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Soft Underbelly of the Axis
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By EVELYN PHILLIPS
TwO million children will this year
recieve an education below stand-
ards extent a year ago. More than
2,000 public schools failed to reopen
last fall or have closed in recent
months. Seventy-five thousand teach-
ers are needed in the nation's schools.
Add up these facts, as did the
New York Times in a recent survey,
throw in a statment by Dr. Donald
DuShane, secretary of the National
Education Association commission
that "a black year in education lies
ahead of us," and you have such a
serious teacher shortage that it
threatens to curtail education facil-
ities in elementary and secondary
schools throughout the country.
Recently our prominent educators
have shown much concern over what
they call "the lost generation," mean-
ing the college men who have been
forced to leave universities, and col-
leges for the armed forces. But too
little talk has been devoted to second-
ary and primary education and its
teacher problem. As a result of the
draft and the high salaries offered in
war industries thousands of teachers
have left their classrooms.
It costs a student preparing himself
for a teaching career a minimum
average of $3,000 for four years.
Merely to obtain a teacher's certifi-
cate, not to major in education, re-
quires 17 hours of education. Re-
quirements of pre-graduation train-
ing and post-graduation "brush-up"
work are more stringent in this field
than in hardly any other.I
NOW compare these training factors
and the average teacher's salary
with that of any unskilled defense
woker. The average starting hourly
rate is 85 cents, eight hours a day, six
days a week. Then add up the time
and a half for overtime pay for Sun-
day work and for the lowest paid de-
fense worker you have a salary at
least $1,000 more than the average
teacher receives. The nation-wide
average salary for teachers is $1,454
and for rural teachers it is $908.
There are plenty of qualified
teachers graduating from the na-
tions colleges and universities.
From Michigan alone every year
there is an average of 265 students
graduating with teacher's certifi-
cates. Multiply this figure many
times over and the figure for the
entire country is adequate to meet
the situation. The reason for the
shortage cannot be sought here
therefore. It is evident that the
cause of the deplorable situation
may be found in the low salaries re-
ceived by the members of the teach-
Let's look at the question a little
more closely and from the teacher's
angle. Most teachers spend the ma-
jority of their summers studying, in
order to get a life-time teacher's cer-
tificate, or a Master's degree, which
is becoming more and more important
in the teaching profession.
Sociological surveys reveal that the
society of today is "gradually shifting
over to a secondary--group culture."
This means that the schools are be-
coming a more important factor in
the training of the child. It is univers-
ally recognized that the teachers' po-
sition is one of great responsibility,
duties and opportunities. But we
haven't seemed to have awakened to
the idea that no matter how much
teachers like their vocation, they need
to eat too.
There has been some discussion
recently of a teachers' union, a. call
for teachers to organize. This, too,
has met with violent opposition, the
cry of "unpatriotic" and other
such labels have been heard.
There are three ways open. The
American public can awake to the
fact that good teachers and satisfied
teachers are an absolute necessity to
a functioning democracy and begin
to treat their teachers with the re-
spect that this realization would
bring. Or, the American people may
spurn this road and let things con-
tinue as they are, with the result that
teachers will become increasingly
more scarce and the situation more
pressing. Or, the teachers can use
the expedient of organizing for their
rights-an organization that through
its own strength will be able to bring
about for the American teachers a
These three ways remain open
for American teachers; the one
taken will influence tremendously
the future of America because one
of the fundamental factors influ-
encing the development of any
country is education. Which way
will we take?
Edward J. Perlberg
Fred M. Ginsberg
Mary Lou Curran
Jane Lindberg .
Associate Business Manager
Women's Business Manager
Women's Advertising Manager
c-.-'~'----~42 ~"-~~ ~ ~ ~ 0143 hicago Timms Inc-
NIGH'T EDITOR: MARJ BORRADAILE
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by -members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
FARM BILL VETO:
Passage of Bankhead Bill
Will Spell More Inflation
THE President's veto of the Bankhead Bill
which would raise the prices on some farm
products was met yesterday with a determined
assertion from Bankhead himself that forces
would be mustered to override the veto when the
issue comes up Tuesday.
