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March 24, 1948 - Image 2

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The Michigan Daily, 1948-03-24

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Evolution Theory Backfires

THOSE WHO advocate social evolution as
the only certain cure for racial discrimina-
tion would do well to consider the Ingrams
case and ask themselves just how many mil-
leniums will be required for such gross in-
Justice to 'evolve" into justice.
The eyes of the Goddess of Justice are
traditionally blind: blind to the religion of
the defendant, to his race, to his creed-
to any and all of his characteristics or
idiosyncrasies that do not bear directly on
the offense with which he is charged. The
eyes of the Georgia court that condemned
Rosa Lee Ingram and her teen-aged sons
to death were wide open, and they were
What they saw, in the persons of three
terrified Negroes, was a threat to the South-
ern Holy of Holies: white supremacy. They
saw the Negro demanding and fighting for
his rights as a human being. They saw him
striking back instead of cringing and whin-
ing as a well trained Southern Negro is ex-
pected to do. They saw him in the future
:ompeting with the whites on an equal basis.
the court was furious and frightened by
what it saw, and it issued the only verdict
possible-"guilty of murder in the first de-
Here are the facts of the case: Mrs. Rosa
Lee Ingram, a widowed mother of 12 chil-
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.

dren, entered a white farmer's field with two
sons to retrieve straying livestock. The own-
er of the field ordered her to round up the
cattle and leave immediately. Then he left,
threatening to come back and drive her out.
He returned carrying a gun and when he saw
that the Ingrams had not succeeded in run-
ning the cattle out of the field he fell upon
Mrs. Igram, struck her, and raised his gun as
if to shoot. At this point Mrs. Ingram made
a mistake.
Instead of grovelling and begging for mer-
cy she attempted to seize the gun. The far-
mer's reaction was to beat her across the
face with the handle of a knife that he held
in his other hand. This, according to the
Southern evoluation of Negro courage,
should have been the cue to send the sons
running for cover. Instead they rushed in to
defend their mother. In the ensuing melee
the farmer was struck a fatal blow.
The Ingrams were then taken to jail,
subjected to third degree treatment and
given no legal counsel. Four days after
being indicted for first degree murder they
were convicted by an all white jury and
sentenced to death.
This is the sort of thing that is to be ir-
radicated by the slow process of social evolu-
tion. This is the sort of thing that it is use-
less to legislate against. If racial discrimina-
tion were only a matter of segregation and
personal prejudice, perhaps we could wait
for evolution. But when it is the cause of
such outrageous violations of justice as oc-
curred in the Ingrams case it must be dealt
with by the law-and it must be dealt with
finally and unconditionally !
-Ivan Kelley

Remember the Aim

THE ACADEMIC freedom rally committee
must not overlook the actions of our erst-
while ally, China, in its protest against
abridgement of Academic Freedom abroad.
Students at the Tung Chi University, Hong
Kong, were fired on by Chinese police on
Jan. 29. Two students were arrested later
released, arrested again, and have since dis-
appeared. 400 were expelled from school. The
students were holding a rally very similar to
the one staged by Czech students. It was a
protest against government actions.
What the Freedom Rally must show is
that, unlike MYDA, the liberal groups on
this campus are ready to defend the right of
any group of students to speak, whether or
not they agree with our own political be-
There is a rumor on campus that the rally
leaders are side stepping the issue of Aca-
demic Freedom in favor of an attack on the

Czech government. If so, the Rally will have
become much as MYDA is, a front group-
for groups with a personal animosity to-
wards the Czech government.
The rally is an attempt to protest to the
Czech government-to persuade that govern-
ment to return to a traditional interpretation
of the right of students to speak as they
please, as it was laid down by Thomas Mas-
aryk the Czech president. That end will not
be attained by attacks on the government
with which we are negotiating.
This rally is an expression of the natural
ire of students against attacks on their own
group. It must remain above the irrational-
ities of smear and counter-smear. It must
concern itself with the rights of students in
China, Czechoslovakia, or the United States
and not with the government of any coun-
-Don McNeil

