At11!URDAY. APRHt~L,26. 19t41
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
L L6111 }'l1 .Li/'Ii
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
Letters To The Editor
I6 m ; c,-
Edited and managed by students of the University of
Michigan under the authority of the Board in Control
of Student Publications.
Published every morning except Monday during the
University year and Summer Session.
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use for republication of all news dispatches credited to
it or not otherwise credited in this newpaper. All.
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NIGHT EDITOR: EMILE GELE
The editorials published in The Michi-
gan Daily are written by members of The
Daily staff and represent the views of the
And Unemployment .. .
NOW THAT THIS NATION has dedi-
cated itself to the defense of world
democracy many people believe domestic prob-
lems will be solved or postponed by the me-
chanics of, the greater problem. There is the
feeling that the ominous horde of unemployed
will somehow be absorbed by the defense pro-
gram; and that after democracy has won, the
"new world order" will automatically include a
permanent solution of the employment question.
The fact is, however, that not only is a greater
period of depression imminent after the war;
but the defense program can by no means pro-
vide positions for all the mass of jobless who, as
Hitler has declared, are a fundamental indica-
tion of the inefficiency of a free economy.
ACCORDING TO the National Industrial Con-
ference Board, there were 6,650,000 jobless
in October of 1940; and, although other agencies
estimated' as high as nine million unemployed,
the census of April, 1940, tended to agree with
the Board. Considering the defense contracts
awarded with the nine and a half billion dollar
appropriation of 1940, the Board estimate that
the number of jobless would be reduced to 4,400,-
000 by June of 1941. This estimate deals only
with defense work and does not include allow-
ance for the rise in civilian production which
may result from increased purchasing power.
But the Board alsohad to make important as-
sumptions that affect the significance of the
THE BOARD assumed that unemployed work-
ers would be available at the right time and
place; while later practice showed that the loca-
tions of vast numbers of jobless did not corre-
spond with the location of the jobs, and that
the skilled laborers most needed had lost ability
during the long periods of enforced idleness.
Another assumption was that the prevailing
output for each worker would remain the same.
Instead, however, industry has preferred to
bring many part-time laborers up to full time,
to pay overtime to full-time workers, and to
develop labor-saving programs and devices rath-
er than hire from the ranks of the long-idle
IT WAS THOUGHT that adequate equipment
and materials would be available for imme-
diate production; but shortages of vital ma-
chinery has slowed work and kept men unem-
ployed. Nor were labor difficulties taken into
account; and the exaggerated publicity of strikes
at least indicates the import nce of union ac-
tivity. Another assumption 6f the Board was
that civil production would maintain a standard
level; while, actually, a decline has occurred due
to adaptation of many industries to defense pro-
AMONG THE OTHER FACTORS that must be
considered is the nature of the unemployed.
For example, about one-third of the jobless is
composed of youth which has been cast on the
labor market without the practice and; skill
essential to most of the defense industries.
Negroes, who constitute a great proportion of
- the unemployed, are primarily unskilled; and,
more important, are discriminated against in a
majority of the production factories. Then
To the Editor:
Mr. Niketh's clear-cut support for "packing"
the Board in Control of Student Publications is
a direct challenge to free speech on the Michi-
gan - campus.
HIS CONCEPTION of the "tenets of reputable
journalism" has been constructed on the
basis of his own viewpoint on American foreign
policy, not upon the deep-rooted understanding
of the democratic process to which his later
remarks give lip-service.
Perturbed at the writers who "flippantly im-
pugn the integrity of our national leaders," Mr.
Niketh seeks to reconstruct The Daily feature
staff so as to "secure one representative of us."
Democracy spoke and America closed ranks";
The Daily writers must not criticize the Roose-
velt Administration and must not attempt to
open those ranks. Therefore, Mr. Niketh con-
tends, we must elect a Board in Control or in-
crease the size of the Board in Control so that
it weill appoint a Daily staff with views on public
policy akin to his own.
MR. NIKETH'S REMARKS, however, have
some nasty implications. "It is my opinion,"
he writes, "that we must adopt the technique of
certain small but well-knit groups that have
captured the important publications posts." And
since he had to "look twice at the masthead" to
gather whether he was reading "our college
newspaper or the Daily Worker," it becomes
quite evident that he believes The Daily and the
Board in Control to be, manned and nefariously
managed by Communists to the detriment of
the students, the University, the Republic, and
It is because we feel that a criticism of The
Daily's feature articles should be based upon
sounder grounds and more general premises
than can be implied from Mr. Niketh's attack,
that we propose to state our conception of the
function of the editorial page of a campus news-
paper. It is only from such an approach that
one can make an intelligent and fair evaluation.
