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May 25, 1945 - Image 1

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Text
Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1945-05-25

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WEATHER

Fair and Continued Ciear,
l~aderate lWin ws

VOL. LV, No. 156 ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, FRIDAY, MAY 25, 1945

PRICE FIVE CENTS

Weir Discusses
War Atrocities
Head of U. S. War Crimes Office
Describes proposed System of Trials
By ARTHUR J. KRAFT
"It is impossible to believe the results of German atrocities until you
see and smell them, for only when you see the dead and dying do you
begin to realize the depths to which mankind has degraded itself," Brig-
Gen. John M. Weir, Judge Advocate General in charge of the U. ,S. War
Crimes Office, said yesterday in a press conference here.
Recently returned from a tour of the atrocity camps in Germany, Gen.
Weir declared that the United Nations War Crimes Commission in London
*is wasting no time in identifying and

Prof. Watkins
Will Discuss
Finance Plan
Bretton Woods Bank
System To Be Subject
Prof. Leonard L. Watkins of the
University Department of Economics
and nationally-known fiscal expert,
will speak on the Bretton Woods
program at 8:00 p. m. EWT (7:00
p. m. CWT) today at Robert Owen
Cooperative House.
Prof. Watkins will discuss Bret-
ton Woods' projected International
Fund and Bank as opposed to the
international monetary systems
which existed in the inter-war per-
iod-the international gold stand-
ard of the 1920's and the restrict-
ive and nationalistic devices adopt-
ed in the 1930's.
Prof. Watkins will ,explain the
function of the proposed agencies in
sanctioning devaluations and ex-
change fluctuations in a.modest de-
gree and making the loans necessary
for reconstruction in place of the
reckless international loans and the
economic anarchy of the 1930's.
In reference to the favorable
report given the International
Fund and Bank program by the
House , of Representatives' Cur-
rency and Banking Committee yes-
terday, Prof. Watkins will com-
ment on the proposals as segments
of an international agency work-
ing to maintain order and remove
the threat of war.
AAF . ToFly
Men To U.S.
G.L's Will Arrive
Within Two Months
LONDON, May 24.- ()- U.S.
Eighth Air Force Headquarters an-
nounced today that 40,000 air and
ground crew members from 19 Amer-
ican heavy bomber bases in England
would be flown back to the United
States within from 30 to 60 days.
About 20,000 remaining men from
the same groups will follow by water.
The announcement said leaves and
furloughs will be granted all of them
"as soon as possible" after arrival.
Of the remaining forces it was an-
nounced that some will go directly
to the Pacific.
After home leaves, all men moved
to the United States will return to
their original organizations "and will
not be assigned to replacement or
redistribution centers," it was stated.
Liberator groups scheduled for im-
mediate return to the United States
include the 44th, 93rd, 389th, 392nd,
445th, 446th, 448th, 453rd, 458th,
466th, 467th and 491st. Flying For-
tress groups include the 191st, 351st,
381st, 398th, 401st, 457th and 82nd.
Dr. Greenhut To Be
Guest at Coffee Hour
Dr. Morris Greenhut of the Eng-
lish department will be the guest of
honor at the Student Religious Asso-
ciation Coffee Hour to be held from
4:30 to 6 p.m. EWT (3:30 to 5 p.m.
CWT) today at Lane Hall.
CAMPUS EVENTS
Today Prof. Leonard Watkins,
of the Economics Depart-
ment, will speak on Bret-
ton Woods at 8:00 p. m.
EWT (7:00 p. m. CWT)
at the Robert Owen Co-
operative house.
Today Dr. Frank L. Huntley will

lecture on "What Kind of
a Settlement for Japan"
at the Hillel Foundation
at 7:45 p. m. EWT (6:45
p. m. CWT).