Strange Crisis
IT SEEMED TO ME, during a Washington
visit directly following the President's
speech, that most of the Congressmen and
others I ran into did not really feel as if they
were in a crisis. They seemed to feel more as
if they were watching one. "The President
may have information we don't have," said
one Senator, "but I don't see what makes
this the critical week, any more than six
months ago." "Everybody agreed there must
be a crisis of some sort on, but they spoke of
it with an odd little air of detachment; there
was not that haunted look, that broken-bar-
rier togetherness you get when crisis knocks
unmistakably on the door.
More than one used the same words:
"What does he know that he isn't telling?"
There was a feeling that there must be more
than was visible to account for the alarm.
Most thought the coming Italian elections
explained the timing of the crisis, if you can
put it so, but one Congressman wondered
how those elections could be affected by a
selective service program that couldn't start
until they were over.
And it seems to me that a certain cycli-
cal effect is in operation. The President
asks, as he did a year ago, for defensive
measures against a certain menace. Then
he has to emphasize the mnace sharply to
get the measures. This does not improve
international relations very much, the
menace gets to look bigger, and by this
time you need even stronger defensive
measures. But you don't get those without
more excitement about the menace.
You will remember how the Marshall Plan
started life last June purely as a scheme for
European reconstruction, which Russia was
even invited to join. You, will also remember
how, a little later, after the bitter initial
Russian reaction, the Plan began to be sold
as a stop-Russia measure. By last fall cer-
tain columnists, such as Mr. Walter Lipp-
mann, were concerned over this develop-
ment. They pointed out how the Marshall
Plan, as a reconstruction device, depended
on a restoration of trade between Western
and Eastern Europe, that this was its statis-
tical base, that to make the plan entirely in-
to a stop-Russia device was contradictory.
The result is we've whipped up support
for the Plan on a basis that makes it hard
for it to succeed. In much the same way,
think, bipartisan support for our foreign
policy has been obtained largely at the price
of making that policy tougher and tougher,
until we've reached the point where it isn't
so much policy as pressure, and where the
original goal of bipartisanship, the hope of
making U.N. work, looks rather dim. Part of
the difficulties of the present moment, it
seems to me, flow from the very nature of
the relations between the executive and the
legislature, and, without malevolence or de-
sign on anyone's part, from the fact that it
seems easier to move Congress into action
with stop-Russia talk than to exalt it on the
basis of an abstruse reconstruction diagram.
But, it will be asked: "Isn't Russia a men-
ace? Wouldn't a change of line, a request
for a conference, be appeasement?" It is not
at all certain that it would be, Russia's west-
ward drive is a menace, and has reached a
critical stage, and Communism has been in-
flicted by minorities on majorities which
didn't want it, and, as in Czechoslovakia,
were living very successfully without it. But
is it appeasement to stand up as the defend-
er of the world's peace, to put the onus on
the other side for turning down reasonable
proposals? Remember that the Russians
make a sword of the cry for peace; they use
it effectively against us, and not because they
are appeasing us; it is because it helps them
in their business to paint us as the war-want-
An American demand for an emergency
conference would have a distinct effect, in
Italy and elsewhere, and could, of course,
be mounted more quickly than selective
service, or any other proposed solution.

And it would clear the air and the record
and show the world what each side stands
for, and enable us to press our program for
stability without running the bizarre
danger of throwing it away as the price
for getting it.
(Copyright, 1948, New York Post Corporation)
Looking Back
From the pages of The Daily
The world was startled by the announce-
ment that the Germans were shelling Paris
from a distance of 74.5 miles. University
ballistic experts said that they doubted the
existence of a gun large enough to have
such a range, but reports indicated that the
shells had not been dropped from aircraft.
Adolph Hitler was given power to govern
by decree as members of the Reichstag beat
down Socialist opposition to the measure,
441 to 94. Addressing the Riechstag after
the vote, Hitler said, "We desire to live
at peace with all nations, but only on a
basis of equality."
The British Eighth army smashed through
the Mareth line, while American troops
drove beyond Maknassy toward the sea.
THE APPROACHING Italian elections
confront the Truman administration
with a new problem in diplomacy. For a