THE EDITORIAL PAGE of a. college paper is
vital to its purpose, for it represents one of
the few media wherein the full and free clash
of student opinion may take place. The very
process of education and the intellectual growth
it makes possibly imply the necessity for ex-
pressing and testing opinions in the evolvement
of individual philosophies. It is the function of
the editorial staff to lead and stimulate dis-
cussion on the important issues facing the stu-
dent in every phase of his life. Each staff writer
has the right to express himself-even further
is obligated to do so. And this expression must
reflect his own individual point of view, unham-
pered by any general policy imposed on him from
above. He has this right because the letter
columns are open to all individuals who would
contest these opinions or express their own. It
is the function of the columnists, moreover, to
express their own personalviews in an effort td
kindle the fire of discussion even further and
thus to make the role of The Daily more effec-
tive. Viewed from this broader perspective, the
writings of Touchstone and other Daily editors
are indeed justified.
May we reply further to Mr. Niketh that the,
content of Touchstone's column was more than
a "flippant" commentary or a "half-truth"
twisted into a "vicious distortion." For, as Mr.
Lippman so forcibly pointed out in his column
For Americans ..
THIS EDITORIAL asks a question-a
short, simple question. It is a ques-
tion many Americans have thought of asking.
But first-some background. In August, 1940,
the United States Legislature passed the Selec-
tive Service Act, which took 1,400,000 of Ameri-
cans, aged 21 to 35, out of private life and placed
them in the United States Army-to defend our
TODAY, April, 1941, Washington circles are
certain that by August, 1941, youths between
the ages of 18 and 21 will be forced to join this
U.S. Army officials admit that to defend
America against invasion does not require a ter-
rific amount of manpower, but merely enough
to work the machines of defense, plus a normal
EVEN PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT assures us
that American troops will never be sent
abroad, nor would there be any use for Ameri-
can troops if they were sent abroad.
And yet, in addition to our million 21-35 con-
scripts, we will soon have another million-kids
from 18 to 21-learning to use millions of bayo-
nets "to defend our shores." These 18-21 con-
scripts, please notice, will probably not be in
place of, but in addition to, our present draft
army. And there are rumors that the period of
internment will be not one year, but "for the
W HY? -- David Lachenbruch
the army of construction workers who were em-
ployed at building army camps and new defense
factories will have to find places in other de-
'ONSIDERING the chief aspects of the unem-
ployment question, one must regard de-
fense prosperity as an inadequate and temporary
stimulus to an apparently inefficient economy.
Defense spending is fundamentally unsound as
an employment solution because it puts more
money into material than into wages. Its in-
adequacy, however, can be partly relieved by
an nrn 'C0ri a Fth in a c n.C f nn rn. n r 4, 1 c.#'
last week, President Roosevelt has not dealt
honestly with the American people. Proceeding
clearly and certainly along the road to war by
small and imperceptible steps-skillfully calcu-
lated so as not to provoke explosive opposition at
any given time-is not presenting the issues
squarely to his constituents, the American people.
Sending convoys half-way to Britain is violating
the spirit of the Lend-Lease Bill as well as Pres-
ident Roosevelt's own remarks at the time of its
passage. It exemplifies, all the more strongly,
the consistent attempt on the part of the Admin-
istration to use every legal trick in its bag of
tactical tools to circumvent the very nature of
the democratic process that the issues involved
in public policy be fairly and clearly presented.
FURTHERMORE. Mr. Niketh's insistence on
newspapermen "who believe in our system
of free enterprise which is the only existing
economic order compatible with freedom and
human progress"-evidences an extremely naive
understanding of the structure of the American
economy. If his interpretation of the phrase
"free enterprise" is to be taken literally, it makes
little sense in terms of such studies as the TNEC
investigations, Berle and Means analysis of the
role of the large corporation, Prof. Burns' work
on The Decline of Competition, and the picture
of the American economy drawn by the National
Resources Committee. For large concentrations
of economic power have made meaningless the
classical conception of the free, atomistic role of
the individual in economic life. Therefore, the
use of the phrase "free enterprise" as a basis for
evaluating the editorial page of the Michiganr
Daily seems to be a curious sort of catch-all to
describe what is patriotic.
