THE M AICHIIGAN DAIAILYJ,~Ak ,.)
Of The College
ER1 RARELY does smeone challenge
the popular assumption that college
students are not sufficiently "mature" to
be exposed to the claims of political radi-
calism. This assumption, of course, is noth-
ing new. For generations, the American pub-
lie has branded the God-forsaken college
student with the stigmas of immaturity,
naivete, and susceptible idealism.
Popular notions have portrayed the col-
lege student as a puerile youngster with
plenty of knowledge but little under-
standing for so long that this belief has
become solidly entrenched. It often finds
expression even among the administra-
tors and faculty of an institution of high-
er education. Perhaps many students con-
sider it useless to attempt to refute an
idea which questions not only our ma-
turity but indeed, our intelligence. In a
year of rampaging college riots, it is rath
er difficult to defend the maturity of col-
lege students. But, as a matter of prin-
ciple as well as of pride, we ought to be
insulted by these arbitrary misconcep-
What, then, is the popular conception of
a "mature" individual? Perhaps it is the
man who can strike a hard bargain, who
is devoted to practical expediency, who takes
his beer with a dash of salt, who doesn't
cloud his life with useless idealism. Admit-
tedly, many of us satisfy these requirements,
but over and above these are elements which
are far more important.
Maturity, in actuality, means more than
the ability to deal with the problems of daily
life. It means being well-informed. It signi-
fies the aptitude to consider all sides of
broader issues objectively, even .dispassion-
ately, and arriving at rational, untainted
conclusions. It carries with it anelement of
scepticism, subjecting beliefs to question
without flying off into the teeth of emotion-
alism. Above all, it means standing up for
principles which may not promise the in-
dividual opportunity for personal gain.
submit that the average college stu-
dent, by this definition, is more fit to be
called "mature" than the average lay-
It is indeed paradoxical that the college
student, whose IQ far excels that of the
average -layman and who has devoted a
great deal of thought to the many questions
of the times (over which the layman lightly
skims), is often accorded the respect pro-
perly due a babling 10 year old.
HE ONLY Democratic candidate to really
get out and work for delegation votes,
Senator Estes Kefauver, has yet to find a,
warm spot in the hearts of many of the
staunch Democrats of his Party.
This is unusual in view of the fact that
professional politicians usually love a
vote-getter. It seems that the only plaus-
ible explanation for this luke-warm atti-
tude towards Kefauver is that he is too
sincere in his convictions and efforts to
be easily swayed by expediency.
From the party machine's and Truman
Administration's point of view, Kefauver is
a bad risk. He has stepped on too many of
the wrong people's toes in his crime investi-
gations. Old line Democrats in the eastern
and midwestern states can see nothing at-
tractive in a man who made his reputation
at some embarrassment to his party by al-
lowing Democrats who had connived with
criminal elements to be exposed. This feeling
exists despite the fact that Kefauver has
been an ardent supporter of the Truman
administration's Fair Deal policies.
Southern Democrats also find Kefauver
a hard pill " to swallow because of his
stand on FEPC. Kefauver has said he pre-'
fers a voluntary civil ,iights program but
will go along with a compulsory program
that is nailed to the Democratic platform.
In 1947 Kefauver voted for the elimina-
tion of the anti-strike injunction in the
Taft-Hartley Act. But despite this and other
instances of his sympathy, labor is still
wary of coming out in support of the Sen-
Furthermore, there is also a group of
liberals, led by the Americans for Demo-
cratic Action, who are reluctant to accept
Kefauver because they do not consider him
Others do not feel that Kefauver has
the necessary stature or the experience
to qualify him for the presidency, nor the
whole-hearted support from minority
groups essential for a Democratic victory.
Kefauver, whose delegate strength re-
mains uncertain, is going to bat in the Dem-
ocratic Convention this summer with many
political strikes against him. With all the
ornrosition the Senator has to fae. it is
The Laek of Qualified
IT IS A rather sad reflection on twentieth
century democracy that this country has
such a lack of qualified presidential candi-
In the age of the supposed "common
man," we find the commonest in the
White House, but when we look around
for a replacement, we only discover a
few prima donnas, numerous mouthy
megalomaniacs, several senatorial mis-
fits and assorted out-of-work foreign aid
administrators. This situation prevails on
both sides of the political fence.
