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June 06, 1944 - Image 2

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The Michigan Daily, 1944-06-06

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0

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

TUESDAY, JUNE 6, 1944

.. s __ _.. _.... sa _ . ..

_ _. ___

leGerman

Open

Up

Second

Fron

in

France

Weapons

Show Ingenuity

Rccket-P'ropelled .Glider aBomb Used;C
Inven.tion Eiployed Me +chani.cal Skill
By PAUL KERN LEE
Associated Press Aviation Editor
All the inventive brains and mechanical skill at the command of
Adolf Hitler's Germany have gone into devising and manufacturing
weapons with which to combat the allied invasion of Western Europe.
Before the invasion German propagandists made much capital of
"secret" weapons that would turn any tide in their favor at one fell
stroke, and some of the actual German equipment lent color to their

Partroopers
Frst To L .and
On French Soil
Veterans of Sicilian,
Italian Campaigns
Hit at Communications
BY I WA COWAN
Associated Press Correspondent
WITH UNITED STATES PARA-
CHUTE TROOPS, June 6.-Ameri-
can paratroopers-studded with ba t-
tle-hardened veterans of the Sicilian
and Italian campaigns-landed be-
mind itler's Atlantic Wall today to
plant the first blow of the long-
awaited western front squarely in the
enery's vitals.
The Allies' toughest, wiriest men of
war cascaded from faintly moonlit
s hes in an awsesomedoperation.
Twin-engined C-4 S - sisters of
America's standard airline flagships
-bore the human cargo across the
skies, simultaneously towing troop-
laden gliders-toc u merge in arsingle
sledgehammer blow .paving the way
for frontal assault forces.
Armed with weapons from the most
primitive to the mast modern, the
paratroiopers' mission was to disrupt
and demoralize the Germans' corh-
municatins inside the Nazisown
lines.
There was n aimmediate indication
that their dynamite and lflashing
steel and well-aimied fire was not
succeeding in the executionaifplans
reheased for months in preparation
for the liberation of occupied Europe.
The steel-helmeted, ankle-booted
warriors wore a red, white and blue
Aerican flag insignia. on the sleeve
and camouflaged green - splotched
battle dress.
PLANES OVER BELGRADE
NEW YORK, June 6.-()- The
Romanian home radio announced to-
day-at 8:07 a.m., Romanian time, that
" :enemy formations are over the Bel-
grade area" of Yugoslavia flying
northeast toward Romania, the fed-
eral communications reported.
( This would indicate an attack
from Italian bases. )

>claims. Most of the secret weapon
talk, however, was pretty generally
written oc as simply hot air.
The Germans necessarily have to
rely principally on the unromantic
realities of fixed fortifications, artil-
lery, tanks, machine guns, barbed
wire, mines and men with rifles.
Besides all this, the Germans have
come up with a variety of new weap-
ons and new trucks.
One of the most spectacular of
these is the rocket-propelled glider
bomb, used f airly extensively
against Allied shipping in the sal-
erno invasion of Septemiber, 1943,
and also in the Bay of Biscay. This
device, released from a specially-
equipped plane, is kept under con-
trol by nthe bombardier in°dmost'
horizontal flight until it finally
dives toward the chosen target.
While undoubtedly tricky to han-
dle, it proved itself possessed of a
certain practicality, at least at first.
Its lack of use in recent months leads
to the belief that it proved either
too difficult to manufacture and use
or that the Allies figured out a coun-
ter to it, just as they quickly did
against the acoustic and magnetic
nines that the .Germans employed so
effectively early in the war.
At the other end of the list of
German ideas is an item of Sim-
plicity itself : the prefabricated pill-
box. Instead of laboriously building
pillboxes of concrete and stone on
the site, the Germans build them of
armor-plate steel in home factories,
to be trucked to any desired spot. and
quickly.buried to the dome.
The range of weapons between
these two extremes includes the fol-
lowing:
A fog grenade, discharged from its
own special portable thrower, said to
conceal everything within a radius of
600 yards in blinding smoke.
Laned mines made of plastic or
woodetonescape detection by metal-
s ens isat imv e Aied minesweepers
These include the anti-personnel
box called the "wooden shoe."
An anti-personnel mine, nicknam-
ed "Bouncing Betty," that leaps sev-
eral feet into the air before expoding.
A mine with a ra Chet timer to
wreck perhaps the tenth truck that
passes over it,
A detonator. to convert abandoned
shells into impromtu mines.
A ten-barrelled self -pr opelled giant
mortar weighing more than seven
tons.