The set-up is this: the farm bloc in Congress
wants to raise the parity level so that farm com-
modity ceilings can be boosted giving the farxer
more nominal income, but the Administration
indicates that raising food ceilings to cover the
added cost would work inflationary havoc with
the present ',ontrol system.
If farm prices are raised, no matter how lit-
tle, the cost of those products to the consumer
will be increased. The consumer will then look
for some means to meet the higher prices, and
the end result will be a demand by labor, who
at the present time form the great bulk of the
consumers, for more wages.
As the President pointed out, it is obvious that
in total war no particular group can possibly
hope to maintain its standard of living, much
less attempt to raise it.
O NE half of all our production is now being di-
rected into war products. This leaves 50 per
cent of the peace time total of consumers' goods
to cover the same number of people. It is a physi-
cal impossibility, and a fact that the farm bloc,
and some labor leaders have chosen to ignore.
Further if Congress passes this bill over the
veto, there will be a large portion of our pop-
ulation who will be adversely affected, but
what is more alarming, they won't be In a
position to do anything about it.
These are the salaried and subsistence workers,
grocery clerks, car washers, filling station at-
tendants, and many others. These people could
not bargain with anybody for higher wages. They
would just have to pay the higher prices. In-
creased inflation may not impair the effective-
ness of our fighting forces, but it will raise the
price level to such a mountainous height that
the fall after the war, a fall which economists
consider inevitable will be disastrous.
To the farm bloc we can only reiterate the
President's statement of yesterday:
"THE time has come when all of us-farmers
workers, investors and managers-must
realize that we cannot improve our living
standards in a period of total war. On the con-
trary, we must all cut our standards of living
for the duration."
All of which involves stringent control of in-
flation, and kililng of the Bankhead Bill.
Report Condemns Denial
Of Non-Strike Pledge
J OHN L. LEWIS received a fitting rebuke Fri-
day when the Truman Committee con-
demned him for the assertion that his non-strike
pledge to President Roosevelt is not necessarily
"The obligation which rests upon Lewis is
not an obligation arising by contract with the
President" the report read. "It is an obligation.
to the United States arising out ofUthe war
emergency . . . It is based upon his duty as a
OP Xeoe 49t
T HE Enlisted Reserve has gone to war-but
their tuxes and tails are left behind; 75 of
them, in the safe keeping of Claude A. Brown.
"How're you going to create a market?"
asked Mr. Brown sorrowfully. His motto-"We
Buy and Sell"-applies to everything from
ladies' garments to guns and stoves, but, right
now, he points out, dress clothes are not ex-
aetly at a premium.
He still buys 'em, though, he told us reassuring-
ly "for the pants."
That was a little startling. Funny things can
happen in wartime, but a Main Street business
man in loud checked coat and tux pants would
be the best yet. Of course, you have to make
sacrifices on the home front, and spending your
life in tux pants would be a real one. But, we
asked Mr. Brown, why pants? Why not the
"Oh, you can always use the pants for work in
battery shops," he explained.
"Tux pants are wool," he added, when we con-
tinued to have that puzzled look. "They're all
wool, and so they can take the acid they use for
battery work. The ones people bring in, we buy
'em for that. We can't advertise, though; we'd
offer students say fifty cents a pair, they'd sue
the paper for running the advertisement."
IT SEEMS that the war is revolutionizing Mr.
Brown's business, in. one line, at least. What
is its general effect on the second-hand trade,
Mr. Brown's eyes shifted from gun to
fishing rod to a choice collection of plates and
dishes. "The sellers are getting scarce, the buy-
ers are getting plentiful," he told us. "There's
talk that clothing ra.tioning's sure to come, and
anyway, more and more people won't be able
to get the new stuff. They'll begin to patronize
the second-hand dealers."
Mr. Brown excused himself as a customer came
in for an electric plate. "You're an hour too late;
had a nice one, but sold it at nine o'clock this
The customer shook his head sadly, and Mr.
Brown turned back to us. "There's a greater de-
mand for what I have to offer," he explained.
"In the last war, I sold more merchandise than
normal, but the effect's even greater this time.