PiucaD in t Daily Oficial positions open are on file at the
Bulletn is c'Onsm ive n otice to all
membc'~ ofthie Un ixer v . Notices~ueu
for the Bulletin should be sentin Washington National Insurance
typewritten form to the office of the Company will interview Monday,
Assistant to the President. Room March 29, single men graduating
1021 Angell Hall, by 3:00 p.m. on in June who are interested in sal-
the day preceding publication (11 :00
am. Saturdays). aried sales positions.
* * * Vick Chemical Company will
NoTiceshave a representative here Mon-
t cesday, March 29. to interview men
interested in executive training for
WEDNESDAY, MARCH 24, 1948 sales merchandising and advertis-
VOL. LVIII, No. 122 ing.
Marsh & McLennan Insurance
Correction - There will be no Company will have a representa-
late permission Wednesday night tive here Tuesday, March 30, to in-
for those participating in the Jun- terview men for sales positions.
ior Girls' Play. For complete information and
appointments, call at the Bureau
of Auointments

Road to Fascism

A FEW WEEKS ago an American was sent-
enced to two to six years in prison.
There are people in America today who
think he was unjustly convicted and un-
justly sentenced. This is why:
Harold Christoffel, honorary president of
Local 248, UAW-CIO, was convicted of per-
Jury when he denied that he was a Commun-
ist during committee hearings on the Taft-
Hartley bill. This conviction was the climax
in a long battle between the Allis-Chalmer
plant and Local 248 which Christoffel led
from its inception in 1937.
After the war years, in 1946, the company
declared war on the union. The workers
struck for 11 months.
In the course of the strike, the Taft-Hart-
ley forces in Congress used it as an argument
for enactment of the law. Harold Story, vice-
president of the company, appeared before
the House Labor Committee in February.
1947, as a friendly witness to testify in be-
half of the Taft-Hartley bill.
An opportunity for the strike and union
leaders to reply was granted only after the
congressional committee had won House
authorization for the power to administer
oaths to witnesses. Therefore, whereas all of
the company's testimony was unsworn and

thus not subject to charges of perjury, the
union's testimony was under oath.
Christoffel was subsequently indicted af-
ter a group of anti-union witnesses had
been given a chance to parade before a
federal grand jury in Washington D.C.
What kind of eqdal justice for all is this?
Today a courageous man, O. John Rogge,
vice-president of the National Lawyers Guild
and former assistant United States Attorney
General, is touring the country in an effort
to raise funds to take the case of Harold
Christoffel to a higher court where justice
will be done.
'If our efforts should fail," Rogge stated,
"other labor leaders may expect to be
singled out for similar treatment. When
we have reached that point we will be well
along the road to fascism and the destruc-
tion of our democracy."
If their efforts should fail, what will be
left of the democratic justice of which Am-
ericans are so proud? What will be left of
the rights of the individual in a government
based upon those rights? What will left of
liberty in a country which believes it to be
an 'inalienable right'?
-Jo Smith

