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April 16, 1940 - Image 4

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1940-04-16

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STHE

TCRTG AN

I LV

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

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1ai!! 2! - - i m -. I T|
RD+G I S~DEiRh ( r o rs ~GE'^V) W(,t __ . l1G N RdA4
Edited and managed by students of the University of
Michigan under the authority of the Board in Control of
Student Publications.
Published every morning except Monday during the
University year and Summer Session.
Member of the Associated Press
The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the
use for republication of all news dispatches credited to
it or not otherwise credited in this newspaper. All
rights of republication of all other matters herein also
reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Michigan, as
second class mall matter.
Subscriptions during regular school year by carrier,
$4.00; by mail, $4.50.
REPRESENTED FOR NATIONAL. ADVEt..SING BY
National Advertising Service, Inc.
College Publisbers Representative
420 MAOiSON AVE. NEW YORK, N. Y.
CHICAGO '"BOSTON ' LOS ANGELES - SAN FRANCISCO
Member, Associated Collegiate Press, 1939-40

Editorial Staff

Carl Petersen
Elliott Maraniss
Stan M. Swinton
Morton L. Linder
Norman A. Schorr
Dennis Flanagan
John N. Canavan
Ann Vicary
Mel Fneberg

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Managing Editor
Editorial Director
City Editor
Associate Editor
Associate Editor
Associate Editor
Associate Editor
Women's Editor
Sports Editor.

Business Staff
Business Manager .
Asst. Business Mgr. Credit Manager
Women's Business Manager
Women's Advertising Manager
Publications Manager ,

. Paul R. Park
Ganson P. Taggart
Zenovia Skoratko
. Jane Mowers
. Harriet S. Levy

NIGHT EDITOR: WILLIAM ELMER
The editorials published in The Michigan
Daily are written by members of The Daily
staff and represent the views of the writers
only.
Japan And Britain;
A Significant Parallel.. .
A T LEAST one interesting and sig-
nificant parallel can be drawn
between the Sino-Japanese War and the con-
flict on Europe's western front: both are fast
developing into "wars of nutrition."
A large part of British-French strategy in
their war against the Reich seems to be focused
on the sea blockade, designed to starve Germany
into submission. Likewise, Japan is trying to
block every source of supplies by sea available
to China.
Great Britain and Japan are both potent
sea powers. Both are apparently having con-
siderable success in bottling up the ports of their
respective enemies, although German shipping
is still active in the Baltic. However, Chinese
ports-from Tientsin in the north to Canton
in the south--are all lost to Chiang Kai-Shek's
government.
Both Germany and China now have three
main routes open to them as sources of sup-
plies. Russia, of course, figures prominently in
the storehouse facilities of each beleaguered
nation. Russian aid to the Reich, however, is
blocked by inefficiency in developing natural
resources, notoriously poor transportation facil-
ities (including the obvious difficulties en-
countered in the Soviet wider-gauge railroads)
and a certain amount of Russian preoccupation
in the Far East.
China's pipeline to the U.S.S.R. is the long
and treacherous route through the wilds of
Singkiang and across the Turkestan steppes.
Trucks travelling this route must carry almost
as much fuel as supplies. And the mountains
of western Sinkiang, close to the so-called "roof"
of the world," present almost insurmountable
difficulties.
Both Hitler and Chiang have two other avail-
able overland routes, both from the south. Ger-
many can draw a certain amount of supplies
through the Brenner Pass from Italy, but a more
valuable source is the road to the Balkans,
whence greatly coveted grain and oil flow into
the Reich.
China's other two sources of supplies involve
Britain and France. One is the comparatively
new Burma Road, traversing extremely diffi-
cult mountainous territory from British Burma
through Tibet to Chungking. Two factors peril
the value of this road to Chiang's government:
Britain's ability or disposition to continue aid-
ing China, and conditions of nature (including
treacherous terrain and destructive monsoons).
The other road is the route from French
Indo-China northward through Southern China
to Chiang's capital. This route too is endan-
gered by two considerations: France's ability
or "disposition to continue aiding China, and
the success of Japanese pressure on Paris to
close this road to Chungking. (Japanese cap-
ture of the strategic island of Hainan puts her
in an excellent position to menace the French
position in Indo-China.)
From this one parallel between- the two
fronts, it can be seen that important factors
are pulling the two conflicts together: Russia's
dominant position as the storehouse of both
Germany and China; British and French in-
terests in the Far East, affecting their attitudes
toward China; growing sea rivalry between
Japan and Britain.
Present considerations of the two battle fronts
are too likely to place them in separate and