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PANORAIYIIC VIEW QF A GIGANTIC BATTLE. TH EATIt. E--This man of the entire European theatre
graphically illustrates the immensity of the Allied... three-pronged offensive. Invasion 'forces from England havt
made landings. on the Normandy peninsula; ground forces in Italy are relentlessly pursuing the z"etreating
Germans north of, Dome; and Russian troops are poised ready to strike from the East. Aiiied bozxzbers have
been reported striking at Romania over Hungary. '
.:
. a + e " . nc uc n s i n n + e cl
''

Hero of the African desert, it is1
General Bernard L. Montgomery who
is again at the head of the Allied
forces, leading the assault of the
Allied Liberation Army in northern
France today.
A two-fisted, hard-fighting, non-
smoking tee-totaler, General Sir Ber-
nard Law.. Montgomery outfoxed the
"desert fox," German Field Marshal
Erwin Rommel and became known as
perhaps the greatest "winning gen-
eral" of the United Nations in the
war to -date.
Leading successful military cam-
paigns is no new task to Gen. Mont-
gomery for after his smashing vic-
tories over Rommel in North Africa
he led the British Eighth Army to
more successes in Sicily and Italy
and then, late in 1943, was named to
lead British ground forces'under Gen.
Dwight D. Eisenhower, supreme chief
of the invasion from the west.
The son ox an Episcopalian bishop,
Montgomery is deeply religious and
the Bible has remained his constant
companion throughout his cam-
paigns. Known to his troops as "Mon-
ty," the general has always believed

Scorning personal comforts, "Mon-
ty" has become a conspicuous figure
in the war as, dressed in shorts, wear-
ing a black beret that has become his
personal trademark and with a re-
volver strapped to his hip, Mont-
gomery's appearances before his men
and the people of England has meant
much to the morale of the English.
His cry before the final drive on
Tripoli was "On to Tripoli!" and then
it was "Forward to Tunis-drive the
enemy into the sea!"
With his chief Eisenhower, 57-
year-old Montgomery is one of the
youngest generals to lead a major
campaign in military history. Born
at St. Mark's Vicarage, Kennington,
Oval, Borough of London, he was the
son of the Rt. Rev. H. H. Montgom-
ery, Bishop of the Episcopal Church,
and a grandson of Dean F. W. Farrar'
author of "The Life of Christ."
After beginning the offensive a-
gainst Rommel which was so disas-
trous to the German cause, Mont-
gomery has been on the defensive
only once and is a firm believer in
offensive action.