You can sell anything in the way of machinery
and small stuff-tools, electric motors, type-
OUR eyes wandered to a bird-cage on a back
shelf. But Mr. Brown wasn't too enthusiastic
about the bird-cage business; "Weak demand,
week supply. We do sell them, though."
"It's a tricky business," was the way he de-
scribed the war's effect on his shop. "Take guns.
The war's affected guns altogether differently
from what I figured. There'd be a greater oppor-
tunity to buy, I thought; but now we can't buy
It's a large and varied trade that he's built
up in 27 years. And he'll still be there when we
come back from the wars, waiting to sell us
those 75 tails and tuxes.
Till then, the workers in the battery shops can
have 'em. They'd better be careful, though; mine
are kind of shiny in the knees.
L Be_ Right',
EW YORK, April 4-Arthur Koestler, a brl-
liant writer, some weeks ago announced there
was no hope of social progress from this war.
Fortune magazine has taken up the theme. It
finds there is "disillusion" among those who
thought social improvements would come out, of
the war. "Scarcely anybody speaks of the war
as a revolution any more," says Fortune, primly.
Some people can hardly wait for the war to
end before starting a new lost generation. And
where will that new lost generation sit, and sip
its drinks, and murmur its hate of its ge and
itself? Has it picked its city already? Will it be
Paris again this time?
Mr. Koestler gives up too easily and Fortune
magazine gives up too gladly.
Once It Was Spring
I admit that politicians, the world around, fol-
low the immemorial pattern of describing this
war as a people's war when they are losing, and
as a war to preserve the grand old traditions
when they are winning. I admit that once, in the
springtime of our defeats, under the winy, invig-
orating winds of failure, we talked of the great
improvements in education, health, security, etc.,
which would be necessary if we were to win. Now-
it is the winter of our approaching victory. We
seem to have reached it without improving any-
thing for anybody. We seem to be winning mean-
inglessly. Old Tories, who feared for a time that
this war had a social meaning, are rubbing their
hands again (it is like the rustling of dried leaves
in a stale winter forest) and telling each other
the marvelous news that the war did not really
mean a thing.
The Early Party and the Premature Wake
They are holding their party of celebration too
soon, just as Mr. Koestler is conducting'his wake
too soon. Both have jumped the gun. The
ecstasy is false, and so is the gloom.
Both are guilty of making a false analogy be-
tween the present and the future.
BECAUSE, at a time when the national in-
'come in the United States is 115 billions,
and at a time when almost everybody has a
jcb, and at a time when there is plenty of
money, there is little talk of social reform, r
Koestler assumes an indifference to social re-
form, projects that indifference into future,
and gives up with a loud bang.
And because, at a time when everybody is living
off the government, and taking 100 billions a
year from the government, there is little talk of
social reform, the conservative wing also projects
that state of mind into the future and assumes
that public sentiment will be the same when the
manna ceases to fall.
Each has assumed, in effect, that circumstan-
ces do not alter cases,
What sort of social reform does Mr. Koestler
have in mind, anyway? The wildest scheme of
"social reform" would be a proposal that the gov-
ernment spend enough money to give everybody a
job, in a purposeful activity. That is exactly
what the government is doing. The average man
is not crying for it because he has it. He is not
asking that the government support him, because
the government is supporting him. He is not
asking that the government spend more money
on him, because the government is spending all
"BUT that is just 'course' material,"
was the rejoinder given by an
inexperienced student reporter. "We
can publish only statements of opin-
ion, conflicts of ideas and hot argu-
ment." Behind these statements by
a student about a clear and up-to-
the-minute statement on "Freedom
from Want" are several education
First, the facts, ideas, relationships,
and philosophy learned in a course
are not significant. Some way we
have taken quick young minds
through the grades, high school and
half-way through college by a process
which is apart from life, men, insti-
tutions, situations, social change and
movements. A "course" seems stuffy,
musty and unrelated.
.Second, the lecture method and
the "now-I-am-telling-you" attitude,
particularly in the first year of col-
lege, blight the flowering person. To
the person of that age, the unique-
ness of the awakened self is vivid.