Education
And Democracy . .
UTNIVERSAL free public education
has been our national policy for
more than a century. As the United States grew
in territory and world prominence, the popula-
tion demanded and got better facilities for
training the intelligence of the population. The
need for education has never been so pressing
in the history of this country as it is now in
the present economic crisis that we are facing.
Yet at a time when the welfare of a nation
is threatened by under-protection, unemploy-
ment and insecurity, the mediims and facilities
for necessary education are slipping to lower
and lower levels.
The ratio of educational facilities to the ma-
terial richness of our industrial society is inade-
quate. School budgets are being slashed, while
on the other hand teaching loads are being
increased. Forced to do more work at a lower
wage level, the morale of teachers and students
is sinking. With the fields of professional and
technical employment overcrowded, stricter
qualifications for potential competitors for such
employment are imposed. These qualifications
are not offset by facilities to enable serious-
minded and financially unable students to
"make the grade."
PUBLIC OFFICIALS are constantly attempt-
ing to diminish the amount of educational
funds to make the future of education darker.
As municipalities become insolvent, they appeal
to the states who in turn appeal to the federal
government for funds. There is always the
dangerous outcome of such actions in that our
schools may be used as "tools" to teach just
what the officials and leaders want to be taught,
regardless of the cultural and educational as-
pects.
A survey of the educational situation in five
of the leading states in the country made by
research workers reveals the' deploring state
of affairs. Starting right in our own backyard,
we find that Michigan's 1940 trend toward
economy points back to 1934 conditions. At
the present time, educational opportunities in
this state are below those of 1930. The amount
spent for public school education dropped from
135 millions in 1930, with an average of $129
per pupil, to 74 millions in 1934, averaging $80
per pupil and then rose to 105 millions in 1937,
allowing $111 per pupil. During this period the
notable factors were that although the 1937
figure was 22 per cent below the 1930 figure,
national production in 1937 exceeded that of
1930 and almost equalled 1929 figures . While
funds for teachers' salaries decreased 17.9 per-
cent from 1930 to 1937, interest payments on
outstanding school bonds rose from 7 millions
to 10 millions; an increase of 42.9 percent. As
a result of cuts in educational appropriations,
the average teachers' salary outside Wayne
County is approximately $900 a year. The
situation in Pontiac where it is planned to cut
the term from 40 to 36 weeks and to have chil-
dren in the primary grades attend school in
half-day shifts, and other grades to be cut one
hour a d'y is only a sample of what is happening
all over the state.
Illinois' educational system is not unknown
to the public. That Chicago teachers went un-
paid for months is no secret and now the Chi-
cago school administration is again under fire.
Aside from the problem of gross political patron-
age being exhibited by Mayor Kelly, the major
problem is the financial one. Chicago ranks
first in cities of over a million in school oper-
ational expense and last in instructional ex-
pense. The teachers of Chicago are the only
group of city employes whose depression pay
cuts have not been restored. Seven and one-
half percent of their back pay remains to be
restored and it is estimated that they have
given an enforced contribution to/ the state of
$60,000,000,
THE MOST impressive item in the cutting of
school funds can be seen in the state of
New York last year with the 10 million dollar
slash in state aid. This year additional decreases
are being planned. One of the shortest routes
to economy is via the increased teachers load.
There are now about 300,000 children in the
elementary schools alone in the City of New