Apparently it is too much to ask candi-
dates to present intelligent, well-reasoned
campaigns and desist from mere mud-sling-
ing and blanket opposition to all proposals
of the other party.
In this sense, Sen. Taft has been the
greatest disappointment. Hailed as a per-
son of extreme intellect who can ferret out
the answers to the most perplexing prob-
lems of our time, Taft has displayed him-
self as a narrow minded mid-westerner who
grudgingly acknowledges that there are
other countries on the opposite sides of the
Atlantic and Pacific. One need only say to
him, "President Truman proposed .. ." and
he'll immediately reply "I'm opposed to it."
The conniving Harold Stassen should
have gone back to Minnesota years ago.
His statements are hollow, designed to de-
ceive, not to instruct, the electorate.
Gov. Earl Warren, a fairly liberal Re-
publican, has not said anything particularly
worthwhile of late, and like Stassen, waits
for a deadlock chance.
Gen. MacArthur is obsessed with the hys-
terical desire to wreck vengence on the Tru-
The picture is no brighter for the Dem-
ocrats, however. Sen. Kefauver, the white-
plumed hero is a disappointment. He is
unable to speak with any conviction on
subjects unrelated to crime and corrup-
tion. While these are crucial issues, they
are by no means the most important ones
facing the country.
Sen. Kerr is probably the weakest can-
didate and hardly seems to have an excuse
for running. Sen. Russell, one of the .more
intelligent candidates, is weighted with the
millstone of the civil rights issue and be-
comes a one-plank candidate.
W. Averill Harriman is an obvious "trial
balloon" which is being quickly deflated and
will probably sink to Hoboken again very
shortly, Harriman, darling of the ADA, tries
continually to emulate the late Franklin D.
Roosevelt-with little success.
But the most disappointing candidates
are Gov. Adlai Stevenson and Gen. Eisen-
hower. These men are the best qualified
to head their respective party tickets; yet
they refuse to campaign or to state their
views on current affairs beyond their of-
It is unfortunate that they should prove
so unwilling to participate actively in the
presidential nomination race, for, if they
did, it would insure a higher level of poli-
tics and campaigning prior to the fall elec-
tions and a more honorable administration
"What Kind Of Weapon Is That?"
tette'4 TO THE EDITOR
The Daily welcomes communications from its readers on matters of
general interest, and Will publish all letters which Aresigned by the writer
and in good taste. LXetters exceeding 300 words in length, defamatory or
libelous letters, and letters which for any reason are not in good taste will
be condensed, edited or withheld from publication at the discretion of the
Deplorable Laxity.. .
To the Editor:
YOUR ARTICLE by Virginia
Voss on the genocide debate
is at best an example of deplorable
journalistic laxity. It contains the
following errors of fact:
Most of Mrs. Shore's citations
were not from We Charge Geno-
cide, but from a pamphlet pre-
pared by a non-political group in
no way connected with the Civil
mss 'pef wAc.A,..ro.' n
with DREW PEARSON
MAT'rER Or PACTg
By JOSEPH and STEWART ALSOP
WASHINGTON - For the first time in
some years of weary waiting, the ex-
perts are weighing the possibility that a
major satellite regime is not absolutely un-
der the Kremlin's thumb. The regime is that
of President Klement Gottwald of Czecho-
The most striking facts are simply those
concerning the composition of the Gott-
wald government. The Czech President,
who has never been known as a true 100
per, cent Stalinist, now has his own men,
reporting directly to him, in the three key
positions of his totalitarian state.
His son-in-law, Cepicka, Is Minister of
Defense, and thus controls the armed forces.
His old comrade-in-arms, Nosek, is Minis-
ter of the Interior, controlling the appara-
tus of justice. Like Gottwald himself, Nosek
is generally regarded as a "nationalist"
Communist, and he has commited the grave
indiscretion, from the Kremlin's standpoint,
of spending the war in London instead of
Finally, Gottwald has also appointed
another henchman, a certain Basilek, as
Chief of the Secret Police. The man who
holds this most vital of all posts in the state
apparatus is famous both for his absolute
ruthlessness and his blind obedience' to
Gottwald. Basilek's position is also signifi-
cant in another i way. For his predecessor
was one Kopriva, an equally blood-thirsty
hatchetman who owed his job, not to Gott-
wald, but to Rudolf Slansky. Slansky, of
course, was the Stalinist Secretary of the
Czech Communist Party, whose denuncia-
tion by Gottwald and arrest late last year,
were a major and most astonishing sensa-
At Hill Auditorium .. .
