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August 26, 1941 - Image 4

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PAGE PU

THE M ICHI G-AN D AlY"

WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 20, 1941

__

L,

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

Edited and managed by students of the University of
Michigan under the authority of the Board in Control
of Student Publications.
Published every morning except Monday during the
University year and Summer Session.
Member of the Associated Press
The Associated Press is exclusively entitlea to the
use for republication of all news dispatches credited to
it or not otherwise credited in this newpaper. All
rights of republication of all other matters herein also
reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Michigan, as
second class mail matter.
Subscriptions during the regular school year by
carrier $4.00; by mail s '$4.50.
REPRESENTED FOR NATIONAL ADVERT.31ING SY
National Advertising Service, Inc.
College Publisbers Representative
420 MADISON AVE. NEW YORK, N. Y.
CHICAGO * BOSTON + Los AGELES . SAN FRANCISCO
Member, Associated Collegiate Press, 1940-41
Editorial Staff

To The Seniors, L., S., &A,
and-,School' Of Education
During the five years the Carnegie Founda-
tion for the Advancement of Teaching has
leveloped the Graduate Record Examinations
to assist universities in the selection of grad-
uate students. These examinations have been
given at a selected group of institutions in
the East and Middle West. They are requir-
ed of all students entering the Graduate
School at the University of Michigan, and can
be considered as a final comprehensive exam-
ination for undergraduates. Through the
generosity of the Carnegie Foundation for the
Advancement of Teaching it has been possible
to make these examinations available at the
University of Michigan without cost to the
student. After consultation with your depart-
ments of concentration, the Executive Com-
mittee ~f the College of Literature, Science,
and the Arts, and the School of Education
approved these examinations for all students
graduating in June or August of 1941.
The general examination will be given in
Hill Auditorium' on Wednesday, February
26th, from 7 to 11 p.m. and on Thursday,
February 27th, from 7 to 9 p.m. The ad-
vanced examination will follow on Thursday
night from 9 to 11 p.m. The examinations
will be written in pencil.
The results of these examinations will be
available to each student and will prove very
valuable in the discovery of professional or
vocational aptitude.
Student* who will be prevented from writing
these examinations because of illness or out-
side work should be excused by Assistant Dean
Lloyd S. Woodburne in 1208 Angell Hall or
Dean James B. Edmonson in 1433 University
Elementary School.
Edward H. Kraus, Dean, College of Lit-
erature, Science, and the Arts.
James B. Edmonson, Dean, School of
Education.
- EER

mbe
Drew am
~~*o ,,tA~e

State

National Unity, Hurt Defense

Hervie Haufler
Alvin Sarasohn
Paul M. Chandler
Karl Kessler
Milton Orshefsky
Howard A. igoldman
Laurence Mascott
Donald Wirtchafter
Esther Osser
Helen Corman

Managing Editor
Editorial Director
. . City Editor
Associate Editor
Associate Editor
Associate Editor
Associate Editor
Sports Editor
.Women's Editor
. .Exchange Editor