Just then each must be accepted as
unique; hence, the first law of learn-
ing demands that teaching begin
with respect for that individual, an
accommodation to each person. Here
is based the argument for laboratory
work, early social studies, analysis of
situations and early attempts at the
tasks and materials usually reserved
for graduate students.
Third, conflicts of ideas do not be-
long in the school but outside. This
notion that one teacher tells all the
truth, supported by a backward com-
munity which restricts the teachers,
has defeated intellectual growth in
the case of thousands of youth before
they reach college. It is in the home,
says the Jewish Education, that con-
flictingopinion, moot questions, ven-
turesome ideas and varieties of relig-
ious belief should be considered. This
is why the Jewish youth is more free
in discussion than his Gentile com-
panion dares to be. Our Gentile
homes teach children to "be seen and
not heard," father reads the Post and
informs Mama about political affairs,
but in the family, there is little group
thought, less ceremony, few occasions
for training in loyalties or a stretch-
ing of the imagination.
Fourth, in that statement is the in-
ference that all persons have pur-
sued each of the courses. This sopho-
moric notion kills the enthusiasm
which an engineer should have in
illuminating a medic and ruins the
campus interchange of wisdom which
should animate any group. Any four
students in five courses, will each pos-
sess day-to-day engagements in 20
These four will also have the power
and the ability to enter into discourse
at three or four levels of understand-
ing. However, to exclude fellowship
on the basis of the class and assigned
work is to reduce conversation to
utter barrenness. The intellectual
sterility of campus conversation for
these reasons, is surpassed only by the
spiritual sterility which results.
"It is by education I learn to do by
choice what other men learn by con-
straint of fear." (Aristotle).
Counselor in Religious Education
E. W. Blakeman
E. W. Blakeman
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
SUNDAY, APRIL 4, 1943
VOL. LII No. 130
All noticesfor the Daily official Bul-
letin are to be sent to the Office of the
President in typewritten form by 3:30
p.m. of the day preceding its publica-
tion, except on Saturday when the no-
tices should be submitted by 11:30 a.m.
Abbott and Fassett Scholarships: Can-
didates for the Emma M. and Florence L.
Abbott Scholarships (for women, any
school or college) and the Eugene G. Fas-
sett Scholarship (men or women, any
undergraduate school or college) are ad-
vised that their applicationstshould be
submitted before April 5 through the
Dean or Director of the school or college
in which they are registered.
To the members of the faculty, College
of Literature, Science, and the Arts:
The seventh regular meeting of the
Faculty of the College of Literature, Sci-
ence, and the Arts will be held in Room
1025 Angell Hall, on Monday, April 5, at
The reports of the various committees
have been -prepared in advance and are
included with this call to the meeting.
They should be retained in your files as
part of the minutes of the April meeting.
Edward H. Kraus
1. Consideration of the minutes of the
March meeting, pp. 940-941, which have
been distributed by campus mail.
2. Introduction of new members.
3. Memorial-Professor Albert B. Peck.
Committee: F. E. Bartell, E. H. Kraus,
and W. F. Hunt, Chairman.
4. Consideration of reports submitted
with the call to this meeting.
a. Executive Committee-Professor T.
b. Executive Board of the Graduate
School-Professor Z. C. Dickinson.
c. University Council-No meeting
during the past month.
d. Senate Advisory Committee-Pro-
fessor 0. S. Duffendack.
e. Deans' Conference-Dean E. H.
5. Special Order: Evaluation of Services
of Faculty Members of Senate Rank-
Professor A. S. Aiton.
6. Summer Faculty Meetings. Recom-
mendation of the Executive Committee.
7. Proposed Curriculum in Medical Tech-
8. Reporting of Grades-Dr. R. L. Wil-
9. Room Situation-Dean L. S. Wood-
10. Codification of Faculty Regulations-
Professor H. M. Dorr.
11. New Business.
Martha Cook Building: All women inter-
ested in living in Martha Cook Building
next year should complete their applica-
tions at once. The list will soon be closed.