MOVIE CRAZY, with Harold Lloyd and
The strongest interpretation of the
mysterious Slansky denunciation and ar-
rest has just appeared in the official
Yugoslav magazine, Foreign Affairs. This
article was written by Ivan Karainov,
who is the top Yugoslav expert on the
Cominform, and has a noteworthy repu-
tation for being well-informed. Karainov
stated flatly that a bitter still-con-
cealed struggle for power has been going
on between the Kremlin and the Gott-
wald regime for some time. He reported
that since Slansky's arrest, Gottwald has
already purged no less than 6,000 loyal
Stalinists in the state apparatus. He pic-
tured Gottwald as defying the Kremlin to
seize total control of the state and party
Karainov has often been right before. The
Yugoslav intelligence concerning the satel-
lite area is undoubtedly the best in the
world. And it must be added that the simple
circumstance of the Slansky arrest appear
to support Karainov's interpretation of it
and of the events which have followed it.
The fall of Slansky caught all Western
intelligence experts flatfooted. Slansky had
always been accounted the Kremlin's chief
and most trusted agent in Czechoslovakia,
and the real ruler of the country. The num-
ber two Kremlin agent, Cedrich Geminder
was arrested at the same time as Slansky,
and Slanskys police chief, Kopriva, met his
fate a little bit later.
Add to all this Gottwald's own back-
ground. As far back as the '20s, Gottwald
was neutral in the crucial Stalin-Trotsky
struggle. This is one error which the
Kremlin never forgets. In 1947, Gottwald
accepted the Marshall Plan offer with-
out consulting Moscow. The Kremlin bru-
tally disciplined him for his mistake.
Since then, his public pronouncements
have continued to strike a suspiciously
nationalist note. And this is the note
which the Kremlin does not tolerate. ,
All this is very far from conclusive, of
course. While agreeing that there is real
evidence of trouble between Prague and
Moscow, the American experts are inclined
to regard the Karainov report as part
wishful thinking and part psychological
warfare. They think that Gottwald may
perhaps have really gained control of the
state and party apparatus in his country.
They think he may be using this control to
remove Communists whose loyalties are too
divided. But there is doubt as to whether
Gottwald can get away with it for very long,
in view of the enormous numbers of MVD
agents who are seeded through every de-
partment of Czech life. And they believe
further that Gottwald will only break with
the Kremlin in sheer despair, because the
danger from the Soviet Union is too great.
The Red Army, after all, stands on Czecho-
The loss of Czechoslovakia would fore-
shadow for the Kremlin the loss of Po-
land, the loss of East Germany, indeed
the loss of the cold war. If the MVD agent
in the country could not handle Gottwald,
it is thought the Red Army would be used
to suppress any overt separatist move-
Only the clear threat of counterforce from
the West might hold the Kremlin in check.
Yet it is impossible to know what the West-
ern nations would do if the Czechs tried a
break for freedom. In short, the situation in
WASHINGTON-The steel cables which once roped off the sidewalk
in front of Blair House are now removed; so also the little guard-E
houses once occupied by the White House police.
They were placed there immediately after two Puerto Rican
fanatics ran down Pennsylvania Avenue, their guns blazing,
mowing down two guards in an insane, abortive attempt on thef
life of the President.
Today people can walk along the sidewalk of Pennsylvania AvenueE
without going out in the street to avoid the barriers. But the root1
reason for the attempt on the President's life has not been removed.
In fact, security measures to protect his life and that of the
Governor of Puerto Rico, Luis Munoz Marin, were tightened last
week because the new constitution of Puerto Rico is now up for
debate in Congress. Governor Munoz Marin, who was attacked in
San Juan simultaneously with the attack on Truman, is now under
special guard in Washington, and the name of the hotel where he
is stopping is kept a secret.
The attempts on the lives of the Governor and the President1
were made by Puerto Rican fanatics who demanded that Puerto Rico
be completely independent of the United States. They bitterly op-1
posed the new constitution which sets up a model, middle-of-the-road;
partnership with the U.S.A., as merely continuing Yankee rule.