Hit Normand
(Continued from Page One)
f erenace room una-rtil the comunyiq~ ue was released sever'al
haours af ter the landing, s were mrade.
It was mrrade known at Shaef that th.e 5Supremre Coin-
iaazd felt it n ecessary .to yield the initiative ix the ar of
words to the Germnans in order to retainr the inzitiative onz
land aitd keep the German High Coinnaand ini the dark as
long as possible.
Troops Flank West Wall
The great Allied arm adas dwarfed anythinig yet seen on
the sea:
Huge tIrans port Planes filled with paratroopers and
pulling airborne troops in gliders roared over the Gernan
west wall to drop their cargos in the rear.
Berlin said that masses of Allied parachute troops bailed
out over Normnandy, trying to seize airfields.
Just before taking off in the darkness the paratroops
were wished Gods peed by the lanky Kansas Supreme Comr-
in ainder, Geni. Eisenhower.
He was accompanied by several other of his comman-
ders and his face was tense but confident as he strode down
the long lines of fighting men.
All night long London and England resounded to the
roar of thousands of airplanes, some carrying bombs, some
carrying men. Returning RAF bombers met big fleetsof
Flying Fortresses on their way out.
Greatest Amphibiouts Operation
The forces thrown into operation were by far the
greatest ever used in an amphibious operation. They had
to be. An estimated million German troops waited in their
fortfications for the great onslaught under crack Nazi field
marshals, Runstedt and Rommel.
It was reported earlier this week that Adolf Hitler him-
self had a special train ready to rush him to France to take
over personal command as he did on the east front.
Despite these reports Allied military 'men expected
Rommel to be the main tactician on German defense but
on the Allied side were the team of Eisenhower and Mont-
gomery-the. men who chased Rommel from Africa.
Although amphibious attacks are the most difficult in
war, a quiet feeling of confidence characterized the Allied
.generals.
just what element of surprise, if any, the landing
troops achieved was not immediately announced by Supreme
Headquarters. There was no chance to hide the great con-
voys with only 'about five hours darkness on the channel.
'Under the command the General Eisenhower, Allied naval forces
supported by strong air forces began landing Allied armies this morn-
ing on the northern coast of France."
It was announced moments later that Britain's Gen. Sir Bernard L.
Montgomery, hero' of the Eighth Army victories in North Africa, Sicily
and Italy, was in charge of the assa-a t.
A senior officer at headquarters said the times of the landings varied
'o take advantage of the various tide stages at different beaches. Except
for the airborne troops, the first landing times varied from 6 a. i. to
8:25 a. m., British double summer time (Midnight to 2:25 a. m. Eastern
War Time).
Although the Germans almost immediately announced that the
grand assault had started, Eisenhower delayed his announcement in
order to make absolutely certain the landings had taken hold before say-
ing anything.
The Allied forces had been ready for days, but were awaiting the
best moment from the weather standpoint.
"We have been months and years waiting for this," said a senior
officer giving correspondents the story at headquarters.
s"Geography made it evident to the Gernians as well as us that the
shortest way to Europe was across the channel.
First reports from across the channel, however, indicate that the
Allies definitely controlled the air over the scene of operations.
The Allied officer commented that landing against the fixed defen-

ses of Western Europe was a task quite different from that in the
Mediterranean and sketched briefly the German defensive plan of
underwater barriers and shore guns.
He said the Germans had possibly 1,750 fighter planes and 500
bombers to oppose the Allies.
If the landings were in the places listed by the Germans, the Allied
aim apparentfy was to pinch off thc Cherbourg peninsula and the good
ports of Cherbourg and Le Havre, make Normandy their first main
beachhead and drive up the Seine vlley to Paris.
Years for Attck
By JAMES J. STREBIG
Associated Press Correspondent
America built in about two years the winged fury which has now been
flung into support of the Allied invasion.
The speed in assembling such a vast force rivals in awesomeness the
aerial might itself, an air force the like of which had not been dreamed
before Munich or since, except in the United States.
Hitler smashed into Poland with about 1,500 planes, executed the Norway
campaign with fewer than 1,000, and pushed through the lowlands with
something over 3,000.
When it came Hitler's turn to defend, those figures were dwarfed by the
Allied armada, a flying fighting force which counted planes by the tens of
thousands, planes which could fly "%-
fatr than anything the Nazis ever I In a matter of hours on Dec. 7,

isenhower Reports
Ho ur o Lberation'
NEW YORK, June 6-(AP)-The OWI reported today this
statement by Gen. Eisenhower was broadcast by Allied radios in London:
"People of Western Europe! A landing was made this morn-
ing on the coast of France by troops of the Allied expeditionary
force. This landing is part of the concerted United Nations plan
for the liberation of Europe, made in conjunction with your Great
Russian allies.
"Although the initial assault may not have been made in your own
country, the hour of your liberation is approaching.
'All patriots, men and women, young and old, have a part to play
in the achievement of final victory. To members of resistance move-
ments, whether led by national or outside leaders, I say 'Follow the
instructions you rave received'. , To&---

GENERAL MONTGOMERY
in relentless warfare until his enemy
is crushed.
Gen. Montgomery was one of the
last to get away from the ' beach of
Dunkerque in the gloomy days. In
December, 1941, he was given the
South Eastern Command.

