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December 06, 1944 - Image 1

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The Michigan Daily, 1944-12-06

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WEATHER
Cloudy with snow, little change
in temperature

VOL. LV, No. 30

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, WEDNESDAY, DEC. 6, 1944

PRICE FIVE CENTS

_______________________________________

Campus Election
To Be Held Today
Three Union Vice-Presidents, Senior
Engineering Officers Will Be Chosen
Voting for the three vice-presidents for the Men's Union from the.
Medical, Literary and Dental Schools and for the officers of the class of
1945, College of Engineering will be held today.
Ballot boxes for the vice-presidential candidates will be opened from
9 a. m. to 12 noon and from 1 p. m.,'to 3 p. m. at the inside door of the
Engineering Arch, on the main floor of University Hall, in the lobby of the
East Medical Building and in the lobby of the old Dental building. Only
male students may vote for the officers from their own school.

House Blocks
Increase in Old
Age Insurance

Legislation Pegs
Levy at One Per+

Tax
Cent

By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON, DEC. 5-Defying
Administration wishes, the House to
day passed legislation to block an in-
crease in old age insurance taxes.
It sent to the Senate by a vote of
263 to 72 a bill pegging the tax at
one per cent on employes and one per
cent on employers.
Under present law, the levy is due
to go up to 2 per cent each on Jan. 1.
Early Senate approval of the "freeze"
is predicted by house backers of the
measure, but President Roosevelt is
expected to veto it.
Expect To Over-ride Veto
Today's lineup indicated sufficient
votes in the House to override a veto.
A two-thirds majority is necessary
to over-ride.
That the President promptly would
return the bill if it reached him was
predicted by Representative Dingell
(D.-Mich.), one of the seven Ways
and Means Committee members who
fqught the measure.
Dingell and his dissenting colleag-
ues argued that a doubling of the
present tax was necessary to pay the
benefits contemplated when the So-
cial Security Act was written,
Cooper Warns of Danger
If the rate is not allowed to risei
next year, warned Representative
Cooper (D.-Tenn.), it "is a mathema-
tical certainty" that future rates
must be upped sharply, else the gov-
ernment must subsidize old age in-
surance fund.
More than half a million people
now employed are eligible for bene-
fits Cooper told the House, and when
the war is over they not only will
start contributing to the fund but
will- start drawing from it.
KEEP 'EM ROLLING :
Tire Shortage
Tie-Up Feared
PARIS, Dec. 5.-(/P)- American
armies fighting along the German
border face a tire shortage so serious
it threatens to tie up ten per cent
of all Army vehicles by early Febru-
ary, Gen. Eisenhower declared today.
"I am not exaggerating when I say
that the war will be needlessly ex-
tended unless we can extract every
possible mile from our tires and use
them only as we find it necessary to
do so," Eisenhower advised his offi-
cers and men in a letter.
The reason for the impending
shortage, Eisenhower said, was that
tire wear in the theatre has exceeded
all pre-combat estimates. The rout
of the Germans in France and the
lowlands, plus their long stand at the
entrances to Antwerp, combined to
place a tremendous burden on Army
supply forces.
For months the armies which had
raced to eastern France and up to
Belgium and Holland had to be sup-
lied by trucks shuttling hundreds
of miles from Cherbourg and the
beaches of western France.
CAMPUS EVENTS
Today Prof. Carl Becker of Cor-
nell speaks on third
Cook Lecture series at
4:15 p.m. in the Rackham
Amphitheatre.
Today Veterans Organization
meets at 7:00 p. m.,
in Union.
Today Post War Council discus-
ses the United Nations at
7:30 p. m., League.
Today Dr. Y. G. Chen speaks at
8 p.m. at Rackham on
a Chinese professor's