Approved social events for the
coming weekend:
March 26
Robert Owen House
March 27
Alpha Chi Sigma, Alpha Delta
Phi, Alpha Kappa Kappa, Alpha
Tau Omega, Delta Tat Delta,
Delta Upsilon, Kappa Sigma, Hil-
lel Foundation, Lawyers Club, Phi
Gamma Delta, Phi Sigma Delta,
Phi Sigma Kappa, Psi Upsilon,
Sigma Alpha Epsilon, Sigma Nu,
Theta Chi, Theta Xi, Zeta Beta
March 28
Psi Upsilon (afternoon)
Women Students:
Graduateassistantships are
available for women at the Gradu-
ate School of Syracuse University
for 1948-49. Each assistantship is
equivalent to room. board and tui-
tion. Each assistant will be placed
in charge of a small dormitory.
Women graduate students are eli-
gible if they are willing to give two
years to the program of study
elected. Application forms may be
secured from Dr. M. Eunice Hilton,
Dean of Women, Syracuse Univer-
sity, Syracuse 10, New ork.
Graduate personnel counselor-
ships for women will be available
at the University of Washington
in 1948-49. Appointees receive
board, room and small salary for
part-time service in women's resi-
dence halls. Graduate students in
education, sociology, social work,
psychology and personnel and
guidance are eligible while work-
ing on a master's degree. Applica-
tions may be secured from Miss
Patricia McClure, Head Counselor,
Women's Residence Halls, Univer-
sity of Washington, Seattle 5,
Residence .assistantships for
graduate women are offered at
Stanford University. Maintenance
is provided and a part-time aca-
demic program may be carried.
Qualifications considered include
academic achievement, extra-cur-
ricular work, health and profes-
sional objectives. Applications may
be addressed to the Counselor for
Women, Stanford University,
Stanford, California.
Office of the Dean of Women
The Assistant Superintendent of
Lansing Public Schools will be at
the Bureau of Appointments and
Occupational Information, 201
Mason Hall, Thurs., March 25, to
interview candidates for the fol-
lowing positions: Elementary,
Girls Physical Education, English
and Social Studies. For appoint-
ments, please call Ext. 489.
Bureau of Appointments & Occu-
pational Information, 201 Ma-
son Hall
Job Opportunities Conference
sponsored by the Bureau of Ap-
pointments will be held on Wed-
nesday, March 24, 4 p.m., Natural
Science Auditorium. Representa-
tives of the J. L. Hudson Company,
and the Kemper Insurance Com-
pany wiill discuss job opportunities
in their fields. All students inter-
ested are urged to attend.
Bureau of Appointnents & Occu-
pational Information, 201 Mason
There will be a representative in
our office on Monday and Tues-
day, March 29 and 30,'to interview
men for the following companies:
The Youngstown Sheet and
Tube Company-Chemical, me-
chanical and metallurgical engi-
neers - Business Administration
and LS&A for sales.
The General Fireproofing Com-
pany-Business Administration or
LS&A for sales.
The Devilbiss Company - Me-
chanical engineers-Business Ad-
ministr'ation for administrative
sales-Chemical, mechanical and

aeronautical engineers for tech-
nical sales.
The Timken Roller Bearing
Company-Business Administra-
tion for accounting and finance-
Metallurgical and mechanical en-
gineers for sales-Metallurgical,
mechanical, chemical and civil en-
Complete details concerning the

Bureau of Appointments & Occu-
pational Information, 201 Mason
The General Electric Company
will interview women on Wednes-
day and Thursday, March 24 and
25, for positions in their Engineer-
ing and Calculating Departments;
majors in physics, math, or gen-
eral science, are preferred. Call
extension 371 for appointments.
University Lecture: Professor
Georges Gaillard, of the Depart-
ment of History of Art, University
of Lille, France. will lecture on the
subject, "Introduction to Contem-
porary Painting" given in French
and illustrated, on Fri., March 26.
at 4:15 p.m., Kellogg Auditorium;
auspices of the French Depart-
ment and the Department of Fine
Academic Notices
Bacteriology Seminar: Thurs.,
March 25, 4 p.m., Bacteriology Li-
brary, Rm. 1562, E. Medical Bldg.
Dr. Ruth Lofgrew will discuss
"Electron Micrographic Study of
Spirillum rubrum." All interested
are invited,
Geometry Seminar: Wed., March
24, 3 p.m., Rm. 3001, Angell Hall.
Mr. Jesse Wright and Prof. G. Y.
Rainich will speak.
Physical Inorganic Ohemistry
Seminar: Wed., March 24, 4:07
p.m., Rm. 303, Chemistry Bldg.
Mrs. Y. M. North will speak on the
"Derivation of the Limiting Law
for Apparent Molal Volumes."
Student Recital: Corliss Rich-
ard Arnold, Organist, will present
a program in partial fulfillment of
the requirements for the degree of
Master of Music at 4:15 p.m., Sun.,
March 28, Hill Auditorium. Pro-
gram: Compositions by Franck,
Bach, Sowerby, Karg-Elert, and
Weitz. The public is invited.
Events Today
Radio Program:
2:30-2:45 WKAR: The Hop-
wood Room-Sidney Corman.
2:45-2:55 WKAR: The School
of Music-University of Michigan
5:45-6 WPAG: Today's World
and Local Problems-E. H. Gault,
"Pricing and Price Control."
Dean E. Blythe Stason of the
Law School will discuss 'College
Preparation for the Study of Law"
at Kellogg Auditorium, 7:30 p.m.;
sponsored by the Michigan Crib'
Graduate Education Club: guest
speaker, Dr. Luther Purdom. 7:30
p.m., University. Elementary
School Library.
AIEE-IRE Student Paper Con-
test winners presented, 7:30 p.m.,
348 W. Engineering Bldg. Movies:
"The Story of FM" and "Quality
Motors in the Making." Refresh-
American Society of Mechanical
Engineers: Open meeting, 7:15
p.m., Rm. 229 W. Engineering
Bldg. Papers to be presented for
ASME awards:
"Development of Sheet Metal
Working," Leonard Cohen; 'Deisel
Engines in India," K. Somaya;
"Ordinance," Russell Parkinson,
Any members desiring to present
a paper should contact G. Majors
at or before the meeting.