asserbling evidence against Ger-
mans accused as war criminals.
Prosecutions will begin promptly, he
said, when- the inventory is complet-
ed.
Emphasizing the magnitude of the
identification procedure and appre-
hension of war criminals, Gen. Weir
called attention to the fact that more
than three million German prisoners,
now in Allied hands, must be sifted
through and identified before those
responsible for war crimes can be
determined. Some German soldiers
are still roaming the country in
civilian clothing and many have
changed their names, which makes
for added difficulty, he pointed out.
War criminals among German
prisoners of war in the United States,
he indicated, will be returned to Ger-
many for trial.
The War Crimes Commission is not
a prosecuting agency, but acts as a
clearing house for reports from the
16 "United Nations who each have a
representative on the ,Commission.
The United. States is represented by
Lt.-Col. Joseph V. Hodgson, a grad-
uate of the University Literary col-
lege and Law School. The function
of the War Crimes Commission, Gen.
Weir explained, is to collect prima
facie evidence (sufficient evidence to
bring a man to trial before a court)
against accused Germans, who can
then be prosecuted according to mili-
tary law by any of the Allied or neu-
tral 'nations.
While most of the war criminals
will be tried in countries where they
have committed atrocities, the Ger-
man leaders like Goering, he said, will
be tried by a special United Nations
court.
The majority of trials will be con-
ducted in Germany, he said, by the
occupying armies, following the pol-
icy of holding trials in the most con-
venient place. Germans who have
tortured, maimed and murdered Ger-
man Jews, Catholics, and other na-
tionals, and have committed other
crimes against humanity will be pun-
ished, Gen. Weir stated, according
to the established rules of warfare, a
part of international law. The rules
of warfare, he explained, allow our
military tribunals to exercise the
same authority over Germans as did
German courts before the occupa-
tion.
While there may be some mass
trials, Gen. Weir stated, the circum-
stances of each case will be consider-
ed before indictment. There can be
no blanket rule regarding the valid-
ity of defense of superior orders.
Each case, he said, must be examined
individually to determine if the Ger-
man soldier, under orders to com-
mit atrocity, is to be prosecuted as a
war criminal.
Munoz Is Appointed
To Purchasing Post
Augusto Munoz, Chilean civil engi-
neer who received his master's de-
gree in wood technology from the
University in 1944, has been appoint-
ed a member of the commission which
will purchase machinery for Chile
in the United States.

Himmler
Captured,
KillsSelf
Gestapo Lead Crushes
Vial Between Teeth
By The Associated Press
BRITISH SECOND ARMY HEAD-
QUARTERS, May 24. - Heinrich
Himmlerarch-executioner for Hit-
ler's Third Reich, died last night by
biting into a tiny glass vial of poison
he had concealed in his mouth.
The owlish chief of the German
gestapo and of Hitler's SS troops,
whose orders condemned hundreds
of thousands of conquered civilians
and Germans to death, took his own
life in the parlor of a house in Luene-
berg as a British medical officer
searched him.
Clad in Socks
The man for whom the Allies had
conducted an intensive man-hunt
since Germany capitulated died clad
only in a pair of socks.
Civilian clothes had been stripped
from him as a medical examiner
made an exhaustive check.
It was when the physician ordered
him to open his mouth and forced
back his tongue for a closer look that
Himmler decided the end had come.
With a quick shake of his head,
Himmler dislodged a tiny glass con-
tainer which he apparently had kept
lodged along his gums since his cap-
ture three days before.
Crushed Vial
He crushed the vial between his
teeth and fell to the floor. Fifteen
minutes later, at 11:04 p.m. (5:04
p.m. EWT) Germany's No. 1 war
criminal was dead.
The British Second Army head-
quarters disclosed that he had been
picked up unrecognized three days
before as he and two SS bodyguards
attempted to slip across a bridge
west of Hamburg.
At the time of his arrest, Himmler
was disguised with a black patch
over his right eye. His mustache was
shaved from his thin upper lip.
He was in civilian clothes and he
carried forged papers purporting to
identify him as "Hitzinger".
The papers failed to satisfy the
guards, who took all three men to
the field security police, who in turn
passed the trio back to a detention
camp.
Demanded Interview
There Himmler still remained un-
recognized, but some time later he
demanded ar interview with the
camp commander.
Summoned before a British officer
at 7 p.m. Wednesday, he calmly re-
moved the black patch and donned
glasses.
Thus, with a dramatic touch, he
revealed himself as Hitler's terrorist.
Hrntley to Lead
Hillel Seminar
Dr. Frank L. Huntley, Area In-
structor in the Civil Affairs Training
School, will lead a Fireside Discus-
sion on "What Kind of Settlement
for Japan?" at 8:30 p.m. EWT (7:30
p.m. CWT) today at the Hillel Foun-I
dation.
Born and raised in China, Dr.
Huntley has taught English both in
the United States and in Japan. His
lecture will center around these ques-
tions: Will the present dynasty, of
which Hirohito is a member, be al-
lowed to continue to reign? Is dem-
ocracy as the western nations have
known it possible in Japan? What
steps can we take to deprive Japan
of future military power?