York that are being taught in classes having
registers of 35 or more. It is almost impossible
to believe that any person or group of persons
in a democratic country could utter such a
statement as the following: ". . . all but defec-
tives must be taught to read, write and figure
reasonably well. But there is a fair question
as to how many should go further. Some do
not want it, others are not fitted to take it,
and these stop when they have passed the point
of literacy. . . . beyond that point it is a fair
question whether the State should bear all
the expense or whether parents who are amply
able to educate their own youngsters should
pay for it." The above quotations were taken
from a reprint in the New American from the
report of the Special Committee on Economical
and Efficient Education of the Chamber of
Commerce of the State of New York. Demo-
cratic education and equal opportunity for all
is certainly not the basis of such biased remarks.
With the trend in educational economy lead-
ing to diminishing appropriations, increased
teaching loads, fewer facilities, restriction of
education to the comparatvely few financially
able, the true spirit and letter of democracy is
fading into darkness. Education's task is to
help develop the initiative, originality and cre-
ative imagination of the people. Fundamen-
tally, American education is also to transmit
the values of our democratic culture. Present
tendencies are slowly but surely veering away
from such a course which will enable people
to live instead of merely exist. Not only is there
a crisis in education, but there is a crisis in
social and economic conditions. Educaton is
an invaluable means for getting an insight into
these conditions and understanding them. At

GULLIVER'S
CAVILS
By YOUNG GULLIVER
THESE last few weeks of the year are bound
to be pretty hard on everybody. The faculty
are chafing at the bit, leafing through tourist
folders and steamship come-ons. Most of them
are trying to decide whether to loll around in
Hawaii, drive leisurely through Mexico, or sum-
mer in Ann Arbor, Michigan, teaching a few
classes and week-ending at Whitmore Lake,
garden spot of Southeastern Michigan. Since
most of them will be doing the last, it makes
them a little irritable. As a result they are
going to start throwing bluebooks, term papers
and unrehearsed quizzes at you. Take it the
best way you can; after all, most of them are
as tired of seeing you as you are of seeing them.
The freshmen are more than a little nervous
too. They are waiting for two things: finals
(50% are going to study for them and the other
50% are going to wish they'd studied for them)
and summer vacation. Summer vacation means
a return to the home town, where people ask
you where you've been. "Oh," says the fresh-
man, "I've been at college." "Is that so? Fresh-
man?" And here is what the freshman is wait-
ing for. "Oh no," this is very casual, " a soph-
omore." What bliss!
The sophomores and juniors are probably
taking these last few weeks in their stride. The
sophs are wondering whether the last two years
are going to be as lousy as the first two. They
are also indulging in that well known witticism:
"Next semester things are going to be different!"
The juniors are already a pretty hardened lot,
willing to take what the future will bring; there
are a few, however, who are still under the
illusion that next year they will be seniors, which
means that they will be something different.
By September they will be disabused of this
notion.
The senior's lot is unquestionably the hardest
of them all. Right now he is wondering if he
can go home and face the folks in June. "See,
I didn't quite graduate this month. But if I
go back for summer session, maybe they'll give
me my degree in August." Or, if it's not that,
it's "Yeah, here's my degree. You can paperj
the wall with it. How's chances of your putting
me up until I can get located?"
HE IS also wondering how many pairs of shoes
he is going to wear out pounding the pave-
ments, before someone offers him a job as an
apprentice elevator operator, or something
equally uplifting. Being a senior, Gulliver's
thinking (yes, we said thinking) has been run-
ning along these lines. So he was quite gratified
the other day when he got a letter from the
government asking him if he wanted a job.
They asked him in a nice way, too. "Your name
has been suggested . . . " When Gulliver read
it through, however, he began to wonder who
had suggested his name. It appears that the
government wants Gulliver to join the U. S.
Naval Reserve Air Corps and become an air-
plane pilot, or something of the sort.
IT'S REALLY a very nice proposition. If you
can show them a college degree they don't
give you any exams, and they pay you while
they're teaching you-$105.00 a month, which
ain't small potatoes these days. The only thing
which made Gulliver hesitate was that little
word "Reserve." Question: What are they re-
serving for you? Y. G. sat down and figured
that one out, and when he got done he was
feeling a little clammy.
So it is with regret that Gulliver informs the
government that he is turning down their of-
fer. He is going to give the brass hats a little
tip, however. If they are looking for red-blooded
young fellers, they ought to contact a hand-
some gent by the name of Cromwell. There's
no doubt that he's willing and eager to fight,
especially if the war gets to within a couple
thousand miles of Shangri-La, which is a little
shack he owns-in Hawaii. He could probably
use the hundred and five a month, too ...