Simultaneously, from another group, the new Puerto Rican
constitution has been under fire. This group, not fanatical in the1
physical sense, but almost fanatical in its desire to preserve the
status quo, is in the House of Representatives.
After a bill was passed by both houses of Congress permitting
Puerto Rico to adopt a new constitution, and after the carefully
drafted constitution was overwhelmingly adopted by a plebiscite of
the Puerto Rican people, it was suddenly blocked in the House last
week by GOP Congressman Charley Halleck of Indiana.
HALLECK, frequently called "Two-Cadillac Charley," because 'he
came to Washington a man of modest means and suddenly blos-
somed out with two Cadillacs, was rather vague about reasons for
opposing the Puerto Rican constitution. He didn't like the fact that
it prohibited child labor, though the United States does, too; and he
also objected to section 2G which sets forth the Puerto Rican goal of
a job for every man.
Other Republicans, equally conservative, disagreed with Hal-
leck. Congressman "Doc" Miller of Nebraska, a strong MacArthur
booster and a student of the Puerto Rican constitution, pointed
out that it would not have permitted seizure of- the steel mills or
taking over newspapers.
"Do you object to the fact that it would prevent the government
from seizing the steel mills?" asked Congressman Miller. "Do you
object to this ban against wire-tapping?"
Halleck had no convincing answer.
His friend, Congressman Fred Crawford of Michigan, another
conservative Republican, also championed the constitution, but the
gentleman from Indiana continued to object, not only to the consti-
tution, but even to permitting a vote on it. Halleck wanted to bottle
the bill up in the Rules Committee, thus stifling free discussion.
Several Dixiecrats supported him.
Thus, while the extreme -radicals of Puerto Rico are ready to
assassinate the President and Governor Munoz Marin if the constitu-
tion is adopted, the extreme reactionaries in Congress axe ready to
assassinate the constitution._
What the latter don't understand is that the entire Latin-
American world is watching Congress to see whether we renege on
our pledge to work out a commonwealth partnership with the
Puerto Rican people.
NOTE-Later, several Republicans persuaded Halleck at least to
permit a vote on the constitution, and he receded from his opposition
to a vote. But one GOP colleague remarked: "Herbert Hoover once
proposed a chicken in every pot and two cars in every garage. Today
Halleck has two Cadillacs in his garage, but is opposed to letting
Puerto Rico express its hope of a job for every man."
STATEHOOD AND POLITICS
WHEN THE SENATE finally voted down the question of statehood
for Alaska last winter, Sen. Clinton Andersen of New Mexico
walked across the Senate floor to fellow Democrat Bob Kerr of Okla-
homa and remarked:
"You're going to regret that some day, Bob. That vote will
come back to plague you in your race for the nomination."
Inside fact was that Senator Kerr had made a deal with Southern
Democratic friends to trade his vote aainst Alaskan and Hawaiian
statehood in return for their support on oil-and-gas legislation. Kerr
is a big oil-and-gas man.
But what Senator Andersen knew was that the people of
Hawaii, Alaska and Puerto Rico, who can't vote, but can nomin-
ate, deeply resent the way they have been kicked around by
certain U.S. legislators; so their delegates at both conventions
hope to support those who have befriended them.
On the Democratic side, Senator Kefauver is the only leading
candidate who has consistently championed statehood and the rights
of island people. He even took a long trip from Iowa to Washington
in order to be on hand to vote. On the Republican side, Taft voted to
pigeonhole Alaskan statehood. Eisenhower has favored it.
Life magazine is negotiating to buy a picture of a flying saucer
Slosson did not state that the
federal government "is uncon-
nected" with a "constant better-
ment." On the contrary, he stated
that the government "is not un-
connected" with this betterment.
Neither did he state that he had
run for Congress in 1938, but in
There was no difference of op-
inion between Simmons and Mrs.
Shore as to the efficacy of the
United Nations in this matter.