Invasion Sidelights and Opinions

Four Years Ago Today ...
June 6, 1940:
The second day of the battle of the
Somme River rages two days after
the last British soldier had escaped
from Dunkerque and after Prime
Minister Churchill had declared that
Britons would fight on "until God's
good time the new world with all its
power and might sets forth to the
liberation and rescue of the old;"
French troops try to absorb German
tank thrusts toward Paris with "fea-
ther pillow" system, but the Germans
gain up to 13 miles and reach the
Breslie and Aisne Rivers.
* * *
Soldiers A ie Seasick .,.

patriots. who are not members of
organized resistance groups I say,
'Continue your passive resistance, but
do not needlessly endanger your
lives until I give you the signal to
rise and strike the enemy'. The day
will come when I shall need your
united strength. Until that day, I
call on you for the hard task of disci-
pline and restraint.
"The United Nations have inflicted
upon the Germans great defeats in
open battle, man to man. Our air
offensive has seriously reduced their
strength in the air and their capacity
to wage war on the ground, our home
fronts have given us overwhelming
superiority in weapons and munitions
of war, and have placed at our dis-
posal great reserves of trained fight-
ing men. The tide has turned and
free men of the world are marching
together to vigtory-.
"T ha',7v fvll .-.rnfiap in ,,.,

tion of their homeland. Because
the initial landing has been made
on the soil of your country, I repeat
to you with even greater emphasis
my message to the peoples of other
occupied countries in western Eur-
ope.
Follow the instructions of your
leaders. A premature uprising of all
Frenchmen may prevent you from
6ein of maximum help to your coun-
try in the critical hon=r. Be auient.
Prepare.
"In the course of this campaign for
the final defeat of the enemy you
may sustain further loss and damage.
Tragic though they may be, they are
part of the price of victory. I assure!
you that I shall do all in my power to
mitigate your hardships. I know that
I can count on your steadfastness;
now, no less than in the past. The
heroic deeds of Frenchmen who have
nntFntta te ir cr---,ro r --9- 0+ .

VI would deliver a special broadcast
tonight at 9 p.m. London time.
SUPREME HEADQUARTERS, AL-
LIED EXPEDITIOARY FORCE, June
6.-It was announced that Gen.
Charles De Gaulle, who had just ar-
rived in London, would broadcast a
message to the people of France later
in the day.
Peirs hing Is Confident . .
WASHINGTON, June 6. - Gen.
John 3. Pershing, who commanded
American armies in France in the
World War, issued the following
statement following the announce-
ment that a new expeditionary
force had lanled in France:
"Today, the sons of American
soldiers of 1917-1918 are engaged
in a like war of liberation. It is
their task to bring freedom to peo-
Ales who have been enslaved.. I
have every confidence that they,
together with their gallant broth-
ers-in-arms, will win through to
Svi ctorv ."
Six lionr DifflerenCe . . .
In order to clarify conflicting Brit-
ish and American differences in time,
the British Double Summer Time
runs six hours ahead of Eastern War

General George C. Marshall, the
Chief tf Staff, was in his office con-
tinuously since yesterday except for
a biief interlude last evening when.
he went to the Russian embassy to
receive from Ambassador Gromyko
the Order of Suvorov, first degree
-the Soviet Union's highest mili-
tary decoration.
*: *
Parachute Landings...
Prime Minister Winston Churchill
told the House of Commons today
that the parachute and glider men
had made successful massed airborne

A senior officer at supreme head-
quarters said rough water caused
"awful anxiety" for the seaborne
troops but that the landings were
I made successfully, although some
I soldiers were undoubtedly seasick.
Hoover Comments . . .
NEW" YORK, June 6. - Former
President Herbert Hoover, comment-
ing on the Allied invasion of Europe,
said in a statement today:
"The end of German tyranny is on
the way. We have faith in our army.-
We pray for the safety of all our
lI 11'] l T '-a - - c 11

f _ I!

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