I

Trade Barr iers Prevent

Business Staff
Business Manager . . . . Irving Guttman
Assistant Business Manager . . Robert Gilour
Women's Business \Manager . . Helen Bohnsack
Women's Advertising Manager . . Jane Krause
NIGHT EDITOR: JEAN SHAPERO
The editorials published in The Michi-
gan Daily are written by members of The
Daily staff and represent the views of the
writers only.
No Labor
Crisis .
S THIS COUNTRY begins to divert
its economy in the direction of na-
tional defense, frequent cries are being heard
that strikes in national defense industries are
"criminal" and "traitorous." The House Ju-
diciary Committee is now considering anti-strike
legislation in this field.
Last week the group heard testimony from
William Knudsen and Sydney Hillman against
the strike ban. Newspapers accounts revealed
the paradoxical situation that Knudsen, for-
merly president of one of the most powerful
corporations in the country, appeard more sym-
pathetic to labor than most of the Committee
members.
Hillman stated that passage of the anti-strike
laws would be unwise and might do positive
harm. Knudsen putting it more strongly said,
"attempts to prevent work stoppages by over-all
legislation might precipitate an industrial break-
down such as appeared in France."
T HE FIRST THING that should be considered
in any discussion of this problem is whether
strikes in defense industries are a serious prob-
lem now and whether any legislation is necessary
to deal with the problem. Both Knudsen and
Hillman agreed that the present situation is not
serious. Citing statistics from eleven basic in-
dustries related to national defense, Hillman
showed that the amount of man-days of idle-
ness due to strikes in relation the man-days
worked were only small fractions of one per cent.
In all industries the number of man-days of idle-
ness as a result of strikes in last half of 1940
was 40 per cent below that of a similar period
in 1939.
Again both Knudsen and Hillman agreed on
the alternative to repressive legislation. Volun-
tary cooperation was emphasized with the belief
that cooling off mediation periods would be
desirable.
Too often in emergencies like the present,
writers and speakers think in terms of produc-
tion and not morale. If labor feels itself ex-
ploited in an emergency, and if its most fun-
damental means of protest-the right to strike--
is prohibited, then it is certain that their morale
and spirit of sacrifice will be discouraged.
A very necessary part of the national defense
program that must be stressed is that all classes
in the country should feel that this nation is
worth defending.
' THERE ARE MANY PLACES in our economy
where entrepreneurs are making abnormal
profits, inclusive of taxation and where unions
feel, consequently, that they should receive a
portion of those added profits, and also better
working conditions. If the right to use the only
weapon at their command is denied them, then
the workers are sure to experience a lowered
morale.
Naturally, there is still the defense problem
of getting the maximum production in the short-
est time, that must be considered. On occasions
where disputes do arise, able government con-
ciliators like Steelman and Dewey and coopera-
tive, intelligent leadership in labor and industry
must be depended upon to act in the best in-
terests of all concerned.
Ti11muian c ielnosd Thurarv tht he had re-

WASHINGTON-Inside the Hitler-Jugoslav
conference, as told in the diplomatic dis-
patches, was that der Fuehrer did not stage his
usual show of scolding and storming the two
Serb statesmen, but tried flattery instead.
He talked a great deal about the "new order"
in Europe, to be formed under German protec-
tion after the war is over. All the countries
were to be together in a United States of Europe,
with Germany preserving law and order.
In - this picture, Germany needed a sort of
deputy sheriff in the Balkans, and Hitler went
on to say that this deputy sheriff could be
Jugoslavia. Bulgaria, he said, was too small,
Romania too unstable. Therefore. Jugoslavia,
if she cooperated with Germany, would be made
in effect the real ruler of the Balkans.
Hitler also promised the two Jugoslav states-
men the Greek port of Salonika, with the sur.,
rounding Greek Macedonia. He also promised
that their country could chop off more of Al-
bania, and finally he hinted-though he made
no definite promise-that Jugoslavia might get
back Fiume and perhaps even Trieste at Italian
expense. (Fiume is the famous Croatian sea-
port over which the Jugoslavs and Italians near-
ly went to war as a result of the Verseilles peace
treaty.)
These Hitler promises were tempting, but the
Jugoslavs are under no delusion that in the "new
order" Hitler could not move in on them imme-
diately-deputy sheriff or no deputy sheriff.
What really counted with Jugoslavia was
Turkey.
Bait For Turkey
The Jugoslavs and Turks have been working]
closely together for some years, and the Jugo-
slavs knew that they could not possibly resist
Hitler unless the Turks would stand with them.
Meanwhile, however, Nazi diplomacy had been
work in Turkey-this time under the astute di-
rection of Ambassador von Papen, who got his
first real experience in diplomacy in the United
States. He served as military attache of the
German Embassy during World War I, and was
active in plots to blow- up the Welland Canal,
the International Bridge and various munitions
plant l at
Since then von Papen has risen high, has
served as Chancellor of Germany, and is now
the man who persuaded Turkey to remain neu-
tral.
The bait which von Papen used to get Turkey
on the hook was the promise of the restoration
of the Turkish Empire-French Syria, British
Palestine, and everything else right down to
Iraq. This would include some of the richest
oil fields in the Near East.
And it looks as if he succeeded.
LETTERS
TOl THE EDITOR