Candidates who will be on the
ballots include James Galles, Mich-
ael L. Cancilla and Kenneth P.
Jones of the Medical School; Fred
Foust and David Striffler of the
College of Dental Surgery; and Joe
Ponsetto and Hank Mantho of the
College of Literature, Science and
the Arts.
No campaigning will be allowed
within 50 feet of the ballot boxes nor
will any student be allowed to vote
without their identification cards
which will be punched at the time
ballots are cast.
Voting for the officers of the Col-
lege of Engineering will take place in
the Engine Arch. Voters have been
asked to list first, second and third
choices for their class officers, rath-
r than vote separately for each of
fice. The man receiving the highest
vote will be named president and so
on down the list.
Richard Barnard, Robert Cham-
pion, William Culligan, Donald Da-
vie, Nicholas Krusko, Francis Nut-
to, Robert Precious, James Wallis
and Richard Seitz will be listed on
the ballot.
Two of these three-Charles Hel-
mick, Richard Mixer and George
Spaulding-will be chosen at the
same time by members of the sopho-
mores to fill positions on the Engi-
neering Council until their gradua-
tion.
All 1945 graduates, including Na-
val personnel that ordinarily would
graduate next year, will be eligible to
vote if they present their identifica-
tion cards to be punched as they in-
dicate their choices.
Elas Co tfine
Fierce Fighting
In Greek Captal
Group Dispersed After
Besieging Barracks
ATHENS, Dec. 5.- (P)- Fierce
fighting continued in Athens today
as the Elas, fighting force ofthe left-
wing EAM, National Liberation Front
Party, laid siege to various police
barracks and were dispersed, by Brit-
ish tanks and Green Mountain Bri-
gade troops.
Meanwhile, Themistokles Sophou-
lis, 85-year-old dean of the Greek
liberal party, charged the Prime Min-
ister Churchill, through, instructions
to British diplomats here, had vetoed
replacing Premier George Papan-
dreou in a change of government
which might have solved the nation's
crisis.
He said Churchill had sent word
that replacing Papandreou was "im-
possible."
Among Elas prisoners taken in
today's fighting were some Germans,
but it was not proved whether they
were political agents or merely de-
serters from the Nazis.
Elas units reportedly are assem-
bling in various outlying parts of
the country and preparing to march
on the capital.
It still seems touch and go whether
an attempted Elas coup d'etat will
succeed. The British may enforce
the Papandreou government's control
of Athens, but the provinces present
a formidable problem.

U.S. FTells Allies
To Let European
Politics Alone
Wide Application Given
To State Department
Notice Applying to Italy
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON, Dec. 5. - The
United States today pointedly told
Britain-and indirectlyRussia-that
European peoples should be allowed
to work out their own governments
without interference.
The notice, 'given in a statement
issued by the State Department, was
interpreted to mean that this gov-
ernment is sticking one foot tenta-
tively in the door of European poli-
tics.
The declaration applied specifically
to Italy. It was given the widest
possible application, however, by the
concluding sentence which said that
while we oppose "outside" interfer-
ence in Italy "this policy would apply
to an even more pronounced degree
with regard to governments of the
United Nations in their liberated
territories."
First Statement by Stettinius
It was the first declaration of for-
eign policy issued since Secretary
Stettinius took charge. Stettinius
told a news conference that he had
worked hard on the statement.!
Diplomats studied it with a view
to its possible application to Greece,
Belgium, Poland and other countries
whose governments have recently
been involved in political upheavals.
There is an increasing tendency here
to interpret these conflicts as a kind
of contest for power between Britain
and Russia, with these big nations
seeking to promote developments in
the smaller countries which woud
favor their own interests.
Situation Complicated
In the case of Italy the situation is
complicated by the fact that the
country is still subject to the con-
trols imposed on a defeated' foe
though it has attained full diplo-
matic recognition and the technical
status of "co-belligerency."
One of the spectacular figures in
Italian politics is Count Carlo Sforza.
Sforza is identified with the Italian
liberal movement and American dip-
lomats regard him as a kind of sym-
bol of political democracy to the
Italian people. At the same time they
strongly criticize some of his personal
activities.
Sforza Proposed for Post
Last week when the Italian govern-
ment was being reorganized Sforza
was proposed for the foreign minis-
ter's portfolio. British officials in
Italy vetoed the proposal and subse-
quently foreign secretary Eden told
Commons that Sforza had worked
against two previous Italian regimes
to which he belonged.
CIO May Aid in
Gaarding Peace
LONDON, Dec. 5.-(/P)- Sidney
Hillman, CIO labor leader, took his
organization's Political Action Com-
mittee into the field of international
affairs today. He hinted that it
might become the pattern and a part
of a similar, world-wide labor group
to guard the future peace.
"We must have an organization to
express ourselves" on world affairs,
he told a press conference.
Here for a preliminary meeting
with British trade union officials to
arrange the agenda for an Inter-
national Labor Conference in Febru-
ary, Hillman declared that American
labor was solidly behind the idea of

post-war international cooperation.
All the Trimmings!
WASHINGTON, Dec. 5.-(IP)-Cigar-
ettes (Remember?) once more may
be packages with a combination of
aluminum foil and cellophane, under
a WPB ruling today.

,R., . m.. s +m s e' Se* hAir w°. ." P" °?1,wee' Ti. T w

Airways to Commercial Carriers

Plan Is Merger
Of All Views

FRENCH TROOPS AT THE RHINE-Machine gunners and riflemen of the French first army lie in the
street under enemy fire and return fire at German p ositions on the French side of the Rhine river, ac-
cording to the caption received with this Signal Corps radiophoto. Directly across the river i; Switzer-

Program Approved
Air Transport Serv

To

s
ices:

Op ens

Provide

land, marked by Swiss flags.

Beyond is Germany.