Sabbath eve services will be held
at 7:45 p.m. EWT (6:45 p.m. CWT)
in the Foundation chapel, and a
social hour will follow.

Troops InT
Superforts
B-29's Drop
Incendiaries in
Greatest Raid
Shinagawa Industrial
Area Is Devastateda
By The Associated Press
GUAM, Friday, May 25.-Flames
swept the Shinagawa industrial area
of Tokyo hours after the biggest
Superfortress raid in history-more
than 550 planes-showered 9,000,00 K A
pounds of incendiary bombs on theK
Nipponese capital yesterday.
Japanese imperial headquarters. NA HA
never prone to give an expansivere- AIR FIELI
port on aerial raid damage to the
homeland, said that five and one-
half hours after the big planes struck
the city at 1:30 a.m. (12:30 p.m.
Wednesday, U.S. Eastern War Time), j
"almost all fires" were extinguished.
Kyushu Hit (T
Tokyo radio broadcast also an un-
confirmed report that around 180
American carrier planes raided Nip- n-agi
ponese airfields on the southernmost
home island of Kyushu. Domei, Jap-
anese news agency, said the attack
lasted about two hours and inflicted
"relatively light damage."
The Superfortress squadrons smash-
ed Tokyo under a full moon, dump-
ing their loads on a concentrated YANKS
area of Japan's precision instrument night at
and machine tool industry.
Flames Sweep Factories Yonabar
Returning fliers said the flames Minor g
licked through factories and water-_
front rail yards which handle one- T
third of Japan's rail traffic, and the
fires were visible 200 miles away.
Japanese headquarters reported Th
only "some 250" B-29 made the
attack and while - omitting mention
of damage to industrial plants said
an arbor in the Imperial Palace was By
hit and "an establishment" inside DETROT
the Akasaka palace grounds was de-
stroyed. 200,000 pa
-- - -year was f
by the Wa
Truman Seeks r h
rying out dc
More efficiency industry cc
a week ago
No Prioriti
Asks for Extension of Tied to t
Administrative Power was a stip
rmust findi
WASHINGTON, May 24.- (p)- "free mark
President Truman asked today for accorded n
continuing authority, subject only to Under th1
an affirmative veto from Congress, ufacturers
to make unlimited changes in the ders nowf
administrative set-up of government, start after
Such legislation is needed, he said, WPB coord
to make the executive branch, "more industry i
business-like and efficient."
Non-War Operations
The requested legislation would ex- Fost
tend to non-war operations, and into 0 r
peacetime years, the re-shuffling M IX
power which the chief executive now
holds on a wartime basis over gov-
ernment offices and affairs havingIn C
to do with the war.
Mr. Truman, in a message to Con- Sophomo
gress asking for the authority, was clash in th
very specific that he wanted no
strings on it other than the veto. the Classt
1939 Reorganization tomorrowo
The veto proposed for Congress Class ri
would arise from a provision which friendly v
Mr. Truman suggested be incorpor- dormitorie
ated direct from the reorganization with the fi
act of 1939. Under that legislation on the Sat
administrative shifts proposed by rassnento
the President went into effect unless activities h