By EMILE GELE
ALTHOUGH colossal political in-
congruities are commonplace in
democratic government, the United
States has given birth to a paradox
that reverberates even through the
clamor of current war hysteria; for
amid frantic nationalshouts of "all
out for defense," "united we stand,"
and "God bless America," the indi-
vidual states of the Union have erect-
ed against each other trade barriers
that make the Balkans look like a
high school debating society. I;
In spite of the Constitution's spe-
cific attempt to insure internal free
trade with the provision that a state
cannot "lay any Imposts or Duties oft
Imports or Exports, except what may
be absolutely necessary fdr execut-
ing its Inspection laws," and by for-
bidding partiality against the com-
merce, ships, and citizens of other
states, nearly every state in the Union
uses its revenue or police powers to
discriminate against outside goods,
persons, and corporations.
Michigan affords one of the best
typical examples. State grape grow-
ers somehow obtained a state tax of
50 cents per gallon on California
wines to 4 cents on State wines. In
addition to the inconvenience caused
California there was a three-fold
backfire in Michigan; for State wine
drinkers turned to other beverages
rather than drink local wines, Cali-
fornia retaliated by discriminating
against other Michigan produce in-
cluding automobiles, and recent sur-
veys have shown that the grape grow-
ers have only an unsalable surplus
for their pains. Losses are placed
on another state, the local public,
local producers, and the favored
groups itself; while no one profits.
THE STATE TAXES on margerine
are the most universal and best
general instances of the present state
of Balkanization. Wisconsin, the most
avid of 30 anti-margerine states,
slapped a cover tax of 15 cents per
pound on oleomargerine and placed
heavy license fees on out-of-state
manufacturers, local wholesalers, and
retailers to protect the state butter
industry. Immediately Southern rais-
brs of cotton, the seed of which sup-
plies the vegetable oils for margerine,
protested and retaliated by boycot-
ting Wisconsin beer, paper, cheese
and canned milks. All Wisconsin pro-
ducers and the public of all the states
involved had to pay for the protec-
tion of one industry in one state.
There are innumerable cases such
as: California's law of standards that
forbade fruit from Texas, Louisiana,
and Florida, all of whom retaliated;
the complex system by which cotton
states tax butter industries and mar-
gerine producers who use cocoa-nut
instead of cotton seed oil; the cara-
van laws of Far West states against

new cars driven or towed across state
lines for public sale; and the require-,
ment of tourists permits in 13 states.
All these "indirect" restrictions on
interstate trade are based on the
states' revenue power, the police pow-
er, or the corporate power.
Through the use of their delegated
revenue powers the states have de-
vised six chief methods of building
walls against their neighbors. (1)
Most of the states employ special
taxes on certain commodities which
compete with products made within
the state. (2) Over one half the states
lay special taxes on certain inter-
state corporations such as chain
stores in order to protect local mer-
chants and producers. (3) One of the
most popular discriminatory laws is
the tax on non-resident commercial
motor vehicles. (4)hVendor licenses
are required of the non-resident
salesmen. (5) Each foreign insurance
company in 29 states must pay a
tax on premiums. (6) Since the pass-
age of the Twenty-first Amendment,
the states have a direct interstate
tax power, and every state uses one
of at least five types of discrimina-
tory liquor tax laws.
WHEN the revenue power fails to
provide the desired partiality,
the states resort to the police power
which usually has five aspects. (1)
Exclusion of out-of-state producers
from milk-markets is facilitated by
technical and arbitrary sanitation
laws. (2) Exclusion of plant or ani-
mal products by means of quaran-
tines based on economic considera-
tions hidden under pathological titles
is a popular method. (3) Then there
is the restriction of migratory labor
by requiring 'monetary proof" of the
ability of self-support. (4) The most
common is the regulation of dimen-
sions, weights, and equipment of in-
terstate trucks and busses. There are
at least 1000 diverse and conflicting
laws on motor vehicles. (5) States
insist on establishing grades, stand-
ards, and labels which do not con-
form to Federal or other state rules.
There are seven standard size apple
boxes now in use in the 48 states.
All these methods are directed to-
ward three ends which are, in the or-
der of their importance: to provide
protection for home markets; to re-
taliate against states which have pro-
tected their own producers; and to
raise revenues at the expense of those
who produce, market, or consume
imported goods. Such aims and
methods have uniform effects.
Although the direct economic ef-
fects can in no way be measured, the
general losses are evident in business
reports of the involved states. State
legislators are always slow to realize
that the small favored groups are
benefitted at the great expense of