They agreed, at least by implica-
tion, that action by the interna-
tional body would be only the first
Slosson did not state that he
was opposed to the use of police
power in eliminating discrimina-
tion. Or if this rather vague pas-
sage is interpreted differently,
neither did he place the police
power in opposition to something
The article has these additional
There is an error of omission in
the fact that Miss Voss quotes
Slosson on his opponents' alleged
close acquaintance "with the pow-
ers of totalitarian governments,"
but does not quote Simmons, who
answered to this effect: "Slos-
son's assertion is true, since I was
born and raised in Tennessee and
educated at the University of Mi-
The last three paragraphs of the
article seem to indicate that Miss
Voss, and by extension The Daily,
have approached the question of
genocide from a position of parti
pris. In short, they were predis-
posed to agree with Slosson. The
allusive remarks on the interview
with Mrs. Shore, a subject quite
apart from the debate, have all
the earmarks of a subtle smear.
Since the affirmative closed the
debate, the Daily closes for the
* * *
CLC Affirmation. ..
To the Editor:
THE CIVIL Liberties Commit-
tee's unequivocal opposition to
the Lecture Committee must again
be affirmed. The occasion is the
banning of Ann Shore.
With each banning, freedom of
speech, freedom of assembly, and
the right of students to a mature
exchange of ideas, is repressed.
With each banning, this is pointed
out. With each banning, the stu-
dents hear our arguments. By
now they may even be considered
cliches. But it must be remem-
bered that 'they are not cliches
but fundamental American beliefs;
that when we say freedom of as-
sembly is abridged on this cam-
pus, we mean that your freedom is
abridged; that when we say the
right of free inquiry is repressed
on this campus, we mean that
you do not have the right to in-
This most recent banning rep-
resents a culmination of the Lec-
ture Committee's latest activities.
And indeed it has been very ac-
tive: it has seen to it that five
speakers invited by campus organ-
izations have not spoken publicly
on this campus. (These people are
Abner Green, Arthur McPhaul,
William Hood, Lorraine Meisner
and Ann Shore.) It is interesting
that in the entire previous history
of the Lecture Committee, it has
only prevented four people from
We feel that the Unitarian Stu
dents' Group was forced into the
position of holding an off-campus
debate. Bannings such as these
create the somewhat peculiar con-
dition of making speech which is
legal off-campus illegal on cam-
In pushing students off campus
to hear speakers, the Lecture
Committee is hardly helping the
University fulfill its educational
-Joe Savin, Chairman CLC Fall
semester '52; Fred Burr, Vice-
Chairman CLC Fall Semester
'52; Paula Levin, Secretary CLC
Fall Semester '52, and other
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN 2
(Continued from Page 2)t
2089 Natural Science Bldg. Chairnan,
H. van der Schalie.t
Doctoral Examination for Robert
Hopkins Brower, Far Eastern Languages
& Literatures; thesis: "The Konzyaku
Monogatarisyu: An Historical and Crit-
ical Introduction, with Annotated
Translations of Seventy-Eight Tales,"
Fri., May 23, 10 a.m., 2021 Angell Hall.
Chairman, J. K. Yamagiwa.
Doctoral Examination for David Rus-
sell Cook, Zoology; thesis: "Genera of1
the Hydracarina in Michigan, with a
Revision of the MichiganArrenuridae,"
Fri., May 23. 2 p.m., 2089 Natural Sci-
ence Bldg. Chairman, F. E. Eggleton. j
Doctoral Examination for Ying Chang
Cheo, Wood Technology; thesis: "An1
Investigation of Methods of Improving
the Bonding Qualities of Soybean
Glue," Fri., May 23, 3p.m., East Coun-
cil Room, Rackham Bldg. Chalrmanl,
Doctoral Examination for Millard
Myron Laing, Education & Music; the-
sis: "Anton Reicha's Quintets for Flute,
Oboe, Clarinet, Horn and Bassoon,"
Fri., May 23, 4 p.m., West Council Room.
Rackham Bldg. Chairman, J. H. Lowell.
Doctoral Examination for James Sid-
ney Murphy, Aeronautical Engineering;
thesis: "Some Effects of Surface Curva-
ture on Laminar Boundary-Layer Flow,"
Sat., May 24, 9 a.m., 1077 E. Engineering
Bldg. Chairman, A. M. Kuethe.
Doctoral Examination for Richard Al-
ton Tybout, Economics; thesis: "Atomic
Energy Control and Promotion," Sat.,
May 24, 9 a.m., 105 Economics Bldg.
Chairman, I. - L. Sharfman.
Doctoral Examination for Louis A.