Z5he EDIT OR
'Red' Bood
To the Editor:
Here's a tale of the gory deeds of the local
chapter of the Young Communist League, and
I hope you'll have room to print it in your paper:
Shortly before spring vacation I developed an
internal hemorrhage which continued for sev-
eral days. The doctors kept giving me trans-
fusions and using up the supply of blood in the
hospital's blood-bank.
A friend of mine who is a member of the local
chapter of the YCL heard of my illness. That
night the YCL held a meeting and my friend
presented -to--the group -the situation I was in
and asked for volunteers as free blood donors.
The next day the hospital was swamped with
YCL'ers offering to replenish the blood-bank.
In two days they donated over 4,000 c.c. of blood
and are ready to give more, if and wlien it is
needed.
Based on my experience as a Michigan stu-
dent for six years, I think I can safely say that
- .t. ,f r 1.. li ,.4fttran# ft+9 , 1Yl,,4, 7'v XtlT 1 1f l

(Continued from Page 1)
the Nazis said, "We've got your own
men aboard." The fortress guns re-
mained silent and the German war-
ships passed into Oslo's inner har-
bor. The occupation then was inev-
itable.
Meanwhile, we had spent an eerie
night in Oslo's Grand Hotel with a
succession of air alarms, the first of
which sounded at 12:35 a.m. about
the time mobilization was ordered.
At first I could not believe my ears,
as the sirens were so different from
those in Helsinki. They sounded
like motor cars honking in a traffic
jam. Later, Stevens and I decided
that the Norwegians were air-alarm-
ing only as a precaution. So I re-
fused to get up until 7 o'clock, when
a Finnish diplomat informed me of
the ultimatum and the government's
decision to leave. .
Nazi Bombers Appear
At 7:45 o'clock, while we still had
not the slightest idea what had hap-
pened in Oslo Fjord and at Horten,
five Nazi bombers suddenly came
roaring over the roof-tops, so low
they almost touched them. We wat-
ched them come, expecting bombs
momentarily. For two and a half
hours German planes dove over the
city, always only three or five in
number. They were intended to ter-
rorize the populace into surrender and
the authorities into inaction while
the first troops landed by air at
Fornebo, outside the city.
Thousands of Oslonians gazed cur-
iously and fearfully, but no panic oc-
curred. None of us dreamed that
German warships were in the inner
harbor and that Oslo already was
doomed. We still thoughtrthat Bri-
tish ships and planes might come at
any moment. It seemed utterly in-
credible that the narrows of Oslo
Fjord could have been forced and
its powerful forts silenced by the
Germans.
Strange Lack Of Defense
The same madness of incompre-
hensible events continued all day
long. First was mystification over
the complete lack of defense of the
city by its naval forces and coastal
forts. Then it was the immunity
of the low-flying Nazi planes to
thousands of machine gun bullets
which pattered almost incessantly
until after 10 o'clock. Then it was
the further fact that only one anti-
aircraft battery seemed to be firing
against the German planes, and this
became silent after firing only a
few shells, all of which were inex-
plicably wide of the mark.
But Norway'scapital in everyquar-
ter was the scene of dazed disor-
ganization, completely without lead-
ership. Apparently even the men
who had been called to the colors
did not know where to go or simply

forgot about it. The streets were
filled with men of fighting age, all
standing watching the German
planes, waiting and speculating, but
doing nothing and going nowhere.
It was like this until 2:30 p.m.
Then, as I rushed up to the hotel
desk, a porter asked me: "Aren't you
going out to see the Germans come
in?"
"What do you mean, the Germans?"
"Yes, they are marching up Carl
Johan boulevard any minute now."
I called Irvin and Stevens and
we rushed outside into the strang-
est conceivable scene. Oslo's beau-
tiful main boulevard was jammed
with people, all flocking to see the
Germans come in. Strangest of all,
Norwegian policemen were calmly
forming lines along the sidewalks
and clearing the streets for the Ger-
man's triumphal entry. One of the
policemen told me that the Ger-
mans would be there within 10 min-
utes.
We waited half an hour on the
hotel balcony with an excellent view
all the way up the boulevard to its
beginning, at the foot of the hill on
which the royal palace stands. Short-
ly before 3 p.m., two trucks filled
with a dozen German soldiers rolled
up the street. The soldiers lolled in
them, with their guns dangling, as if
they had been assured that they had
not the slightest resistance to fear.
From the rear of the second truck two
machine guns poked their noses
meaningfully straight down the boul-
evard. Their operators lay prone
with intent, hard faces, ready to fire.
This was the only show of force,
and all that was needed.
Police Escort Germans
At 3 p.m. there was a murmur
through the crowd. We could see
two mounted men swinging into the
boulevard in front of the palace, then
six more, then the head of a march-
ing column in field gray. The mount-
ed men were Norwegian policemen
actually escorting the German troops
which were occupying the capital.
We looked uncomprehendingly. Lat-
er I was told that Norwegian police-
men never carry any kind of arms.
This was also why they failed to
fulfill the government's order to ar-
rest Maj. Quisling.
The German column marched
steadily nearer through a lane of
20,000 or 30,000 Oslonians, fully half
of which were men of military age.
A tall, broad-shouldered officer, Gen.
Nikolaus von Falkenhorst, and two
other officers marched directly be-
hind the mounted police. Then came
the German regulars in columns of
threes, as if to make the line look
as long as possible. One of nine
carried light machine guns; all tot-
ed compact alumnium kits and bulky
shoulder packs.
They were hard-muscled, stony-
faced men. They marched with guns