Delta Sigma Pi, Professional
Business Fraternity: Pledge and
Business Meeting, 7:30 p.m., Rm.
302, Michigan Union.
Sigma Gamma Epsilon presents
two sound and color films, "The
Face of Time" and "Oil for To-
morrow." 4 p.m., Rm. 2054, Natural
Science Bldg. The public is invited.

Letters to the Editor...


The Daily accords its readers the1
privilege of submitting letters for<
publication in this column. Subject
to spac'e limitations, the general pol-
icy is to publish in the order in which
they are received all letters bearing
the writer's signature and address.
L~etters exceeding 30 words, rpeti-
tious letters and letters of a defama-
tory character or such letters which1
for any other reason are not in good
taste will not be published. The
editors reserve the privilege of con-
densing letters.,
* *: *
Justice ?
To the Ediior
THE SYSTEM of American jus-
tice looks good on paper and]
in Constitutional law. but it is not
being put into practice. The rightI
to trial by jury, to due process of
law is incorporated in the Bill of
Rights, but this right has been;
denied to a Negro woman in the;
South and her two sons, age 13 1
and 15.
They are destined to die in the
electric chair for killing a white
farmer who had threatened Mrs.
Ingram with a rifle when she was
trying to rescue some straying an-
imals. Hei'property was confis-
cated; she and four of her sons
were taken to jail and third-de-
greed. Without benefit of wit-
nesses and with no legal counsel
until the day of the trial they
were convicted and sentenced to
Regular meeting at 12 noon, Rm.
3055 N.S.
Pyramid Club of Tau lDelta Phi
Fraternity: 7:30 p.m., Rn. 304,
Michigan Union.
Rifle Club, 7:15 p.m., R.O.T.C.
range. The first match will be
fired. -New members welcome.
U. of M. Flying Club: Open
meeting, 1042 E. Engineering
Bldg., 7:30 p.m.
La p'tite causette: 3:30 p.m.,
Grill Room, Michigan League.
Italian Language Conversation
Group: Coffee Hour, 2-4:30 p.m.,
Michigan League Cafeteria. Be-
ginners welcome.
Roger Williams Guild: Weekly
"chat" at the Guild House, 4:30-6
p.m. Dr. Littell will lead a discus-
sion on the S.R.A. constitution.
Outlines of Jewish History:
Weekly class, "The Outlines of
Jewish History," by Rabbi Her-
schel Lymon, 4 p.m., B'nai B'rith
Foundation. All students invited.
Square Dancing Class, sponsored
by the Graduate Outing Club: 8
p.m., Lounge, Women's Athletic
Bldg. Small fee. Everyone wel-
English Journal Club: Thurs.,
March 25, 8:15 p.m., 3rd floor,
Rackham Bldg. Prof. C. L. Stev-
enson of the Department of Phil-
osophy will speak on "Validity in
Literary Interpretation."
Political Science Round Table:
7;30 p.m., Thurs., March 25, West
Conference Room, Rackham Bldg.
American Chemical Society: 8
p.m., Thurs., March 25, Rackham
Amphitheatre, Dr. D. E. Badert-
scher of Socony-Vacuum Oil Com-
pany will speak on the subject
Recent Advances in Thiophene
Chemistry." Open to the public.
Alpha Phi Omega, National
Service Fraternity: Meeting of all
members and men in the pledge
class, Michigan Union. Bring filled
out schedule cards for this semes-
ters classes.
Modern Poetry Club: Thurs.,
March 25, 8 p.m., Russian Tea-
room, Michigan League. Discus-

