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April 21, 1939 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1939-04-21

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Propaganda In The Press
N0 2: Card-Stacking, Or Em phasis, A Favorite Device
And A Hard One For Readers To Detect

Edited and managed by students of the University of
Michigan under the authority of the Board in Control of
Student Publications.
Published every morning except Monday during the
University year and Sumis r Session.
Member of the Associated P ess
The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the
use for republication of all news dispatches credited to
it or not otherwise credited in this newspaper. All
rights of republication of all other matters herein also
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Michigan, as
second class mail matter.
Subscriptions during regular school year by carrier,
#4.00; by mail, $4.50.
National Advertising Service, Erc.
College Publishers Representative
Member, Associated Collegiate Press, 1938-39

Managing Editor .
Editorial Director .
City Editor r,
Associate Editor
Associate Editor
Associate Editor
Associate Editor
Associate Editor
Associate Editor
Book Editor-.
Women's Editor,
Sports Editor .

oard of Editors
* , . Robert D. Mitchell
Albert P. May1o
* . . Horace W. Gilmore
. . . Robert I. Fitzhenry
. . . . S. R. Kleiman
. . . . Robert Perman
" + Earl Gilman
. . . William Elvin
. . . . Joseph Freedman
. . . Joseph Gies
. . . . Dorothea Staebler
* . . Bud Benjamin





Business Department
Business Manager. . . , . Philip W. Buchen
Credit Manager . . . . Leonard P. siegelman
Advertising Manager . . . William L. Newnan
Women's Business Manager . H felen Jean Dean
Women's Service Manager . . . Marian A. Baxter
The editorials published in The Michigan
Daily are written by members of the Daily
staff and represent the views of the writers
Something To
Think About .. .
which drew less than 1,000 stu-
dents to demonstrate for peace, each presenting
a different program to reach a common goal,
indicate a concrete need for a year-round campus
peace program.
One day is not sufficient to bring forth the
divergent views relative to the contemporary
world crisis; a complete program of lectures and
forums is essential to enable all approaches to
this problem to be presented intelligently and
fairly. The announcement that efforts are being
made to bring the former president of Cchoslo-
vakia, Edouard Benes, to Ann Arbor, is a com-
mendable step in the right direction.
It is only in this way-by open, complete and
democratic discussion that Michigan students
may form rational conclusions for themselves as
to how to attain a peaceful world for themselves
and all men. - Norman A. Schorr
Democeracy . .
W ITH GERMANY consolidating her
new position in Central Europe on
the basis of a war economy, demanding almost
continuous expansion, it is quite probable that
the next German attack, under whatever guise
it may appear, will center upon the Balkans.
To "make the Balkans safe for Wehrwirt-
schaft" (war economy), the Nazis are forced to
attain two essential ends. First, the Balkan
feudal-capitalist economic system must be re-
placed by economic totalitarianism. Secondly,
the peasants, the, vast mass of the Balkan popu-
lation, must be converted to the fascist ideology.
The economic system of the Balkans that
existed during the hey-day of the Little Entente
depended mainly upon world trade in the open
market, which, in the pre-Hitler day, meant
dependence upon Britain and France. To take
the Balkans away from British and French dom-
ination, therefore, their system of world trade
must be replaced by the totalitarian barter sys-
tem; they must be made entirely dependent upon
Germany, a totalitarian state, for economic sur-
But Balkan economic 'dependency -upon Ger-
many in time of peace is not enough. German
might and order can easily maintain economic.
and possibly even political rule. over the Bal-
kans in peace time. But the Germans are well
aware that during war, the smouldering Balkan
desire for freedom could, by a well-organized
system of sabotage and rebellian cripple Ger-
many's economic program in these countries.
The Balkan peasant, therefore, must be con-
verted to fascism.
This, at first glance, should appear rather
simple. The Balkans are wretchedly poor, and
fascism gains adherents rapidly under such con-
ditions. As Peter F. Drucker, southeastern Euro-
pean correspondent for a number of British
papers, points out in an article in a recent issue
of Harper's Magazine, only 20 per cent of the
Hungarian peasants have any land whatever that
could possibly support them. In Rumania, the
vast majority of the peasants are no more than