by mascott

J

~4

YESTERDAY we were quoted as saying in
March, 1939: "If the democracies are not
equipped to assume a stand, our interrelated in-
terests should force us to give them aid, physi-
cally as well as morally . . . Our foreign policy
must not be based upon a quixotic theory of
isolation."
Today in 1941, we still maintain that posi-
tion. The extreme isolationism that is (say)
characteristic of the America First Committee
we more than ever decry. Our interventionism,
however, stops at the point at which American
aid to England becomes active military aid, for
there we feel we will have lost much more than
we have gained. Our interventionism also stops
when we are forced to give up some of our most
fundamental liberties in the very name of de-
mocracy (a policy which it seems to us is the
most tragic paradox in some interventionists'
positions).
BUT THAT QUOTATION of our editorial of
March, 1939, did not cover our full position.
Back in 1939, in that same editorial we also said
the following (which was, incidentally, not in-
cluded or even implied in yesterday's letter):
"American aid to the democracies, however,
does not mean that that aid must be unqualified.
If the present leaders of the governments of
Britain and France dognot sincerely desire to
take a firm stand against the aggressors and
thus preserve lasting peace in the only way,
there can be noexcuse for our giving those 'great
democracies' our help.
"fHE SITUATION demands a clarification and
explanation of policy from Chamberlain
and Daladier. It also demands an intensive in-
vestigation by American authorities of all per
tinent factors before they offer American aid
in any way to the 'great democracies'."
And we still maintain that position of 1939.
The situation today demands a clarification of
policy from Churchill, specifically a statement
of Britain's war aims, and, above all, some def-
inite plan of the British idea of the social and
political reconstruction of Europe after the war.
INCIDENTALLY, we fully agree with "Studs"
Sarasohn, our boss, that all discussions either
in this column or in the "Letters to the Editor"
column should be limited to treatment of the
issues and factors involved, not the personalities
We have tried to follow this creed as much as
possible. We hope that our critics will also at-
tempt to do so.
MANY CHARGES have been made against us,
manly questions asked of us-many of them
under the assumption that this unassuming,
little column is the citadel of campus appease-
ment and isolationism. The assumption is false.
We will still attempt, despite the charge, to
print in a series of columns our conclusions on
American foreign policy. We feel that, regard-
less of their intrinsic worth, they are still valua-
ble in their stimulus to discussion. But this is
all the room we have for today.
The City Editor's
SC RAT CH PRA
fITHERE'S ONE MAN in Ann Arbor who suffers
more torture from students than all the