on their shoulders, with beautiful
precision. Mostly, they stared straight
ahead, but some could, not restrain
triumphant smiles toward' the on-
lookers. Several times, Gen. von
Falkenhorst and the other two offi-
cers returned Nazi salutes from per-
sons in the crowd who must have
been German advance agents who
had been busy in Oslo for weeks be-
fore this crowning moment. From
our hotel balcony two Nazis gave the
salute. I noticed in particular the
beaming face of a chic, slim, blond
German woman whose husband had
been very active in our hotel since
we arrived on the previous Thursday.
Small German Force
It was a thin, unbelievably short
column. It required only six or
seven minutes to march past. It was
composed of only two incomplete
battalions-surely less than 1,500 men
in all. Norway's capital of nearly
300,000 inhabitants was being occu-
pied by a German force of approxi-
mately 1,500 men!
The last of the German troops went
by without a single jeer or hiss,
without a single tear noticeable on
any Norwegian face. Like children,
the people stared. Thousands of
young men stood watching this oc-
oupation parade. Not one hand nor
vice was raised. We could discern
no sign of resentment upon any face
about us. This was the most incom-
prehensible thing anTong all the in-
comprehensible things of the fantas-
tic 24 hours.
Somehow, it seemed as if curios-
ity was the strongest sentiment in
the throng of Oslonians who watched
the Germans come in. No other em-
tion was betrayed in the countless
faces we scanned anxiously. The
only indignant people we met or saw
that day were foreigners. The Nor-
wegians of Oslo seemed stunned be-
yond recovery. Everyone acted cur-
iously like children suddenly given
a chance to see a parade of strange
creatures out of prehistoric times-
something which had on connection
with real life.
Bloodless Occupation
But within two hours real life was
making itself felt in Oslo. The Ger-
mans had occupied the capital with-
out dropping a bomb, without firing
a shot within the city limits. They
simply had paraded in and taken it
over much as Frenchmen or Itali-
ans might parade into a colonial in-
terior village somewhere in Africa.
Now they went to work. It was the
urgent task for the tiny force of 1,500
men to seize key places in the na-
tion's capital. They did it swiftly,
without any fear of interruption.
When I hurried into the telegraph
building I, had hopes. There were
still no German troops guarding the
door. But immediately I knew it
was too late. The tipoff came when
(Continued on Page 6)

Norway And The Nazi Trojan Horse

DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN

(Continued from Page 2)