both Houses of Congress, by majority in that th
vote within 60 days, passed a resolu- to every s
tion of disapproval. Countingo
The permanent nature of the pow- Sophom
er asked by Mr. Truman would be a minute turn
major departure from past practice. tide agains
The 1939 act was called permanent freshmenl
legislation but is provided only for vices fort
shifts made effective by January, dozen sopi
1941. It therefore was permanent to represe
only insofar as it gave continuing sophs don'
legal backing to reorganizations car- get them,"
ried out by that date. yesterday.
President Roosevelt set up such The gar
executive offices as the federal secur- scored ona
ity agency, the federal works agency, cer game %
and the federal loan agency, under tically no
that law, and onlya
determine1
M s B olA giant
Mrs. o age ill scheduled,
As' bebacks and
Address M' Club more-the

s

ide Okinawa
Leave Tokv

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Machinato dAg
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C - Loaf Hill Conical YONABARU
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Sixth Division Marines Reinforce

Capital;
Ablaze

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OKINA WA

.

GAIN ON EASTERN FLANK ON OKINAWA-In aw surprise
tack American troops (large arrow) drove through and beyond
u on the eastern flank of the Japanese line on Okinawa.
;ins were scored elsewhere (small arrows) by the Americans.
luction of Passenger Cars
Year Autho rized byWPB

The Associated Press{
T, May 24-Production of
ssenger automobiles this
formally authorized today
ir Production Board, car-
ecisions reached at WPB-
onferences in Washington)
es
he authorization, however,
ulation that the industry
its own materials in the
et"; that it could not be
naterials priority.
he authorization car man-
are permitted to place or-
for materials, delivery to
July 1. Henry P. Nelson,
inator for the automotive
n the reconversion effort,
6, Sophs To
Tomorrow
lass Games
ores and freshmen will
he first wartime revival of
Games Classic at 2 p.m.,
on Ferry Field.
xalry- in a serious but
rin-has flared in men's
throughout the week,
frosh taking a head start
urday fracas to the embar-
of the s-ophomores. Their
have been aided somewhat
.re are some six freshmen
iphomore in the dorms.
on Turnout
ores are counting on a last
nout Saturday to turn the
st the freshmen. Over 50
have pledged their ser-
the affair, while only a
homores have volunteered
ent their class. "If the
't show up, we'll go out and
'one freshman leader said
mes will be mass affairs,
a point basis. A giant soc-
will lead the events. Prac-
gyrations will be barred
a free-for-all struggle will
the victor.
leapfrog relay has been
whicD may result in lame
dirty faces but nothing
most skillful frogs to be

said few if any manufacturers would
be able to get cars off the assembly
lines before October 1.
Nelson added that WPB had been
advised by Chester Bowles, head of
the Office of Price Administration,
that rationing of new cars would con-
tinue until essential users' needs can
be met. Nelson expressed it as his
own opinion that rationing could be
terminated by next January 1.
Will Begin July 1
Nelson said the exact date that
each car maker will begin produc-
tion after July 1 would depend upon
his own individual circumstances
with respect to tooling up and the
availability of materials and facili-
ties. He added that the WPB prob-
ably would authorize production of
400,000 cars during the first quarter
of 1946 and probably 2,000,000 vehi-
cles by the end of the industry's first
year of production.
Practically every manufacturer,
Nelson said, plans to get back into
production first with the body types
he can get with the least delay. He
said there had been no decisions yet
respecting retail prices of the new'
cars.
"I don't think," he said, "that any
manufacturer knows yet what his
prices should be."
IFC Chooses
New Officer's
Fred Matthaei, '46, and Dogan Ar-
thur, '46, Navy V-12 students, were
elected president and secretary-trea-
surer of the Interfraternity Council
at a meeting of campus house presi-
dents yesterday evening.
Matthaei, of Ann Arbor, is a for-
mer president of Delta Kappa Epsi-
lon and is majoring in aeronautical
engineering. Arthur, mechanical en-
gineering student from Jackson, is a
member of Psi Upsilon.

