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T.I V AH;IIA1 DAIL Y
National Democracy Group
Stresses Student Freedom
Edited and managed by students of the University of
Michigan under the authority bf the Board in Control
of Student Publications.
Published every morning except Monday during the
University year and Summer Session.
Member of the Associated Press
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use for republication of all news dispatches credited to
it or not otherwise credited in this newpaper. Al
,rtiseo repuiaton of all other matters herein also
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, MlchlgAn, as
second class mail matter._
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420I MAbISON AVE. NEW YORK. N.Y.
chICAGO - BOSTON - Los ANCELsE SAN FRANcisco
Vember, Associated Collegiate Press, 1940-41
Paul M. Chandler
Howard A. Goldman-.
* . . Managing Editor
. . . Associate Editor
. . . Associate Editor
* . . Associate Editor
Business Manager .
Assistant Business Manager
Women's Business Manager
Women's Advertising Manager
NIGHT EDITOR: ROSEBUD SCOTT
The editorials published in The Michi-
gan Daily are written by members of The
Daily staff and represent the views of the
To Expanding Japan .
JAPAN in the last few months has
dropped all pretense of maintaining
peacetime economic relations with the United
States by freezing yen assets in this country and
by gradually withdrawing the financialbacking
of large Japanese companies; yet, the United
States government continues to' support the
spreading "new order" in the Far East, an order
which conflicts directly with American interests.
Recent restriction on scrap iron and machine
tools was regarded as a progressive move toward
reconciling the United States' diplomatic and
economic policy; and apparently, most people
think this act should be the final movement in
the right direction. For during the period of
greatest tension in recent times, the United
States has permitted an enormous increase in
sales of certain strategic.materials to Japan.
PROBABLY the most prominent example of
economic irony has been the 250 per cent in-
crease of oil purchases by Japan in the United
States during the. past year. In November of
1939 Japan bought 215,000 barrels of American
gasoline; while in November of 1940 746,000
barrels were purchased. This oil, undoubtedly
used. to grease the machinery of Japan's south-
ward expansion, is symbolic of the asinine cod-
dling of a nation which has repeatedly expressed
its animosity toward American interests. It is
significant that a similar increase in oil pur-
chases occurred during 1937, immediately before
the assault on China.
Another example of the obvious commercial
trickery connived by the United States govern-
ment is Japan's chartering ships sorely needed
in Eastern trade and aid to Britain. The Mari-
time Commission passed a license regulation
which prohibited Japanese use of American
ships, but certain shipping companies are so
attracted by Japan's bid of $20 per ton for
tankers usually renting at $5 per ton that they
have transferred their vessels to Panama and
legally rented them to Japan from there.
T HIS CATERING to Japanese commercial de-
sires has produced such a shortage of vessels
in the Far East that shipping rates have gone up
25 percent in the last few months. At a time
when rubber imports are exigent for the United
States, less shipping is being done. As the
Philippines are growing restless over the military
expansion of Japan, their economic problems
are intensified because the United States cannot
import sufficient sugar. American ships that
should be aiding in American defense are carry-
ing goods for an Axis power.
Past events have justified a compromising pol-
icy' regarding Japan, a policy which permitted
the export of certain vital materials so that
Japan would not be forced to penetrate the
Dutch East Indies and adjacent territory in
search of war commodities. Recent Japanese
activity in Indo-China, Thailand, and islands
within 700 miles of Singapore has indicated a
determined advance into the Indies regardless
of American commercial policy. Some observers
believe Matsuoka's current visit to the Axis
leaders is a prelude to more vigorous military
pressure in the areas that provide products of
great importance to American economy.
fAPAN has indicated in all her recent actions
By CHESTER BRADLEY
(Note: Six University students last week-end at-
tended the National Conference For Democracy held
at Harvard University. Among the attendants were
Irving Zeiger, Robert Solomon, Margaret Camp-
bell, Alestair Craig, Leada Miller and Chester Brad-
ley. Herein are a few reactions and interpretations
of that conerence, none of which is intended to
represent the opinions of the whole Michigan group.)