S1. Bill Is Called
'Strictly SNAFU'
LANSING, DEC. 5-(A)-Michi-
gan bankers attending a winter
study conference today were told
by Earl J. Failor, vice president of
the National Bank of Detroit, that
the "G. I." Bill was a "masterpiece
of ambiguity."
He declared it a compromise be-
tween politicians and represent-
atives of interests seeking to with-
hold any financial aid from dis-
charged servicemen.
For all practice purposes, he
said, the "G. I, part of it might
as well be changed to G. U., or
gummed up."
War Bonds To
Commemora te
Pearl Harbor
Week-End Purchases
To Be Dated Dec. 7
To commemorate the Pearl Har-
bor sneak attack of 1941, war bonds
sold in the University Thursday, Fri-
day and Saturday will be dated Dec.
7, R. Gordon Griffith, chairman of
the University drive, announced yes-
terday.
All purchasers who request that
date will have it inscribed on their
bonds by the University bond sales-
BOND BOX
We have . . .
County .. . ..... .$5,358,54t)
University .......... $ 34,339
We need.
County ............$2,05,460
University..........$ 65,661

CARL L. BECKER:.
Failure To Cure Social Evils
Will eed Radicals Fascists
"The real danger is not that communists and fascists will destroy
our democratic government, but that our government through its own
failure to cure social evils will destroy itself by breeding communists and
fascists," Prof. Carl L. Becker, leading American historian, said yestegday
in the second of a series of William W. Cook Lectures on American

Institutions in the Rackham Amphitheatre.
Urging that we tolerate all political theories,
is arrived at in the open market of free competition1
"Democracy is a stupendous gam-<

Prof. Becker sa.id truth
between ideas.

ble for the highest stakes. It offered
long odds on the integrity of the
human mind. It wagered all it had
on the proposition that only by the
freest exercise of human reason could
a just society be created," he said,
pointing out that freedom of the
mind, and its corollaries, freedom of
speech and press, are indispensable
to democracy.
Speaking on "Freedom of Speech
and the Press," Prof. Becker warned
that those freedoms were not to be
accorded to those who once in power
would destroy it. Freedom of speech,
he said, is really "only for those who
are for it."
Self-government can be undermin-
ed if freedom of speech and the press
do not fulfill their functions of in-
formation. If these freedoms and
self-government are to be maintain-
ed in fact, the people must exer-
cise intelligence and integrity, he
warned, for free speech and a free
press can be maintained by law only
in a formal sense.
The talk was the second of a pro-
gram of five in the first annual Wil-
liam W. Cook Lectures series. The
succeeding talks are "Freedom of
Learning and Teaching," today;
"Constitutional Government," Thurs-
day; and lastly "Private Economic
Enterprise," Friday. All talks will
be given 4:15 p. m. in the Rackham
Amphitheatre.
Reds Capture
MarcaltitnDrive
Into Hungary
LONDON, DEC. 6-(IP)-Red Army
troops lunged through sagging Ger-
man resistance in western Hungary
yesterday to within 50 miles of the
Austrian frontier with the capture
of Marcali, eight miles below the
southern tip of Lake Balaton.
Other Soviet forces seized the Hun-
garian rail junction of Szigetvar, 22
miles south of Kaposvar and 90 miles
northeast of Zagreb, while Russian
troops aided by Marshal Tito's parti-
sans captured Ilok on the Danube
River in Yugoslavia 95 miles south-
east of Szigetvar.
These last two operations imper-
iled lines of communication for
100,000 German troops seeking to
retreat front western Yugoslavia
into Austria.
Marshal Feodor L Tolbukhin's

I

So me Liberty
Mast Be Lhost,
Becker Says
How much freedom of enterprise
we must sacrifice to insure continued
intellectual and political freedom is
the problem which faces contempo-
rary American government, Prof.
Carl L. Becker, of Cornell Univer-
sity, said yesterday in an interview
here. }
Sacrifice Necessary
We may have to sacrifice freedom
of enterprise in some degree as long
as 10 to 15 million workers face un-
employment every year, Prof. Becker
said. Every trend in government to-
day is toward greater control of so-
cial welfare and the United States
is the most conservative nation in
that respect, he added.
Government participation in social
welfare in the United States has been
growing since 1870, Prof. Becker stat-
ed, and is not an exclusive product of
President Roosevelt's New Deal. Gov-
ernment legislation for public wel-
fare began in one respect when cer-
tain western states passed laws for-
bidding discriminatory railroad
freight rates 70 years ago.
Trend Grows
Since then, Theodore Roosevelt's
"Square Deal" administration and
Woodrow Wilson's "New Freedom"
program carried on the growing
trend.
:Prof. Becker said we must ac-
cept some loss of freedom of en-
terprise so long as the all-import-
ant freedoms of the mind and of
political belief are unhampered.
He revealed than he had recently
completed with a group of historians
a study of documents coming out of
IGermany during the war for General
H. H. Arnold, chief of the Air Corps.
The study concentrated on the mor-
Tle, military power and the effects of
continued military pressure against
the nation.
Revolt Is Unlikely
A conclusion of the historians,
Prof. Becker said, was that so long
as the German army continued the
struggle, there would be no internal
revolt because of Gestapo domina-
tion. Research revealed that al-
though the battered Nazi Luftwaffe
is growing steadily in size, it has
not equalled German expectations.