On and after April 5 the Basement
study Hall of the General Library will
be closed. Reserve books now serviced
there have been transferred to other
reading rooms as follows:
Class. Arch. 122. Monumental history of
Rome. Winter. Grad. R. R. 1.
Class. Arch. 123. Ancient Greek life.
Blake. Study Hall. General Lib.
English 45. Introduction to American
Literature. Williams. Angell Hall Study
English 109. American English. Marck-
wardt. Angell Hall Study Hall.
English 112. Milton. Humphreys. Angell
Hall Study Hall.
English 121. English literature 1798-1832.
Weaver. Angell Hall Study Hall.
English 124. Masterpieces of literature in
English. Weaver. Angell Hall Study
Fine Arts 192. Art of China. Plumer
Grad. R. R. 1.
Fine Arts 204. Potter's Art in China. Plu-
mer. Grad. R. R. .
Geography 74. Geography of Europe. Kiss.
Study Hall, General Library.
German 81. Outstanding German drama.
Reichert. Angell Hall Study Hall.
German 82. Modern German plays and
stories. Wahr. Angell Hall Study Hall
German 156. History of German literature.
Wahr. Angell Hall Study Hall.
History 106. Intellectual history of medie-
val Europe. Throop. Angell Hall Study
History 150. British Empire and Common-
wealth. DeVries. Angell Hall Study
History 154. Constitutional and legal his-
tory of Europe. Willcox. Angell Hall
History 172. Military history of the United
States. Boak. Study Hall, General
History 178. Anti-slavery movement. Du-
mond. Study Hall, General Library.
History 182. U.S. from the Spanish-Ameri-
can War. Dumond. Study Hall, Gen-
History 190. Hispanic America. Aiton.
Study Hall, General Library.
Honors 103. Rice. Grad. R. R. 2.
Oriental Lang. 52. Elements of Malay.
Sonstius. Angell Hall Study Hall
Oriental Lang.e60. Linguistic techniques.
Haas. Angell Hall Study Hall.
Oriental Lang. 108. Mohammedan civil-
ization and religion. Worrell. Grad.
R. R. 1.
Oriental Lang. 148. Japanese language.
Yamagiwa. Angell Hall Study Hall.
Oriental Lang. 150. Japanese language.
Yamagiwa. Angell Hall Study Hall.
Oriental Lang. 190. Elementary Japanese
language. Yamagiwa. Angell Hall
Political Sci. 52. Continental European
government. Kraus. Angell Hall Study
Political Sci. 67. International politics.
Gale. Angell Hall Study Hall.
Political Sci. 96. Political biography. Cun-
cannon. Grad. R. R. 4.
Politicale98. Reading course for seniors.
Gale. Angell Hall S. H.
Political Sc. 122. American constitutional
law. Dorr. Grad. R. R. 4.
Political St. 142. Municipal govt. and
administration. Perkins. Angell Hall
Political Sci. 154. Govt. and politics of
the Far East. Gale. Angell Hall Study
Political Sci. 162. Public international
law. Laing. Grad. R. R. 4.
Political 166. International org. and ad-
mm. Calderwood. Study Hall, Gen-
Political Sci. 182. History of political
thought. Kraus. Grad. R. &. 4.
Political Sci. 184. American political
thought. Brown. Grad. R. R. 4.
Sociology 198. Sociological aspects of post-
war problems. Hawley., Study Hall,
Social studies 93. Problems of the war and
of the peace. Dodge. Angell Hall
Spanish 81. Spanish and Spanish Ameri-
can life. Mercado and Albaladejo.
Study Hall, General Library.
Spanish 91.rSpanish literature of 19th
century. Kenyon. Study Hall, Gen-
Spanish 92. Spanish literature of 19th
century. Eddy. Study Hal, General
Spanish 166. Spanish grammar for teach-
ers. Lincoln. Grad. R. R. 2.
Spanish 172. Modern Spanish novel. Linc-
oln. Grad. R. R. 2.
Warner G. Rice
College of Architecture and Design,
School of Education, School of Forestry
and Conservation, School of Music, and
School of Public Health: Midsemester re-
ports indicating students enrolled in these