consumers, competitors, taxpayers, or
the general public. In nearly every
case of interstate discrimination the
general loss smothers the specific
gain.
ONE SURE and constant effect is
the formation of hatreds be-
tween conflicting states. The recent
trade battle between California on
'one aside and Texas, Louisiana, and
Florida on the other nearly went the
full limit "short of war." All states
involved in such strife are affected
by a feeling of hostility that makes
the current movement for national
unity a hollow farce.
The surest and most distressing
effect is that trade barriers always
boomerang to some extent. State pro-
ducers are hurt more than benefitted
because of the inevitable reprisals.
Even if the favored groups escape
economic boycott, other producers
will feel the weight of retaliation.
STATES HAVE ALWAYS insisted
on their sovereign powers and
have tried to act as indepedently as
possible of the Federal government;
therefore, remedies within the realm
of state rights have been proposed
to promote the abolition of trade
barriers. States who feel wronged by
other states should attempt to swal-
low their anger and withhold retali-
atory legislation. When this has been
done, a gradual repealing of existing
barrier laws should be started. States
should, encourage the passage'of uni-
form laws, and arrange among them-
selves reciprocal agreements similar
to those employed internationally by
Secretary Hull. After this has been
completed, there should be more sur-
veys and factual studies made {of the
problem to expose all undesirable as-
pects for elimination.
These general remedies for the cur-
rent interstate disease can all be ap-
plied by the states themselves; but if
they fail to take action the national
government has the historic sanction
and current inclination to intervene.
The public will blindly protest to
high heaven against heavy taxes, but
refuses to open its eyes to the waste
of millions of dollars through inef-
ficient government; and nearly all
state legislatures are influenced or
run by so many pet factions that they
often lose sight of the general wel-
fare. The machinery of state govern-
ment, therefore, has in the past failed
to meet its obligations in regard to
trade barriers, and may continue to
do so. If the states hesitate to solve
the interstate problem, the present
Federal administration will readily
assume its responsibility to act in the
interest of national welfare-and if
necessary at the expense of the states
rights.

f

DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN

To the Editor:
In the midst of the hectic exam period, eight
University of Michigan students took time out
to join 5,700 other young people in Washington,
D.C. ,who convened from schools, farms, shops,
churches, "Y's" and many other youth organiza-
tions in thy'Town Meeting. Of Youth." They
joined in discussing the American scene., Peace,
civil liberties, jobs and the rights of conscripts
drew the most attention. The delegates tried
to reach a common minimum program that
would warrant the support of the majority of
young people in the country.
Speakers from every geographic section of
America pieced together their experiences. They
graphically drew a picture of growing repres-
sion in the academic, labor and political fields
that is rapidly spreading to every phase of Amer-
ican life. A fifteen-year-old Missouri share-
cropper touched the entire gathering when she
said, "We need a school built to have school in.
We need books, blackboards; we need paper.
We think instead of sending billions to England
we should have a right to edivuation."
Leonard Detweiler, a leader in the National
Intercollegiate Christian Council, in view of the
growing trend to repression asked, "Are we going
to change from the land of the free and the
home of the brave to the land of decree and
the home of the slave?" He warned the delegates
and visitors that the Lend-Lease Bill was the
step that could make possible the dispatch of
another A.E.F. to Europe.
Written and personal messages were received
from youth organizations in England, Canada,
many South and Central American countries,
China and India. A message to World Youth
was read that stated, in part, "We extend our
greetings to all nations at peace, to the people
of Qppressed and colonial lands who fight for
freedom. To the Youth of England, of Germany,
of Italy, of Greece and Canada, we extend our
deepest sympathy for the destruction and blood-
shed which the last 12 months of war have

WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1941
VOL. LI. No. 101
Publication in the Daly Official
Bulletin is constructive notice to all
members of the University.
Notices
Student Tea: President and Mrs.
Ruthven will be at home to students
this afternoon from 4 to 6 o'clock.