ITNO LONGER REQUIRES an astute political
prophet to predict the dominant trends and
tendencies of a pre-war state. Even a politically
naive citizen can describe with surprising ac-
curacy and preciseness the exact patterns of
repression in that pre-war state. Numberless
persons are at such a time excessively sensitive
to even the mildest criticisms of their govern-
mental institutions. They are hedged in with
fears, suspicions and hatreds. They distrust
their closest neighbors, especially if those neigh-
bors bear what they deem a "foreign" name.
They shun, indeed openly attack, all bold and
daring social thinking. As the period of con-
traction becomes intensified, they advocate vio-
lent repression of whatever they choose to call
"subversive." They begin to talk nostalgically
and sentimentally about an abstracted "way of
life." Such is pre-war society.
In precisely such a portentous atmosphere
youthful delegates gathered at Harvard last
week-end to attend the National Conference For
Democracy In Education. To nearly all of them
it was evident that their own United States gov-
ernment was nearing formal involvement in the
Second World War. The inevitable contraction
had already set in. To their alert and impres-
sionable young minds the concrete details of that
contraction were clear. In New York, for exam-
ple, the Rapp-Coudert Committee was carrying
on its revelations of what it considered "radical"
teaching. The textbooks of Harold O. Rugg
were still under fire from the National Asscia-
tion of Manufacturers. Increased militarization
on the college campus was everywhere reported.
The delegates were acutely aware that they were
facing a repetition of the repressive era growing
out of the First World War. They knew what
undesirable effects it would have on the content
of their own education. They knew their campus
press would be threatened by regimentation, that
the preservation of other civil liberties would be
difficult, if not impossible. Still they had the
courage and determination to fight those devel-
opments as best they could.
TO THE 400 DELEGATES coming from 63
colleges and universities in 15 states academ-
ic freedom was an issue of major importance.
The delegates realized that academic freedom
was an essential prerequisite of education in
democracy, that limitations and restrictions on
that freedom would ultimately destroy its es-
sence. Academic freedom was not a particularis-
tic concept, they argued, applicable only to a
certain set of narrowly defined conditions. To
fulfil its real meaning in a democratic society,
it necessarily had to be universial.
On that issue the delegates took a forthright
stand, deserving of widespread support. It is
no longer popular to defend academic freedom,
whenever it is specifically threatened in the
universities across the country. So many modern
liberals have resorted to thinking almost solely
in terms of 'discipline" and have failed to chal-
lenge serious threats to their one-time popular
principle of academic freedom. Part of this fail-
ure is sometimes due to their fear of the 'Red"
label, no matter how .indiscriminately and un-
fairly that label is applied. Thus they are no
longer eager to join in a common defense of those
ideals which at one time were inestimably prec-
A Briton Ridicules
American Aid . .
N OT VERY MANY YEARS after our
entrance into the first World War,
it became a vogue in England to refer to our part
in that conflict as purely monetary. But in 1941,
a certain Englishman is too impatient to wait
until after the war's end before mocking Ameri-
can aid. This man, C. J. Grey, editor of Jane's
All the World's Aircraft (the most authoritative
publication in its field), wrote a caption for a
photograph of an American bomber being
towed across the Canadian border in the begin-
ning of the war. He remarked, "Horse traction
was used in the early part of the war because
flying war planes between the two countries
was regarded as non-neutral. Now that the
United States has decided to support the war
financially 'to the last Englishman,' prepara-
tions are being made to fly flying fortresses di-
rect to England."
This statement is not the prattle of a politi-
cian or a newspaper columnist. It was made by-
a man who is in close touch with the English
airplane industry and, those who run it. C. G.
Grey is not extending any hand across the sea
to us, and he reaffirmed this in a press inter-
view after the Air Ministry had rebuked him.
MR. GREY'S PUBLISHERS admit that they
made a slip in letting the caption go into
print. But Mr. Grey himself did not make any
mistake when he revised "Uncle Shylock" for
his worldwide readers. For he is equally out-
spoken on other phases of American aid. He
terms the U.S. flying fortresses "utter damn
nonsense and a huge flying target." He also
doesn't "care a damn" about an export ban on
the book he edited.-
If America is going to aid Britain it should do
so without any illusions. Jane's All The World's
Aircraft has given us an inadvertent view of a
resnected Englishman's nnininns on our finan-
ious to them. Fortunately the delegates at the
Harvard Conference had retained their single-
minded devotion to those ideals.