Japanese Send
More Planes
Military Communique
Admits Some Damage
By The Associated Press
GUAM, Friday, May 25.-Across
bridges thrown over the Asato River
under enemy fire, Sixth Division
Marines reinforced their forces fight-
ing inside the capital city of Naha on
the west coast of Okinawa Thursday.
Marine patrols fought throughout
the day inside the rubble of the city
to reduce Japanese strong points.
Important Advances
On the east coast, Seventh Division
infantrymen in the face of stiff re-
'sistance drove further south below
captured Yonabaru in what today's
fleet communique reported as "im-
portant advances."
Heavy mud restricted operations
elsewhere along the "Little Siegfried
Line".
Bomb-harassed Japan sent down
more planes to relieve the worsening
situation of the Nipponese garrison
on southern Okinawa. Raiders suc-
ceeded in damaging a "light unit"
of the American fleet Wednesday
night.
Jap Planes Attack
Thursday numerous groups of Jap-
anese planes began attacking Ameri-
can forces ashore and afloat on the
island of le a mile west of Motbu
peninsula on the northwest coast,
Acknowledging "some damage to in-
stallations," the communique said
that at 10:30 p.m. the attacks were
continuing. By that time, 15 raiders
had been destroyed..
U.S. military government authori-
ties are developing facilities on Oki-
nawa for the administration of more
than 139,000 civilians already under
their control. Eighty-two per cent
of these are women and children
under 17. The majority of adult
males were drafted into labor service
by the Japanese prior to the U.S.
landings April 1.
More Raids
American escort carrier planes
continued Thursday to pound Japa-
nese airfields on Sakishima, in the
southern Ryukyus.
Today's ,communique reported that
light naval units, presumably de-
stroyers, bombarded Surabachi port
and installations on the east coast
of Paramushiro in the Kuriles Sun-
day.
V -E Dance Will
Feature Sale
Of War Stamps
Two dollars-converted into War
Stamps will constitute the admis-
sion for each couple to the V-E Dance
to be held from 9 p. m. to midnight
EWT (7 to 11 p. m. CWT) Tuesday
in the Union Ballroom.
Outstanding novelty will be the
"Warsages" - corsages with War
Stamps, which will blossom forth over
the barettes of Michigan coeds. Bill
Layton's Orchestra will be on hand to
furnish the music
The dance, presented by Alpha Phi
Omega, service fraternity, is held to
stimulate the campus sale of War
Stamps and Bonds.
The first week-day party in many
months, the V-E Dance is scheduled
for the eve of Memorial Day. There
will be no classes on that national
holiday and late permission will be
given the women and Navy students.
Among the patrons invited to the
dance are: President and Mrs. Alex-
ander Ruthven, Mr. and Mrs. Shir-
ley Smith, Dean and Mrs. Walter
Rae, Dean Joseph Bursley, Dean and
Mrs. Erich Walter, Dean Alice Lloyd,
Mr. and Mrs. Ira Smith, Dean and
Mrs. E. Blythe Stason.

WORKED ON DAILY:
New Cabinet Member Was
University Student in 1915-16
r *

Appointed Wednesday to the post
of Secretary of Agriculture and war
food administrator, Clinton P. An-
derson is a former Michigan student,
having attended the University in
1915-16.
Anderson, a Democratic represen-
tative from New Mexico since 1941,
entered as a pre-law student after
two years at the Dakota Wesleyan
College. He was a member of The
Daily staff and participated in ora-
torical contests and class football
games.
Ill health prevented his return in
the fal of106 -nd e antto lh-

SAGA OF A RED FLAG:
University Receives Unique
Trophy' from Former- Student

A trophy won by a Michigan man
w.q . dPA o, te Ui.esi. colet

all over the world was addressed to
fl..nniA nt +Al vnem ln, t 0- P,+shvn A

.... ... ....

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