e
r
t
t
a
fl
a
p
a.
r

Protection of University Property
Against Theft:e
Whenever it becomes known thatt
property has been stolen or is miss-
ing, notice should be given with ut-
most promptness at the Business Of-l
fice, Room 3, University Hall. This1
applies to articles owned by the in-
stitution or owned privately.
For the protection of property it
is important that doors and windows
be locked, inside doors as well as out-,
side doors, when rooms are to be left,
unoccupied even for a brief period.
The building custodians cannot be
responsible for conditions after the
hours when they are on duty or when
persons with keys to buildings unlock
doors and leave them unlocked. It
is desirable that department heads
make a careful check two or three
times a year of all keys to quarters
under their charge, to make sure that
keys have not been lost and are not
in the hands of persons no longer re-
quiring their use. It is strictly con-
trary to University rules to have dup-
licate keys made or to lend keys is-
sued for personal use.
A reward of $50 is offered to any
person for information that directly
or indirectly leads to the apprehen-
son of thieves on University prem-
ises.
Shirley W. Smith
Instructions for Reporting Accidents:
(1):Report All Accidents occurring
in line of duty involving any person
on the University payroll in what-
. - - ma°v x7hP'hrm warn] [° ojm

es receiving care elsewhere will bef
esponsible for the expense of suchI
reatment. Whenever possible a writ- J
en report of any accident should
accompany the employee to the In-r
ormbition Desk on the Main Floor
of the University Hospital. This re-
port will be authority for the Hospit-
al to render necessary medical care.
(3) Emergency Cases. Emergency
medical care will be given at the Hos-
pital without a written accident re-
port. Ambulance cases should be tak-
en directly to the Ambulance En-
trance, at the rear of the Main Build-
ing of the University Hospital. In all
such cases the written accident re-
port should be forwarded as prompt-
ly as possible to the Business Office
of the Hospital.
The so-called Workmen's Compen-
sation law is for the mutual pro-
tection of employer and employee. In
order to enjoy the privileges provid-
ed by the law all industrial accidents
must be reported promptly to the
correct authorities. These reports en-1
title each employee to compensa-!
tion for loss of time and free medi-
cal care as outlined in the law.

to the north door of University Hall.
Waiting in the driveway blocks traf-
fic and involves confusion, incon-
venience and danger just as much
when a person is sitting in a car as
when the car is parked empty.
University Senate Committee on
Parking
Faculty, College of Engineering:
There will be a meeting of the Facul-
ty of this College on Thursday, Febru-
ary 27, at 4:15 p.m., in Room 348,
West Engineering Building. The
purpose of this meeting will be:
Consideration of Plans for an Alum-
ni Conference.
A. H. Lovell, Secretary
Students, School of Dentistry:
There will be an assembly at 4:15
this afternoon in the Kellogg Insti-
tute Auditorium. Professor Wesley
H. Maurer will speak on the subject:
"Propaganda Today."
All dental students and hygienists
are requested to be in their seats in
the Auditorium promptly at 4:15 so
that the lecture may begin on time.

The Compensation Law covers any A Board of Naval Medical Exam-
industrial accident decuring while iners will meetain Naval R.O.T.C.
an employee is engaged in the activ- Headquarters, North Hall today, for
ities of his employment which re- a physical examination of those cand-
sults in either a permanent or tem- I idates for commissions in the U.S.
porary disability, or which might con- Naval Reserve who have submitted
ceivably develop into a permanent their applications and have made ap-
or temporary disability. pointments.
Further Information. If at any
time an employee wishes further in- Civilian Pilot Training: The quota
formation regarding any compensa- for the Spring Phase of CPT has not
tion ease, he is urged to consult yet been filled. Any students, ex-
either the Business Office or the Of- cept freshmen, who are interested
fice of the Chief Resident Physician should obtain further information
(Continued on Page 6) immediately at the Department of
at the Hospital or the Business Of- Aeronautical Engineering, B-47 East
fice of the University, on the Campus. Engineering Building.
Shirley W. Smith

L
i

Notice: Attention of all concernen
and particularly of those having of-
fices in Haven Hall, or the Western
,mri.inn of f1 1JNtura 1 Scince iild-

|Freshmeni who competed In the
Hopwood contest should call at the
Hopwood Room for their manuscripts,
this afternoon.
R. W. Cowden

,ar, m .. ®.. w ,,. .

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