One of the most popular forms of propaganda
used by the American press, and one of the
hardest to detect, is the form of distortion known
as Card-Stacking, or Emphasis. It is compara-
tively easy to make varying interpretations on
the same facts by emphasizing certain aspects
of them, or even frequently to present diverging
news accounts of the same facts without being
accused of deliberate falsification.
Numerous examples could be given. When a
body of crackpots labelling themselves the "Paul
Reveres" made a march on Washington to halt
the Reorganization Bill's passage last spring, the
New York Herald-Tribune, which sympathized
with their purpose, counted 1,400 Paul Reveres;
The New York Post, which didn't, only 200. The
Post seems to have been eminently fair at that,
however, for the Associated Press and Time
Magazine reported 142 and 150 respectively.
All papers indulge in this sort of figure-jug.
ling. In the May Day Parade in New York in
1936, the Post, favorable to organized labor, re-
ported between 200,000 and 250,000 marchers.
The New York Times only counted 40,000 and
called the parade "the quietest in years." May
Day in 1938 found the New York press divided
on the number of marchers as follows: Times,
50,000; Sunday News (liberal), over 100,000;
Herald-Tribune, between 50,000 and 100,000;
Daily Worker, 200,000. The New York Post sug-
gested in commenting on the discrepancy,
"Among papers of such various shades of political
slant, one cannot expect a united front of adding
The student anti-war demonstrations of April
26, 1936, were "not so large and impressive as
had been predicted," to the New York Times, al-
though 500,000 students, double the number of
the previous year, participated.
Speaking of the New York Times, a peculiarly
insidious form of Emphasis was noted by George
Seldes in November of 1937. A story from Wash-
ington was headed "J. L. Lewis To Move Near
White House," and told of the C.I.O. chief's mov-
ing three blocks nearer the Presidential. resi-
dence, the insinuation being that the action had
political significance. None of the other papers
mentioned this aspect of the change in the Lewis
menage. The Times alone considered it worth
Tribune's Heads Stereotyped
The Chicago Tribune's heads on election re-
turns invariably run to such phraseology as "Yes-
Men Bite Dust In Primaries" (Sept. 1,' 1938);
other newspapers in general used a less obvious
slant. Incidentally, one of the yes-men referred
to above was Senator McAdoo of California, who
bit the dust before Sheridan Downey, whose ad-
vocacy of $30 per Thursday was a form of sledge-
hammer propaganda appeal which carried every-
thing before it. According to the Tribune, the
California election "was a tremendous upset in
the calculations of the White House purge com-
mittee{;for it showed that, instead of being able
to defeat the non-rubber stamps, the President
was not always able to save his yes-men." This
was the news story of the election, not an editor-
ial comment on it. Yet, in sober fact, Downey and
Governor Olson are men of distinctly more lib-
eral calibre than their predecessors. The Tom
Mooney issue in the gubernatorial race received
no comment in the Tribune.
An extreme form of distortion by emphasis is
complete omission. This negative propaganda
device has been very frequently used by the
press; its effect, of course, is to avoid battle
when weakly-armed. When George Sokolsky,
Scripps-Howard feature writer, was exposed by
the LaFollette Civil Liberties Committee last
summer as the recipient of $28,000 from the Na-
tional Manufacturers Association for writing a
series of articles attacking the C.I.O., no men-
tion of the incident appeared in the Pittsburgh
Post-Gazette, which uses Sokolsky's stuff. The
newspapers that did report it followed an old
rule of the ethics which guide American journal-
ism by neglecting to connect Sokolsky's name
with his newspaper column.
There are many, many examples of the same
thing, often on much bigger issues, in the his-
tory of the American press. The treatment given
Secretary Ickes' recent attacks on the newspapers
is typical. Senator Minton's similar speeches last

