shared by many other
educational institutions of com-
parable size. However we have
come o take this for granted
sometimes, and have failed to ack-
nowledge an accompanying obli-
gation-to treat these books as
they were intended, the property
of the educational community.
Many of us neglect the fact that
the books are important instru-
ments of research and scholarsrip
and we subject them to mutilation
not practised by the most irre-
sponsible school child.
In' order to ensure future dona-
tions and financial appropriations,
we must prove our ability to pre-
serve our present library stock. The
temptation to include our own
marginal notes, underlinings and
illustrations to works long famous
before our time is a selfish in-
dulgence, and does not speak well,
for the members of a state univer-
sity founded on every democratic
-Barbara Fairberg
* * *
International Campus..
To the Editors:
should like to thank Miss Myers
and Miss Voss for Thursday's
declaration of the vital importance
to Americans of a greater under-
standing of the peoples with whom
we share this ever-shrinking globe.
Studies in languages, history, and
political science are, it 'is true, of
great value in building interna-
tional knowledge and good will
but an even better means to un-
derstand the people of the rest of
the world is, quite simply, to be-
come acquainted with some of
them. We on this campus are par-
ticularly fortunate in1 having al-
most nine hundred of the future
educational, cultural, industrial,
and political leaders of the world
studying here. They have come
to learn. In return, they offer us
an opportunity, second in value
only to travel and residence
abroad, of learning to know them,
and from them their people; an
opportunity of discovering through
friendship the ways of thought,
the problems, the dreams that
move them and their homelands.
Are we neglecting this chance?
-Robina Quale



"You Wouldn't Criticize Me, Would You, Pal?"



officials have used to hide the
contents of their lists. Apparent-
ly only dealers and certain gov-
ernment men may know what
books are on the black list. If
the public is kept in the dark, how
can it protect itself from the zeal
of purists?





_ Sixty-Third Year
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Control of
Student Publications.
Editorial Staff
Crawford Young.......Managing Editor
Barnes Connable..........City Editor
Cal Samra. .......... .Editorial Director
Zander Hollander........Feature Editor
Sid Klaus ....,...Associate City Editor
Harland Brltz......... Associate Editor
Donna Hendleman...AssociateEditor
Ed Whipple.............. Sports Editor
John Jenke......Associate Sports Editor
Dick Sewell. Associate Sports Editor
Lorraine Butler......... Women's Editor
Mary Jane Mills, Assoc. Women's Editor
Don Campbell.: :...Chief Photographer
Business Staff
Al Green............Business Manager
Milt Goetz.........Advertising Manager
Diane Johnston....Assoc. Business.Mgr.
Judy Loehnberg.,.... Finance Manager

Back to Top

© 2022 Regents of the University of Michigan