Represented
By The Associated Press
CHICAGO, DEC. 5-A program for
international cooperation in provid-
ing air transport services and open-
ing the way to free skies for com-
mercial aircraft received quick ap-
proval tonight at the World Aviation
Conference.
The representatives of 54 nations
first met on Nov. 1 to hear the lead-
ing air transport nations outline their
hopes for the meeting, then expected
to last but three weeks.
The documents which they accept-
ed tonight represented a merging of
those views, with concessions and
accommodations of all sides. The
British yielded their hope for an
economically powerful world air au-
thority; the Canadians gave up plans
for having such a body to allocate air
routes; the Australians and New
Zealanders failed with their plan for
a world air line owned and operated
by all nations, and the United States
did not get the full freedom of the
skies it asked.
Great strides were made, how-
ever, particularly in the "freedoms"
documents which the United States
succeeded in having related to-the
main agreement. A highly placed
official called it a "victory for ev-
eryone."
Here is a thumbnail summary of
the standard form agreement for pro-
visional air routes adopted at the
World Air Conference:
1. The contracting states grant
rights which are to be set out sepa-
rately for each agreement.
2. The air services involved in the
contract will start immediately if
possible for the contracting states to
do so.
3. Previously granted operating
rights are not affected by the new
contracts.
4. Assurances are given of non-
discrimination in the matters of
charges for use of airports and other
facilities and for fuel, oil and Spare
parts; freedom from customs is
granted for such items used in oper-
ating the aircraft; recognition of cer-
tificates and licenses for aircraft and
personnel is exchanged; national laws
and regulations re to apply to all
contracting parties without distinc-
tion.
Siegfried Line
Hammered 'at
Saarlautern
SHAEF, Paris, Dec. 5.-(P)-Break-
ing across the Saar River at a new
point south of Saarlautern, Lt.-Gen.
George S. Patton's American Third
Army hammered a second wedge into
the Siegfried Line today as the battle
for Germany, six months after the
Allied invasion, raged unabated.
It was estimated tonight that seven
Allied armies-five of them fighting
on German soil and two others drawn
up along the Reich's Rhine River
boundary in the south-were elim-
nating Germans at the rate of 9,000
daily, a loss of about five Nazi divi-
sions every week,
Heavy fighting, costly to the Allies
as well as to the Germans, slowed the
advance on much of the Western
Front, but the Third Army, now
holding a stretch of Germany 4
miles long, made gains of up to three
miles during the day, grinding within
six miles of the bomb-battered indus-
trial city of Saarbrucken and within
three miles of Sarreguemines.
The exact location of the new.
bridgehead across the Saar was not
disclosed, but Associated Press Cor-
respondent Lewis Hawkins said the

95th division, which made the cross-
ing, had driven a mile beyond the
river and penetrated into the outer
defenses of the Siegfried Line. ,
Other elements of the same divi-
sion widened the original bridgehead
across the Saar to 2%/2 miles at the
base and stabbed beyond the arsenal
city of Saarlautern, although fierce
fighting continued inside the city

men, Griffith said.

The inscriptionI

is designed to stimulate sales in the
Sixth War Loan Drive.
The latest announced total for
University sales is $34,339, the Uni-
versity goal $100,000. *
Griffith said bond purchases to
date have so far exceeded all esti-
mates that delivery of bonds has
been delayed another day because the;
staff has its hands full.

CARROLL GLENN ASKS FOR TOLERANCE:
Southern Negro Lacks Opportunity

By AGGIE MILLER
"Unfortunately the Negroes in the South are not permitted to attend
concerts, nor do any talented Negroes have a chance to get ahead in the
South," Carroll Glenn, young American violinist, stated in an 'interview
after the concert last night.
"The Whites as well as the Negroes do not have a chance either, she
continued. This is partly due to the lack of education in the South and
to the climate, which is not very conducive to work.
"Even my eighty year old grand- v
mother has said to me that "Cotton" Miss Glenn predicted a decided
Ed Smith is disgusting. If a woman change in the South in their attitude,
of her age, bred in the age old tradi- toward the Negroes. She based her

the North. That would account in
part for the attitude that most
Southerners have toward the Ne-
groes, she stated.
The South is much poorer than
the North. The mere fact that labor
is being transported to the South,
is indicative of the fact that labor
is cheaper there, and that the South
has less money.
There Is Hope
"There is hope for the eventual

i

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