the home of Mrs. Mentor Williams,
1504 Marlboro Dr., today at 2:30 p.m.
Dr. Hootkins' class in Jewish Eth-
ics will meet at the Hillel Foundation
tonight at 8:00 p.m.
The Bookshelf and Stage Section'
of the Faculty Women's Club will
meet today at 2:45 p.m. at the home
of Mrs. William W. Sleator, 2503
Geddes Avenue.
Michigan Dames: Regular meeting
tonight at 8:00 in Rackham Build-
ing.
Coming Events
Seminar in Physical Chemistry
will meet in Room 122 Chemistry
Building at 4:15 p.m. on Wednesday,
April 17. Mr. Norman Bauer will
speak on "The Magnetooptic Fara-
day Effect in Electrolytes."
Zoology Seminar: Thursday, April
18, at 7:30 p.m., Amphitheatre, Rack-
ham Building. Reports by: Mr.
Sherman A. Hoslett on "Ecological
distribution of mammals of north-
eastern Iowa," and Mr. Lloyd L.
Smith, Jr., on "Trout ecology and
management in Huron Mountain
streams."
Institute of the Aeronautical Sci-
ences meeting on Wednesday, April
17, at 7:30 p.m., in Room 1042 East
Engineering Building. Professor E.
A. Stalker will present a report on
"The Technical Sessions of the
Eighth Annual Meeting in New
York." Final arrangements for the
banquet will be made at this meet-
ing. All members should be present.
Women's Research Club, Junior
Research Club, Research Club: An-
nual Memorial Meeting on Wednes-
day, April 17, at 8:00 p.m. in Rack-
ham Amphitheatre. Papers won Jo-

ships: The following applicants are
requested to meet the Committee in
Room 1220, Angell Hall, Thursday,
April 18, at the times indicated.

1:40
1:50
2:00
2:10
2:20
2:30
2:40
2:50
3:00
3:10
3:20
3:30
3:40
3:50
4:00
4:10

Charlotte M. Babinshe
Jack E. Bender
Charles C. Congdon
Harry E. Goodman
Virginia E. Graham
George B. Heliker
Helen S. Horvath
Vivian Kann
Isabella H. Lugoski
Jack W. Mann
Clayton H. Manry
Frank A. Rideout
Holbrooke S. Seltzer
Anson D. Solem
Richard C. Steiner
Francis A. Warner

Flying Club meeting on Wed.,
April 17, in the Union at 7:30 p.m.
Reports will be made on the Sixth
National Intercollegiate Flying Con-
ference recently held in Washington,
and arrangennts will be made for
reduced rates on flying time for mem-
bers of the club. Plans will be made
for a practise flying meet to be held
this coming Sunday. All members
are urged to be present.
Reserve Officers: Major J. W. O'-
Daniel, Infantry, will speak on "Sup-
ply of the Infantry Division" at 7:30
p.m., Wednesday, April 17, in Room
304 of the Michigan Union. All
members of the Officers Reserve
Corps and the R.O.T.C. may attend.
Phi Sigma meeting 8:00 p.m. Wed-'
nesday, April 17, in Outing Club
Room of the Rackham Building. Pro-
fessor Clark Hopkins .will describe
"Recent Archaeological Work in the
Near East."
Spring Parley: Every member of
the faculty and of the administration
is cordially invited to join with the
student body in a discussion of de-
mocracy at the Tenth Annual Spring
Parley. Opening Session Friday,

at 3:00 p.m. Michigan Union Ball-
room.
International Spring Festival at
the Intramural Building, Friday,
April 26, 7:30 to 12:00 p.m. The In-
ternational Center is offering an eve-
ning of co-recreational sport, sport
demonstration, and tournament fin-
als with an hour floor show of pictur-
esque folk dancing at the Intrarmural
Building. Free tickets starting April
15 at the office of the International
Center, 603 E. Madison Street (South
Wing, Michigan Union).
La Sociedad Hispanica will sponsor
a lecture by Professor James of the
Geography Department who will talk
in English on "The Industrial Revolu-
tion Comes to Latin America" on
Thursday, April 18, Room 102 R.L.,
at 4:15 p.m. All students of Span-
ish and others interested are invited
to attend this lecture at no cost.
The Slavic Club will meet at 8:15
p.m. at the International Center,
Wednesday, April 17.
New America: Mr. Herbert Mc-
Creedy, District Director of New
America, will speak on, "What Is
Happening to Education in Ameri-
ca?' on Wednesday, April 17, 8:00
p.m. in the Michigan Union. Every-
one invited.
The Cercle Francais will present
"Les Jours Heureux" by Claude-An-
dre Puget at the Lydia Mendelssohn
'Theatre, Friday, May 3.
Graduate Council meeting will be
held Wednesday, April 17, at 7:30
p.m. in the Women's Lounge of the
Rackham Building. Attendance of
all elected members is necessary.
All women students invited to a
demonstration of table settings with
lecture by Mrs. J. A. Meeks of De-
troit, under the auspices of the Flow-
er Arrangement Group of the Ann

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