One had only to observe the immediately evi-
dent seriousness and earnestness of the delegates
to realize that as a group they were prepared
to oppose clear abrogations of democratic prin-
ciples in education as they returned in their de-
cision to set up a permanent organization, to be
known as the National Conference for Democracy
in Education, designed to implement by specific
action the thinking and discussion of the Con-
AS ALWAYS at such meetings there was dis-
played a seemingly, naive faith in the ulti-
mate efficacy of passing resolutions, signing pe-
titions, formulating vocal protests. Likewise su-
premely idealistic was their simple, and perhaps
unjustified, faith in the final effectiveness of
their campaigns of protests planned for their
individual campuses. Yet, even if those cam-
paigns resulted in the reinstatement of a few sus-
pended faculty members and students, they must
have inwardly recognized that the whole delicate
problem of civil rights in a democracy would
not automaticaly then be solved. That the whole
question was directly related to a world at war
was painfully true. Athough the delegates public-
ly proclaimed their intention to carry on at
least a rudimentary campaign for democratic
principles in education, they must have known
that the shadows of a war world were settling
down over their own United States, that their
courageously conceived campaigns would neces-
sarily have limited effects. Even in the enthus-
iasms of an actively operating social conscious-
ness, one must still be a political realist.
P RADIOCode For
By DAVID LACHENBRUCH
ON JULY 10, 1939, the National Association of
Broadcasters, at their convention at Atlantic
City, adopted a code, and pedged that they
would'keep it. Four hundred and twenty-five
member stations signed this pledge, and that
included members of all major networks.
What were the provisions of this code, and
how well were they kept? Some of the main
points were that news should be broadcast with-
out bias or editorial comment, there should be
no paid sponsorship permitted for broadcasts
on controversial issues, that eventually all re-
ligious or evangelistic programs should be out-
lawed, that time allotted for controversial issues
should be distributed fairly to all elements con-
cerned and that forum programs should be
encouraged. There were also time limits imposed
on commercial announcements.
T IS MY OPINION that the broadcasters have
failed miserably to live up to their pledge.
Referring to news "commentators" they ex-
plained: "The primary service which a broad-
caster can render in the news field is to inform
the public as to what is happening and to make
as clear as possible the significance of events,
rather than to express either his own approval
or disapproval or to devote some time to the
editorial opinions of some particular commenta-
tors." Since the war, there are any number of
editorial commentators, who prefer to "color"
their news instead of giving it straight. Some
occasional offenders are Lowell Thomas, Kal-
tenborn, Kennedy and Boake Carter, when he
Are there now paid sponsors for controversial
subjects? Of course! Listen some night to Fa-
ther Coughlin's pal, Gerald L. K. Smith. Or
how about turning to WJR tonight at nine,
when you'll hear a talk on a very very contro-
versial subject by W. J. Cameron, sponsored by
a very very controversial manufacturer of mo-
tor cars. This political sermon is listed on most
radio programs as a Sunday evening hour of
symphonic music. So most people who turn
on the radio to listen to good music, not to have
their opinions seduced, are subjected to this
controversial matter. And there is no equal
time allotted to any opposite sides.
ALSO IN THE CODE were provisions for the
limiting of time for commercial announce-
ments. In evening programs, it's interesting to
note, the limit is two and a half minutes per
15-minute program, three minutes per half-hour
program and six minutes per hour program. I
have found that many programs do not adhere
to these limitations, but will check further and
have statistics in Thursday's column.
The code for children's programs should
make anyone familiar with that type of enter-
tainment snicker: "Scripts should be based on
sound social concepts and written for a child
audience. They should inculcate respect for
parents, adult authority, law and order, clean
living, high morals, fair play and honorable
living. They must not contain horror, torture
or suspense . . . supernatural or superstition."
WINGS OF DESTINY - PROPAGANDA?