year were also given a minimum of reporting
(although it must be said that the Chicago Tri-
bune printed the Senator's scathing attack on it
of Oct. 29 last year in full, merely appending a
note saying it was filled with falsehoods). At-
tacks on each other invariably summon the pub-
lishers' ethics to the conspiracy of silence; no
newspaper everprintscanything derogatory to
another paper, unless there are exceptional cir-
cumstances. Newspaper strikes are nearly always
taboo of mention. The New York Times is one
of the few papers that breaks this rule.
The treatment of the various Senate investiga-
tions of corruption and monopoly of the past 25
years has always been the minimization of the
committee findings, combined with the other
techniques of Name-Calling and ridicule em-
ployed against Pujo, Pecora, Nye, Walsh, Wheel-
er, Black or whoever was in charge. Anti-New
Del papers in 1936 played up the Literary Digest
polls showing Landon leading Roosevelt, even
after it was demonstrated by an analysis of the
Digest methods that the poll was in error. But the
Fortune Magazine poll of May, 1938, one of the
most thorough analyses of the President's popu-
larity ever made, was omitted completely from
the New York Sun, the New York Journal, the
New York Times, and naturally by the Hearst,
McCormick and other reatcionary papers
throughout the country. The New York Post,
commenting on the omissions, said frankly,
"We're for the New Deal and so we have a sharp
eye for New Deal items."
The Fortune poll itself, as a matter of fact,
was a masterpiece of subtle emphasis. The re-
sults of the poll, according to the magazine, were
evidence that America was "for Roosevelt in
spite of the New Deal," in other words, for the
President personally but against his policies. The
trick by which this conclusion was apparently
reached lay in the use of questions chiefly con-
cerning discredited portions of the New Deal,
such as the court reorganization plan and the
executive reorganization bill, and omission of
such issues as the WPA, the NYA, the CCC and
other agencies and policies which have received
general approval.
another Tribunism
Before leaving the matter of Emphasis, one
more Tribunism: in the recent Chicago mayor-
alty campaign, Col. McCormick tacitily support-
ed Mayor Kelly; although Kelly is a Roosevelt
man, he is, by one of the curiosities that make
politics interesting, also a McCormick man, as
well as a friend of Cardinal Mundelein. McCor-
mick did not attack Ditsrict Attorney Courtney
very strongly; however, for victory for the Kelly-
Nash machine was a foregone conclusion. In
effect the Tribune was impartial on the cam-
paign except for one singular quirk; among the
various candidates was the ever-present Big Bill
Thomason, Col. McCormick's worst enemy. What
the Tribune did with Thompson's candidacy was
simply nothing-his name never appeared, and
has not for years, in the Tribune columns. A
meeting at which Thompson and other candi-
dates spoke was fully reported with no mention
of him.
A petty and vicious piece of Emphasis which
was initiated by the Scripps-Howard papers just
prior to the Democratic primaries last year was
the limelight thrown on Tommy Corcoran and
Ben Cohen, two of President Roosevelt's advisers.
To attack Roosevelt personally was considered
suicidal in many sections of the country, but if a.
couple of "underground" New Deal schemers
could be made out to be running the government
without ever running for election it would help a
lot in the fight against the "purge." Corcoran
and Cohen were ideal: a Catholic and a Jew,
deadly stereotypes in the deep South.
Emphasis has the largest variety of degrees,
is practiced the most widely, and can be pre-
sented in the guise of objective fact most easily
of all forms of propaganda. If you find your
newspaper constantly reporting a certain politi-
cal trend, repeatedly stressing a purported evil,
ceaselessly beating a particular drum, and find
that the other side of the question or the other
angle to the issue is left untouched, take the
trouble to look somewhere else. As the New York
Times has said, propaganda itself i's not an evil,
a monopoly of it is. Only the eclectic newspaper
reader can hope to balance the various lines of
Emphasis into a synthesis of objective fact.