Govatos, Education; thesis: "Relation-
ship between Physical Skills and Growth
in Elementary School Children," Sat.,
May 24, 12 noon, Michigan Union. Chair-
man, W. C. Olson.
Doctoral Examination for Seymour
Calvert, Chemical Engineering; thesis:
"Vertical, Upward, Annular, Two-Phase
Flow in Smooth Tubes, Sat., May 24.
10 a.m., E. Engineering Bldg. Chairman,
G. B. Williams.
University S y m p h o n y Orchestra,
Wayne Dunlap, Conductor, will present
its aunual spring concert at 8:30 p.m.,
Sun., May 25, in Hill Auditorium, with
Robert Courte, violist with the Stanley
Quartet as soloist. The program will in-
clude works by Giovanni Gabrieli,
Brahms, Milhaud, Hindemith, and Stra-
vinsky, and will be open to the public.
Student Recital: Harold Thompson,
pianist, will present a program in par-
tial fulfillment of the requirements for
the Master of Music degree at 4:15 p.m.,
Fri., May 23, in the Rackham Assem-
bly Hall. A pupil of Benning Dexter,
Mr. Thompson will play compositions
tecture Auditorium. Mrs. Ohlheiser
studies with Arthur Hackett. Her pro-
gram, open to the public, will include
works by Mozart, Menotti, Pierne, Deli-
bes, Franck, Dell'Aqua and Schubett.
sigma Delta Pi (Spanish Honor So-
ciety). Members are urged to attend the
Initiation, 7:30 p.m., West Conference
Room, Rackham Bldg.
Wesleyan Guild: Senior Supper, 6:30
p.m., at tbi social hall.
SL International Committee meeting,
3:30 p.m., ST. Bldg. Everyone interested
Arab Club. Meeting, 7 p.m., Interna-
tional Center. Election of officers for
next year. Members only.
English Language Institute. Regular
Friday night program, 8 p.m., Rackham
Motion Pictures, auspices of UVniver-
sity Museums. "what Makes a Desert,"
"Life in Hot Dry, Land," and "Desert
Demons." 7:30 p.m., Fri. May, 23, Kel-
logg Auditorium. No admission:charge.
SRA Coffee Hour. Lane Hall, 4:15-
5:30 p.m. All students invited.
Barnaby Club: Final meeting and sup-
per, Lane Hall, Mon., May 26. 6 p.m.
Phone 5838 before Monday for reserva-
tions. Members who wish membership
fee refunds must claim these between
5 and 7 p.m. At Lane Hall (Fireside
Room), Mon., May 26.
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Control of
Chuck Elliott ........Managing Editor
Bob Keith ...............City Editor
Leonard Greenbaum, Editorial Director
Ven Emerson ....... .,. .Feature Editor
Ron watts . ..........Associate Editor
Bob Vaughn ...........Associate Editor
Ted Papes ................Sports Editor
George Flint ...,Associate Sports Editor
Jim Parker .....Associate Sports Editor
Jan James............Women's Editor
Jo Ketelhut, Associate Women's Editor
Bob Miller ...........Business Manager
Gene Kuthy, Assoc. Business Manager
Charles Cuson ....Advertising Manager
Milt Goetz....... Circulation Manager
H AROLD LLOYD still remains one
great early slapstick artists; this
ie" reaffirms the fact. None of the
connected with his silent film career
through the addition of sound.
Lloyd is a typical "little" man, a role
shared by his contemporaries Charlie
Chaplin and Buster 'Keaton, and, in a
subtler fashion, by England's Alec Guin-
ness. Each has his own specialty within
this characterization; in "Movie Crazy"
Lloyd emphasizes the embarrassment of
the social misfit.
In this film he portrays a cinema-struck
young man froth a little town in Kansas.
Through a judicious blunder he is sum-
moned to Hollywood for a screen test; his
attempt to play a romantic hero flops com-
pletely. A movie queen, attracted by his
honesty and simplicity, leads him a hectic
chase through a series of mistaken identi-
ties to a job as a film comic.
The keynote of the comedy naturally
enough is slapstick, and Lloyd is a master
at it. One of the funniest scenes comes early
in the film when he loses a shoe in the
gutter and hops down the street chasing it.
His precision, like Chaplin's, makes it ap-
n~anr. .ith,, that- it icthe nrrndueit oPf eare-