This half-hour cigarette program (WWJ-
10 p.m. Friday)--is the one which gives
away an airplane a week. And here's what
you have to do to win the plane this week: - You
write an essay on "America needs 50,000 planes
for defense because . . ." That's a subtle, but
efficacious form of propaganda, 'which can be-
Besides influencing opinion, no matter who
its sponsor, may have as its aim using the con-
testant a sne memb, o. a +tlaimc.m 4-fmm ,r,
THE CASE of democracy vs. the
Ford Motor Company has finally
come to a showdown. And what a
In this column, we're not going
to attempt to pose as an authority
on the CIO vs. Henry Ford, et al.
We can say only that we were in
Dearborn during the first day of the
strike, that we visited and talked
with officials and members of the
CIO and that we talked and visited
with and escaped death four times
at the hands of the workers and
service men inside the plant. But
let's skip the rhetoric.
* * *
QUESTION NUMBER ONE: Was
the strike premature and why
was it called last Tuesday night?
From all the evidence we could
garner, the Ford Company, faced with
an election and possible strike at
River Rouge, began a systematic re-
placement of regular CIO workers
with illiterate, ignorant "scabs" in
an attempt to stock the election with
anti-CIO votes and to build up a
substantial "scab" crew who could
run the plant in the event of the
strike. Last Tuesday night, however,
when members of the CIO saw even
more of the "scabs" sent in while
their men were being "layed off",
they concluded that they could wait
no longer, n; t even for the NLRB de-
cree-for if they waited too long,
the "scab" vote and crew would be
* * *
QUESTION NUMBER TWO: what
validity has the Ford claim, via
Capizzi, that "Communism is rife in
the UAW-CIO strike?"
Mr. Capizzi's claim cops the award
for the most vicious "red herring" of
an extreme red-baiting year. In the
first place, the charge is irrelevant
since the Wagner Act is a law deal-
ing with collective bargaining rights
and. the fact that the employer must
deal with any union official that ful-
fills the terms of the act. Secondly,
the "red-charge" is somewhat impo-
litic on Ford's part since the UAW-
CIO at its most recent convention
adopted a resolution attacking "Com-
munism, Naziism and Fascism" and
it was Mr. Henry Ford, Sr., that
not too long ago accepted a medal
from Herr Hitler.
AS A MATTER OF FACT, every-
where we went in Dearborn last
Wednesday we found an almost
unanimous hatred on the part of the
CIO for the *!;-&2!*! Communists.
General reasons cited by the CIO for
its hatred of the Communists was
(1) they (the Communists) can hurt
us more than they can help us and
(2) you can never trust them (the
Communists). Incidentally, the Ford
claim that the CIO is deliberately
attempting to wreck national defense
does not square with the all-out aid
to England opinions of most of the
UAW-CIO leaders, specifically Reu-
ther, and the famed Reuther plan.
QUESTION NUMBER THREE:
What's going on inside the Ford
The inside of the River Rouge plant
is a strange mixture of incongrous
silence of machinery and stark ter-
ror of the hundreds of "scabs." These
"scabs" are mostly negroes, not too
long out of the Deep South. We sus-
pect that their ignorance has been
capitalized upon. We do know that
they have been told that the "CIO is
out to kill them," and that the CIO
'hates negroes." These statements are,
of course, outright lies since the
CIO has promised and. given (we've
seen them) safe conduct of all "loyal
workers" through the picket lines to
get out and, secondly, since the CIO
has a substantial Negro membership)
and officialdom. It is all, we fear,
part of a deliberate attempt to split
and discredit the CIO by stirring up
race riots in Detroit and Dearborn.
THE TENDENCY toward race riots
has always been evident in De-
troit and environs. Already, even last
Tuesday, a few CIO men, facing the
greatest struggle of their lives and
seeing the Negro "scabs" barring the
way to successful accomplishment of
that struggle, began identifying
"scab" with Negro. The vast majority
of the CIO membership and leaders
are showing splendid. understanding
in their valiant attempts to stop this
emerging prejudice-pointing out, for
example, the large number of Negroes
that are CIO members and also that
the Negro "scabs" have been mis-led
-but the tendency is growing and
may offer one of the most tragic
aspects of the strike and the most ser-
ious offense on the record of Fascism
* * *
INCIDENTALLY to Jack Weeks and
the Detroit Free Press: No, you
wern't the first newspaperman to en-
ter the Ford plant under strike. Three
Dailv men. all of us henring innocent
(Continued from Page 6)
"The Flying Cadet of U. S. Army,"
will be shown. All interested stu-
dents are urged to be in prompt at-
tendance at this meeting.