-by David Lawrence -
WASHINGTON, April 20.-Catho-
lic and Protestant clergymen of pro-
minence have joined in asking Con-
gress that 10,000 children of Ger-
mans affected by religious and poli-
tical persecution be permitted to en-
ter the United States in each of the
years 1939 and 1940.
Hearings on a bill to make this
possible begin today. Some of the
sponsors of the movement are Car-
dinal Mundelein of Chicago, Canon
Anson Phelps Stokes of the Protest-
ant Episcopal Church, Governor Leh-
man of New York, President Hutch-
ins of the University of Chicago and
President Ray Lyman Wilbur of Le-
land Stanford University, Herbert
Hoover, former Governor Landon,
Frank Knox of Chicago, Dr. Harry
Emerson Fosdick, Mary E. Woolley,
and George Rublee, who represented
the United States in the negotiations
with Germany recently with refer-
ence to refugees.
The plan is, of course, wholly a hu-
manitarian measure, but it'has stirred
up some scattering opposition on the
part of those who feel that the chil-
dren, when grown, would be compet-
itors of American-born children. The
legislation is backed by Senator Bob
Wagner of New York, Democrat, and
Representative Edith Nourse Rogers
of Massachusetts, Republican, and
will be considered in a non-partisan
In Washington, "The Pathfinder,"
a weekly publication of large circula-
tion throughout the country, which
has been conducting a campaign in
behalf of the bill, says:
"According to the best estimates
available, there are about 75,000 Ger-
man children in distress. Such auth-
oritative sources as the American
Friends Service Commnittee say that
America's proposed total of 20,000
admissions could be chosen from. 50,-
000 of the 75,000 iin distress. Approxi-
mately only half of these 50,000 are
Jews, the rest being in Nazi disfavor
because they may have one or more
Jewish grandparents or because their
parents are politically outlawed. This
means that all faiths are represented
and that all groups in the United
States have reason to take active in-
terest in the Wagner-Rogers propos-
Children Arouse Sympathy
"Of the hundreds of thousands of
Europeans who are refugees or poten-
tial refugees, the children arouse the
greatest sympathy. With life still
stretching before them, they find
themselves shorn of opportunity,
shorn of education and in some cases
shorn even of the right to play, the
right to enjoy sun and grass."'
The plan provides for Great Bri-
tain and the Netherlands and other'
countries to admit as many of the'
children of refugees as possible, and,
in the case of the United States, ade-
quate guarantees are to be given that
the care and support of the children
will be guaranteed by individual
Americans before admission is grant-
What will happen to the parents,
of course, is a problem that cannot
be determined, but each year for the
next five or ten years, no doubt,]
some of these parents will wait their<
chances on the regular quota admis-
sion, and they will have the knw-'
ledge that their children at least arel
growing up in free America.
Economic Argument Weak
The relatively insignificant total
to be admitted-10,000 a year-will
hardly affect the economic status of'
the 130,000,000 persons in the United
States, and the argument of future

economic competition is not given '
much weight by most members of
America has received from Ger-
many some of the finest types of citi-
zens. Back in 1848, when Germans
fled here to escape political perse-.
cation, there came the fathers and
mothers of some of the best families
in the United States today, judged
from any standpoint of measurement.
Indeed, history shows that the Ger-
man population which emigrated to-'
the United States in the last 90 years
has enriched the American nation.
given to those who own, has become
so great that there is not enough pur-
chasing power left to those who live
by working. They say that the result-
ant disruption of the economic struc-
ture makes the struggle over how
goods are distributed acute. They say
that Fascism is the sociological re-
action to the reality of economic
breakdown. They say they have reas-
ons for believing this, which reasons
they are anxious to present. They in-
vite Mr. Canavan to debate these
The leftist sees difficulties in de-
veloping a technique for democratic,
control of collectively owned produc-
tive properties. The difficulty of at-
tempting democratic control of pro-
ductive properties should not pre-
clude making that attempt. In view
of t he fact that an owner or owners
of a large enterprise may shut it
down when such action is a-
gainst the interests of thousands,

FRIDAY, APRIL 21, 1939
VOL. XLIX. No. 142
Note to Seniors, June Graduates,
and Graduate Students: Please file
application for degrees or any spe-
cial certificates (i.e. Geology Certifi-
cate, Journalism Certificate, etc.) at
once if you expect to receive a de-
gree or certificate at Commencement
in June. We cannot guarantee that
the University will confer a degree or
certificatenat Commencement upon
any student who fails to file such
application before the close of busi-
ness on Wednesday, May 17. If ap-
plication is received later than May
17, your degree or certificate may
not be awarded until next fall.
Candidates for degrees or zertifi-
cates may fill out cards at once at
office of the secretary or recorder of
their own school or college (students
enrolled in the College of Literature,
Science, andethe Arts, College of
Architecture, School of Music, School
of Education, and School of Fores-
try and Conservation, please note
that application blanks may be ob-
tained and filed in the Registrar's Of-
fice, Room 4, University Hall). All
applications for the Teacher's Cer-
tificate should be made at the office
of the School of Education.
Please do not delay until. the last
day, as more than 2,500 diplomas and
certificates must be lettered, signed,
and sealed and we shall be greatly
helped in this work by the early filing
of applications and the resulting
longer period for preparation.
The filing of these applications
does not involve the payment of any
fee whatsoever.
Shirley W. Smith.
Faculty, College of Engineering:
There will be a meeting of the Facul-
ty on Monday, April 24, at 4:15 p.m.,
in Room 348, West Engineering Bldg.
Topics for consideration will be: Pro-
posed Program for a Naval ROTC;
Recommendation from the Engineer-
ing Council regarding a new Honor
Committee; Report of Faculty Disci-
pline Committee; and Requirement
of a Curtain Standard in English.
First Mortgage Loans: The Univer-
sity has a limited amount of funds.
to loap on modern well-located Ann
Arbor residential property. Interest
at current rates. Apply Investment
Office, Room 100, South Wing,
University Hall.
Scholarship in Spanish. Bryn Mawr
College is offering two resident schol-
arships paying $400 each for the
coming year, avaliable to graduates
of an institution of recognized stand-
ing. For information and applica-
tion blanks address the Office ofs
the Dean of the Graduate School,

Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr,
The Bureau has had notice of the
following Civil Service Examination:
Pianist C, which is open to men and
women. Qualification requirements:
One year of experience in playing the
piano as an accompanist, and com-
pletion of the twelfth school grade
and three years of regular training
in piano music or equivalent train-
ing. Existing vacancy in this class
is for part-time service at the Girls'
Training School at Adrian. Examin-
ation to be held on May 13, 1939.
Applications postmarked after mid-
night, May 2, 1939 will not be ac-
cepted. Further information may be
obtained at the office of the Bureau.
University Bureau of Appoint-
ments and Occupational 7nfor-
oration. 201 Mason Hall. Office
hours, 9-12 and 2-4.
Academic Notices
Economics 124 will not meet this
morning. William Haber
Geology 11: Excursion Saturday
morning will start from the east en-
trance of Natural Science Building.
I D. Scott.
Exhibition of Drawings and Models
by Jack Williams, architect and in-
dustrial designer of Detroit, will be
shown in the ground floor corridor
cases through April 22. Open daily
from 9 to 5 p.m. The public is in-
University Lecture: Dr. Paul R.
Cannon, Professor of Pathology at
the University of Chicago, will lec-
ture on "Some Aspects of Respira-
tory Infection" on Tuesday, April 25,
at 4:15 p.m. in the Rackham Audito-
rium. The public is cordially invited
to attend.
Biological Chemistry Lecture: Dr.
Genevieve Stearns, Research Asso-.
ciate Professor of Pediatrics in the
School of Medicine, University of
Iowa, will speak to the students of
biological chemistry and others in-
terested on some phases of mineral
metabolism on Monday, April 24, at
4 p.m. in the East Lecture Room
(nezzanine floor) of the Horace H.
Rackham School of Graduate Stu-
Events Today
Anatomy Research Club Meeting:
The April meeting of the Anatomy
Research Club will be held in Room
2501 East Medical Building at 4:30
p.m. today. The meeting will con-
sist of reports by members of the
staff of the recent Anatomy Meet-
ings in Cambridge, Mass.
Dr. B. M. Patten will report on
General Aspects of the Meetings.
Dr. W. L. Whitaker will report on
papers in Endocrinology.
Dr. A. Barry will report on papers
in Embryology.
Dr. R. T. Woodburne will report on
papers in Neurology.
Tea will be served at 4 p.m. in
Room 3502. All interested are in-
vited'to attend.
The Westminster Guild will hold a
Scavenger Hunt tonight at 9 p.m.
Stalker Hall. Class in "Through
the New Testament" at 7:30 p.m. at
the Methodist Church under the
leadership of Dr. C. W. Brashares.
Spring Party at 9 p.m., following
the class, at Lane Hall. Informal.
Ray Carey's orchestra will play and
there will be games.
Friday services tonight at the Hillel
Foundation. At 8 p.m. Dr. Rabino-
witz will speak on "War and Peace."

Zeta Beta Tau will act as host at
the social following the services.
Coming Events
Biological Chemistry Seminar, Sat-
urday, April 22, 10-12 a.m., Room 319
West Medical Building. "The Sulfur-
Containing Amino Acids of the Pro-
tein Molecule-Their Determination
and Biological Relationships" will be
discussed. All interested are in-

Publication in" the Bulletin is constructive notice to all members of the University.
Copy received at the office of the Assistant to the President until 3:30 P.M.;
11:00 A.M. on Saturday.