We have tried to defend on general grounds
the free expression of opinion in The Daily edi-
torial page and, furthermore, to demonstrate the
validity of the specific ideas Mr. Niketh has at-
tacked. He has argued for "packing" the Board
in Control: first, to insure an editorial policy
that would reflect his particular interpretations
of proper public policy; and, secondly, to obtain
a "feature staff that is representative of us."
the first argument is contrary to a constructive
arid liberal understanding of the role of a college
newspaper. And his second objective he would
attempt to achieve by increasing the number of
acuty or alumni representatives on the Board-
a peculiar method of securing wider student rep-
THE BOARD IN CONTROL as now constituted
is exercising an important function for the
M/ichigan Daily. It aids in the management of
finances, provides for succession in personnel,
and ably serves as an advisory and counselling
body to the student editors. But to ask that the
Board impose an editorial policy on the staff y.
to contravene the really vital and unique role
of a campus newspaper. Regimentation properly
belongs to a totalitarian state; the hope of de-
mocracy dies in the free expression of ideas.
Edward R. Fried, '41.
Harold D. Osterweil, '41
The AReply Churlisb
YESTERDAY about fifteen million high school
students in town, and I got an idea. I tried
to tell the difference between them and us.
First I though I would proceed on a basis of
clothes. College men and women are supposedly
the leaders of the nation in the fashion field.
So I kept looking for clothes like Our Bill wears
in the funny papers. I sneaked close to one
group of giddy looking little danes, buzzing ex-
citedly and moving their hands around a lot,
and they were saying cute and darling and ducky
things like that, so I figured aha, high school.
Then one of them turned and said, "Well let's
let's get back to the house," and I saw that they
were wearing sorority pins -
The main difference between university women
and high school girls, I decided, is only that the
university women are a little plumper. Need
more exercise and less self-confidence.
Next a seriouys looking group of young men
discussing the situation in Europe. Getting wise
by now, so I tagged them as high school debaters
-a subtle deduction. Wrong again. One of them
looked at watch, yipped "Jesus, we gotta play a
concert in five minutes." Band-don't know
which high school.
Crowd of uncomfortable looking people stand-
ing on front steps of Angell Hall getting picture
took. High school, I said to myself. Right.
We don't have our pictures took.
WENT INTO COKE SHOP at the proper hour.
Went out again. No use even trying. No
difference at all if you put both classes behind a
tall glass with the juke box going up front.
All God's chillun drinks cokes.
Saw some snazzy signs on the grass, very very
collegiate, very very funny and sort of pitifully
earnest about keep off the grass, humor adoles-
cent, object better civil consciousness. High
school, I named to myself. Wrong again. Ex-
Boy Scouts, organized for the protection of lawns
under a Greek letter name.
We are all nice kids at heart. Doing our best
to keep ourselves physically fit, mentally alert,
Saw a tired looking person, with glasses, and
books under arms. A symbol, I decided. Ob-
viously college, with an exam. Wrong. Young
high school teacher, hunting for her group to
take them back to the bus.
rEVVAT. nffCT.AT.- Th~rn.i 0jf.art dffr"
WASHINGTON - There was a sec-
ret telephone call to the White"
House during the dealocked coal ne-
gotiations that Franklin Roosevelt
will never forget. It came from John
L. Lewis, who ate humble pie and per-
sonally asked Roosevelt for help.
In last year's election no one assail-
ed Roosevelt more bitterly in public
than Lewis. His private remarks were
even more vitriolic. And when the
coal parleys began, Lewis insisted that
the Government keep hands off.
DEFENSE CHIEFS, foreseeing ex_
actlywhat happened later, want-
ed Secretary Perkins to certify the
case to the new Defense Mediation
Board before the mines were shut
down. But she balked, on the advice
of her conciliation chief, Dr. John
Steelman, reported to be playing close
Lewis, who had opposed the cre-
ation of the Mediation Board, was
vehemently against turning the coal
negotiations over it. Its first request
was sure to be that the mines con-
tinue running in the interest of de-
fense production. Lewis' strategy was
to shut down the mines tight, thus
forcing all operators to sign up at the
So by not calling in the Mediation
Board, Miss Perkins and Steelman
played squarely into John L.'s horny
Lewis Phones Roosevelt
LATER, however, the situation got
out of his hands. Southern op-
erators refused to accede to Lewis' de-
mands, walked out of the negotia-
tions. This kind of resistance he had
not expected. And as the deadlock
continued, Lewis became worried over
mounting public sentiment.
It was at this point that John L.
swallowed his pride and turned for
help to the man he had blasted last
October with fire and brimstone.
Telephoning the President, Lewis
asked for assurance that the Gov-
ernment's Bituminous Coal Division
would act speedily in authorizing an
increase in coal prices. This, of course,
would permit the coal operators to
pass the wage boost on to the public.