The Department of Naval Science
and Tactics will show sound movies
on Astronomy on Tuesday, April 8,
at 8:00 p.m. in the Amphitheatre,
third floor of the Rackham Building.
These movies are used for instruc-
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
Frosh Project Decorations Com-
mittee. There will be an important
meeting of the Committee at 4:15
p.m. Monday in the League. Every
member should attend.
Zion Lutheran Church will hold
palm Sunday, services on Sunday
the Michigan League o n
tional purposes at the U.S. Naval morning at 10:30. Mr. Roland Wie-
Faculty Women's Club:7
Reading Section will meet
day afternoon, April 8, at
in the Mary B. Henderson
the Michigan League.
Academy and consist of (1) Explor-
ing the Universe, (2) The Solar
Family, (3) The Earth in Motion,
(4) The Moon. There will be no lec-
ture in connection with the exhibi-
tion. The public is cordially invited.
The League house Representatives
will meet at 4:3 p2.i on Tuesday,
April 8, in the League. It is abso-
lutely necessary that a member from
each house be present for election of
next year's officers will take place.
Phi Beta Kappa annual meeting
on Monday, April 7, at 3:30 p.m. in
1018 Angell Hall.
Phi Delta Kappa business meeting
on Tuesday, April 8, at 7:00 p.m. in
the East Conference Room of the
German Table for Faculty Members
will meet Monday at 12:10 p.m. in the
Founders' Room, Michigan Union..
Members of all departments interest-
ed in German conversation are cord-
ially invited: There will be a brief
talk on "Mexikanische Reisebilder"
by Mr. H. W. Nordmeyer.
The Monday Evening Drama Sec-
tion of the Faculty Women's Club
will meet on Monday, April 7, at
7:45 p.m. in the Michigan Union.
The Civic Theater will present the
program and members are urged to
Hillel Institute of Jewish Studies:'
The Avukah-Hillel Study Group willa
meet Monday at the Hillel Founda-
tion at 7:30 p.m.
Members of the GREAT VESPERSa
student choirs will listen to record-
"WHEN THE ANIMAL in us wars
against the soul it uses weapons
stolen from an arsenal of the spirit,"f
says a modern preacher. This weekn
many persons with arguments in partw
from the Scripture or with inferences"
from a sketchy record will indulge1
in a type of religious adoration which
encourages race animosity. Society
needs a religion of racial confidence.
Here is a Christian opportunity in
line with the ideals for which Jesus
lived and died. In America racial
integrity is a right. Can we make
that right popular?
If the intellectual as he comes to
Good Friday wishes to halt the dis-
temper which now threatens religion
in the entire western world, he should
remind himself that over-simplifica-s
tion of religious history and literature
tends to distort the facts on whichC
faith must rest. Research has doneI
much in recent years to exalt the
Gospel of Mark. A significant service
could be performed if all would care-a
fully reread the four Gospels. In do-
ing so, one should compare them,t
holding rigidly in mind that an in-
tense national pride runs through
the writings of Matthew, while aC
sermon-like argument about God's
eternal Word, written long after Je-
sus' death, animates the Gospel ofI
John. Drama, poetry and music are1
powerful allies of faith and are need-
ed in religion. But one's social sense1
or critical faculty should never be
checked at the door like an idle um-s
TO CATCH the spirit of Jesus and
know His aim is of the essence.
To be as considerate of truth as He
was is also essential. Not only does
Jesus' grandeur continue to hold the
imagination and the affection of mil-X
lions of adherents, but He has the
love and respect alike of those who7
are direct critics and others who aret
frank sinners. What is it in Himk
which seems to have a purging value?