sion of Theodore Roethke's poetry.
Young Democrats: 7:30 p.m.,
Thurs., March 25, Rm. 316, Michi-
gan Union.
Michigan Sailing Club: Meeting,
7 p.m., Thurs., March 25, Michigan
Union, for probationary members
interested in instruction.
Coming Events
During the week of Passover
meals will be served at the B'nai
B'rith Hillel Foundation. Details
concerning reservations will be
furnished at a later date.
Village Interdenominational
Church Fellowship, University
Community Center, Willow Vil-
lage: Thurs., March 25, 8 p.m.,
Maundy Thursday Service, Tene-
brae, Holy Communion.
International Center weekly tea:
4:30-5:30 p.m., Thurs., March 25.
Hostesses: Mrs. D. M. Matthew
and Mrs. T. E. Habgood.

the chair. This sentence was
stayed pending argument for fur-
ther trial in the state courts.
"Save the Ingrams" days have
been proclaimed throughout the
country by the National Associa-
tion of the Advancement of Col-
ored People and will be held in
Ann Arbor on Thursday, March
25. Money is badly needed not
only to appeal the case but to
save the Ingram family, which
consists of 12 children, from des-
titution, especially since the farm-
er has confiscated nearly all of her
No American person who be-
lieves in the cause of justice and
in civil liberties can, with a clear
conscience, refuse to give to aid
the Ingrams. The federal govern-
ment has proclaimed that the case
must go through the state courts
and that they can do nothing to
secure a mixed jury, to give gov-
ernment protection to defense
witnesses, or to aid the Ingram
Money can talk. We hope to
make it talk and make Ann Ar-
bor's contribution the largest in
the country. I urge each and every
student to give, and give gen-
erously, to save the Ingrams, and
to attend the rally Thursday
-Miriam Levy.
We call your attention to the
new editor's note, heading this
column, which was written to
clarify our letters policy.
Points Out
To the Editor:
1. Has Mr. B. Strickland Du-
rant ever heard of the ''Inner
2. A careful perusal of "The
Daily" shows that in sponsoring
a rally to protest the abrogation
of academic freedom by the Com-
munists in Czechoslovakia, SLID
has the support of AVC, UWF,
and other groups, but NOT of
MYDA, and, significantly, not of
-Merle E. Smith, Jr.
A VC Clarification
To the Editor:
W E OF THE AVC Executive
Board wish to correct a mis-
leading and erroneous impression
created in your headline of an
article datod March 17, 1948, say-
ing, "AVC To Join Czech Protest."
The membership at that meet-
ing voted simply to participate in
an educational rally for the pur-
pose of ascertaining the facts. In
line with that resolution, AVC
urges that everyone attend the
-Executive Board,
University Chapter, AVC
David F. Babson, Jr., Ch.
F 7yE g
Fifty-Eighth Year






- .

* Aesthetic Questions


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the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Control of
Student Publications.
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Bob Lent ......Associate Sports Editor
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Who's Looking?
WE'RE ALL IN FAVOR of cognating the
arts, as was done in a class in Renais-
sance music the other day, when a music
school friend of ours spent a pleasurable
afternoon viewing paintings of the Renais-
sance period. One particularly noteworthy
work pictured a jolly picnic, the female par-
ticipants in which were delightfully informal
in dress, or rather, undress,
FAILURE of Southern states to
stamp out lynching explains, however',
in a large measure the virility of the Klan.
It was not the white sheets and the burn-
ing crosses which gave meaning to the
election-eve demonstration which kept Ne-
groes from going to the polls recently in

The lecturer, waiting graciously for the
gasp of male appreciation to subside, finally
spoke in a firm tone. "Now notice, if you
will, the musical instruments in the lower
right-hand corner."
Below Notice
WE WERE discussing symbolism and
contemporary writers of that school
in class the other day. Suddenly a young
lady raised her hand and asked the pro-
fessor for his opinion on T. S. Eliot.
"You see," she said. "I went into the
bookstore to buy a book of his and a
young man reprimanded me. He says
that Eliot is decadent."
7%T AT -7 }



I ___._. ---
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