Roosevelt was friendly - but made
HE TOLD LEWIS he was sure the
Bituminous Coal Division would
act expeditiously, and referred him to
Secretary Ickes, boss of the coal bur-
eau. Then Lewis telephoned Ickes,
who was equally polite and equally
Next day, Defense Price Regulator
Leon Henderson, after conferring
with Ickes, issued an order freezing
coal prices until the Division had
time to make a careful survey of the
situiation. And Ickes, several days
later, announced that preliminary
statistics indicated that improved
mining methods had reduced the av-
erage cost of producing coal 18 cents
a ton. This would hardly justify a
Danish Minister's Rent
N DEFYING Hitler by signing the
treaty placing Greenland under
the United States, the Danish Minis-
ter added insult to injury by agree-
ing to the plan while living on Ger-
man territory. For the Danish Le-
gation is Washington is located in the
building formerly occupied by the
Austrian legation, and turned over to
the Germans by Minister Edgar
Prochnik after the Vienna anschluss.
Relations between landlord and
tenant have been anything but cord-
ial for some time. Danish Minister
de Kauffmann has even broken off
diplomatc relatons wth the German
Embassy to the extent of refusng to
pay hs rent direct to the Nazi rep-
resentatives. Instead he turns it over
to the real estate firm which nego-
tiated the lease for the property.
Just what action will be taken fol-
lowing the latest overt act is not clear.
The Germansmay order de Kauff-
mann to move out of the house, as
they did his next-door neighbor,
Czech Minister Vladimir Hurban.
Hurban refused to comply and has
been sustained by the State Depart-
ment, but what assistance they may
be able to render de Kauffmann,
whose legation is actual German pro-
perty, remains to be seen.
THE OPM may claim that since
Aluminum was put. on the priority
list the supply problem in this vital
metal is well in hand, but Army Air
Corps heads are taking no chances.
They are quietly considering a plan
to change the specifications for basic
and primary training planes from
aluminum to wood and fabric.
THE USE OF WOOD and fabric in
construction of planes is as old as
aviation itself, and still is common in
private plane manufacture. If the
plan is put into effect, it will mean a
(Continued from Page 2)
Chairman. Interviewing will be Tues-
day, April 29, by appointment.
Varsity Glee Club will have no re-
hearsal Sunday. Meet Monday at
7:30 p.m. in Union for the Rotary
dinner concert. Formal dress will be
required. There will be a short meet-
ing on Thursday, May 1, and election
of officers will be held May 8. Both
of these meetings will be in the Union
at 7:30 p.m.
Graduate Outing Club: Regular
meeting at 2:30 Sunday afternoon.
Final plans will be made for an over
night outing on May 3-4. Brmng fee
The Institute of Aeronautical Sci-
ences will make an inspection tour of
The Stout Engineering Laboratories
the Air Traffic Control Station at
Wayne County Airport, and the Stin-
son Factory on Tuesday, April 9.
Transportation will be provided by
bus. Pay Mrs. Anderson in the Aero
Office the fare as soon as possible.
Only Juniors and Seniors are ex-
cused from classes Tuesday for the
trip, and bnly members of the Insti-
tute will be accommodated on the
bus. Those who intend to drive snould
see Professor Stalker for permission.
Bus leaves East Engineering Build-
ing at 8:30 a.m.
The International Center: Sunday
evening at 7:30 Mr. William Strick-
land of the American Automobile
Association (AAA) will speak in the
Center on some attractive, inexpen-
sive motor trips for the summer vaca-
tion. This talk is in the series with
others on travel information for
Graduate Students, and others in-
terested, are invited to listen to a
program of recorded music in the
Men's Lounge of the Rackham Build-
ing on Tuesday, April 29, at 8:00
p.m. The program follows:
Beethoven, Symphony No. 7.
Ravel, La Valse.
Strauss, Don Quixote.
Lutheran Student Association: The
a cappella choir will meet for re-
hearsal Sunday at 4:00 p.m. in the
Zion Parish Hall. The Lutheran
Student Foundation will hold its an-
nual business meeting and banquet
in the Zion Parish Hall Sunday at
5:30 p.m. Rev. Paul Krauss from
Fort Wayne, Ind., will be the prin-
cipal speaker for the evening. All
interested are invited.
A joint luncheon meeting of the
Ninth Adult Education Institute and
the Ann Arbor Woman's Club will be
held in the Michigan League Tues-
day, April 29 at 12:15. Speaker, Carl
Sandburg. Reservations should be
made at the extension service (tele-
phone 354) by Monday noon. Stu-
dents and faculty invited.