What insights actually advance the
person and the group toward a King-
dom of God on earth? Wherein is'
He social Savior? How may we fol-
low him into all truth? In such a
search we may move toward religious
understanding and eventually toward
As Christians we can face
the fact that our religion roots in
Judaism; that prior- to our Christ,
Moses and the Pronhets taught: that
deranders will deliver the sermon on
the theme: "The King Cometh. "
Disciples Guild (Christian Church)
10:00 a.m. Students' Bible Class
H. L. Pickerell, Leader.
10:45 a.m. Morning Worship, Rev.
Fred Cowin, Minister.
6:30 p.m. Disciples Guild Sun-
day Evening Hour, A Lenten wor-
ship service will be followed by a
discussion of "Creative Living in a
World of Chaos" led by H. L. Picker-
First Methodist Church: Student
Class at 9:30'a.m. with Prof. George
E. Carrothers. Morning Worship
Service at 10:40. Dr. Charles W.
Brashares will preach on "Times of
Triumph." Wesleyan Guild meeting
at 5:00 p.m. beginning with Tea and
Election of officers for next year.
At 6:00 p.m. there will be a Com-
munion Service as the closing meet-
ing for the Social Action Discus-
sion series. At 7:00 p.m. the students
having reservations will leave for the
Ford Sunday Evening Hour. At 8:00
p.m. there will be an Easter play,
"On the Third Day," presented by
members of the Church Drama
Guild in the Social Hall.
St. Andrew's Episcopal Church-
Sunday: 8:00 all. Holy Commun-
ion; 9:30 a.m. High School Class,
Harris Hall; 11:00 a.m. Holy Com-
munion and Sermon by the Rev.
Henry Lewis; 11:00 a.m. Junior
Church; 11:00 a.m. Kindergarten,
Harris Hall; 6:00 p.m. Student Din-
ner and Election of the Cabinet,
Harris Hall; 7:30 .p.m. Choral Even-
song in the church with music by
the Men's and Boys' Choir; 8:30 p.m.
Student Guild, Harris Hall. Games
and refreshments following the serv-
ice of Choral Evensong in the church.
First Presbyterian Church: The
sixth in Lenten series, "The Insep-
arable Society" by Dr. W. P. Lemon.
Westminster Student Guild: Sup-
per at 6:00 p.m.
At 7:00 p.m. the members of the
Guild will present Charles Rann
Kennedy's play, "The Terrible
The Sunday Evening Club will
meet at 8:00 p.m.
Trinity Lutheran Church will hold
Palm Sunday services on Sunday
morning at 10:30. Rev. H. O. Yoder
will deliver the sermon on the theme:
"The King of the Kingdom Re-
First 'Church of Christ, Scientist:
Sunday morning service at 10:30.
Sunday School at 11:45 a.m.
First Congregational Church:
10:00 a.m. Last address on the
Lenten Symposium, "Religion and
Life": Prof. Paul M. Cuncannon
will talk on "Religion in Public Af-
10:45 a.m. Dr. L. A. Parr, in the
seventh of his sermons on the Lenten
theme, "Vital Questions," will preach
on "Is He Redeemer, or a Mere
5:30 p.m. Ariston League High
School group will meet for supper
at Pilgrim Hall. Program will fol-
low, in which Lois Kivi will review
the book, "Stand by for China."
7:00 p.m. Student Fellowship. A
discussion will be led by Ken Morgan
on "God of the Student."
Ann Arbor Society of Friends
(Quakers) meets Sunday in Lane
3:30 p.m.: Study group: "The
Bases of Quakerism."
5:00 p.m.: Silent Meeting for Wor-
6:00 p.m.: Mr. Herman Long will
speak on "The Effect of Growing Up
in a Minority Group on Personality."
All interested are invited.
First Baptist Church:
10:30 a~m.: Sermon, "God's Needs,"
by Rev. C. H. Loucks.
6:30 p.m. The High School Young
People's Fellowship will meet in the
church. Mrs. Judson King will
8:00 p.m. At Vesper Service the
Senior Choir will present Sowerby's
cantata, "Forsaken of Man." This
will be followed by a reception for
the choir in the Guild House.
11:00 a.m. "Crucifixion Con-
firmed." Sermon by Rev. Marley.
7:30 p.m. Liberal Students Union,
Round Table Discussion, on "Aca-
demic Freedom" led by Mrs. Edward
Bryant of the League of Women