Editorial Writer Misunderstands
Radical Reasoning, Reader Holds

Safe f lying
Sound cooperative effort between
the airlines themselves and the Civil
Aeronautics Authority, rather than
luck, is to be credited for this year's
splendid record of safety in winter
flying. The CAA reports that in the
period from Dec. 12 to March 20 the
domestic lines flew 128,162,050 pass-
enger-miles with but one fatal acci-
dent. Of this impressive total, 50,000,-
000 passenger-miles were flown by the
threc transcontinental systems of
American, United and TWA and by
the north and south service of East-
ern Air Lines without a single forced
On the basis of airplane miles flown
the lines operated 12,909,995 miles in
the winter of 1935-36 with eighteen
fatalities; 14,218,367 miles in 1936-37
with twenty-eight fatalities, and 14,-
824,274 miles in 1937-38 with nineteen
fatalities. The past winter, however,
they flew 17,863,370 miles with only
four fatalities. The figures, as retir-
ing Chairman Noble of the CAA
points out, show how successfully a
iighly competitive business, pushira
its development at a phenomenal rate,
still can cooperate with a Federal
agency and get results. American hats
should be off to both the airlines
and the Authority.
-The New York Times
sible is it to spread "the gospel of
humanity, enlightenment and toler-
ance which are synonymous with
religion and liberal education?" Why
is "economic individualism" so neces-
sary to all that man considers good?
If not considered an attempt of a
small narrow group to usurp the use
of The.Daily to serve their nefarious
ends, the leftists will debate Mr.
Canavan. This. might lead to a better
understanding of world problems.
Such a purpose may not be worthy
of the efforts of the young men and
women who are to become the leaders
of their generation, nor of interest to
them. We are, however, in a Universi-
ty, and with the world approaching
the brink of disaster, it seems as
though it might be a proper function


To the Editor:
As is usual when a conservative or reaction-
ary writer attempts a "critical appraisal" of an
"extreme" radical view, Mr. Canavan in his edi-
torial of Sunday, April 2, shows a complete lack
of understanding of the reasoning which leads
"radicals" to the conclusions they reach. To re-
phrase opinions of that school of economic
"authorities" whose record of prediction in the
past ten years has been pitiful is hardly the
making of a "critical appraisal." To make
"subtle" jibes at leftist and liberal economists,
and to end with an appeal for individual virtue,
makes it appear that desire for approbation is
thought to be more important than desire for,
Mr. Canavan's mistake, however, has been in
the doctrine of Jefferson and the American popu-
lists. The democratic movement there, according
to Drucker, has been largely fostered. by the
"Americanski," returned American emigrants.
Their continued touch with democracy is main-
tained by their friends and relatives, working in
America; free from nolice and nolitical censor-.

his statement of the leftist position. This is a
common device in argument. Credit your oppon-
ent with something that he does not believe and
then proceed to show him wrong. The leftist does
not hold that monopoly resulting from lack of
competition is the basic cause of our economic
troubles. He has other reasons for believing that
we have a "senile economy, tottering to its
grave." Monopoly and restricted competition re-
sult from more fundamental causes and are
secondary. If regulation were to restore compe-
tition, which the leftist surely believes impos-
sible, the cause of economic stagnation would not
be removed if the leftist analysis is correct.
Leftists make no assumption "that monopoly
is the inevitable concomitant of the machine
age" nor that "the evils of monopoly are in-
separably welded to the advantages of large scale
industry." They do say; however, that the evils
in society are due to the. private ownership and
control of productive property which is used in
large scale industry. They do say that when the
operation of industrial equipment is for the
purpose of producing profit and not the satis-
fa a ----

German Play: The Deutscher Vere-
in will present "Die Gegenkandida-
ten," a satire on party politics by
Ludwig Fulda at the Lydia Mendel-
ssohn Theatre, Monday, April 24 at
8:30 p.m. Reserved seats are 50
cents, unreserved seats 35 cents. Box
office open from 10 a.m. to 8:30 p.m.
on Monday, April 24.
The Graduate Outing Club will meet
at the Northwest door of the Rack-
ham Building at 3 p.m. They will
hike along the river for trio hours
and then gather at the Island where
they can play baseball and other out



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