Ann Arbor Friends: Study Group
will meet Sunday at 3:30 p.m. in
Lane Hall, to continue the discussion
of the bases of Quakerism.
All women interested in living in a
cooperative next semester please come
to 328 East Huron on Sunday, April
27, at 1:45 p.m. There will be inter-
viewing by the personnel committee.
Disciples Guild (Christian Church)
10:45 a.m. Morning Worship, Rev.
Fred Cowin, Minister.
6:30 p.m. Disciples Guild Sunday
Evening Hour. Dr. E. W. Blakeman,
Director of Religious Education at the
University, will speak on "The Bible
as Literature." Informal discussion,
social hour, and refreshments will
Unitarian Church: 11:00 a.m. "The
Impersonal Enemies of Religion,"f
sermon by Rev. Marley.
12 Noon: Annual Parish meeting:
Reports and election of Trustees.
7:30 p.m. Liberal Students Union:
"Propaganda."' Discussion led by
Professor Mentor Williams.
Zion Lutheran Church will hold
regular services Sunday morning at
10:30. Mr. Wiederanders will deliver
the sermon on "The Risen Shepherd."
First Methodist Church: Student
Class at 9:30 a.m. with Prof. George
E. Carrothers in the Wesley Founda-
tion Assemly Room. Morning Wor-
ship at 10:40. Dr. Charles W. Bra-
shares will preach on "Seeing the
World." Wesleyan Guild meeting at
6:00 p.m. A student program on
"China Today." Supper and fellow-
ship hour following the meeting.
St. Andrew's Episcopal Church:
SunoIay, 8:00 a.m. Holy Communion;
9:30 a.m. High School Class, Harris
Hall; 11:00 a.m. Morning Prayer and
Sermon by the Reverend Henry Lew-
is; 11:00 a.m. Kindergarten, Harris
Hall; 11:00 a.m. Junior Church; 8:00
p.m. College Work Program, Harris
Hall. Installation of officers and
cabinet and Rededication of Bishop
Williams Memorial Chapel. Recep-
First Baptist Church: 10:30 a.m.-
12:15 p.m. A unified service of wor-
ship and study. Sermon: "The King-
dom of God." A special program of
worship, study, and activity for chil-
dren of the Kindergarten and Pri-
6:30 p.m. The Roger Williams
Guild will meet in the Guild House.
6:30 p.m. Dr. Himler, psychiatry
specialist at the Health Service, will
speak on "Religion and Mental
Health." The High School Young
People's Fellowship will meet in the
Ann Arbor Society of Friends meet-
ing Sunday in Lane Hall. There will
be a silent meeting for worship at
5:00 p.m. and a business meeting at
6:00 p.m. All interested are invited.
On Monday there will' be an infor-
mal luncheon at Lane Hall at 12:15
p.m. for Professor Jesse Holmes, Pro-
fessor Emeritus of Philosophy at
Swarthmore College. Reservations
may be made at Lane Hall until Sun-
day night. Professor Holmes will de-
liver a talk at Lane Hall on "Can Re-
ligion be Scientific" at 4:15 p.m.
Monday. Everyone interested is in-
vited. He will, also speak at the
meeting of the Fellowship of Recon-
ciliation in the evening.
First Church of Christ, Scientist:
Sunday morhing service at 10:30.
Subject:"Probation After Death."
Sunday School at 11:45 a.m.
Trinity Lutheran Church will hold
regular services Sunday morning at
10:30. Rev. Yoder will deliver the
sermon on "A True and Tested Lead-
First Congregational Church: 9:30
a.m. Junior and Intermediate Depts.
of Church School.
10:30 a.m. Primary and Kinder-
garten Depts. of Church School.
10:45 a.m. Services of Public Wor-
ship. Dr. L. A. Parr will preach on
"The Sin of Accidia."
5:30 p.m. Ariston -League High
School group will meet for a pot-
luck supper at Pilgrim Hall.
7:00 p.m. Student Fellowship will
hold a joint meeting with the Ypsi-
lanti group in Pilgrim Hall. Miss Es-
ther Ewell, State Director from East
Lansing, will lead a discussion on
"The Tie That Binds."
First Presbyterian Church: Sun-
day morning Worship, 10:45. "A
World-Riddle", subject of the sermon
by Dr. W. P. Lemon.
Westminster Student Guild, supper
at 6:00 p.m. with meeting at 7:00
p.m. Dr. Lemon will speak on "Hu-
man Moods in Great Literature."
This will be Readings from the Bible
and World Literature with organ
The Sunday Evening Club, ,8:00
p.m. Mrs. Reischer will give a talk
on "Travel Through the Artist's
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