THE H I A N iDIL
T ma i s ar''ral. es i9-9
PAGE FOT.iTR THU1~DAT, AP~TL ~, 19S9
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
AIRH e ..naro
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NIGHT EDITOR: JACK CANAVAN
The editorials published in The Michigan
Daily are written by members of the Daily
staff and represent the views of the writers
Toughen Requirements .. .
r Wo UNIVERSITIES, Yale and Col-
umbia, announced last week that
they are planning to reassess academic values in
order to make college studies more rigid. Their
programs of reform are intended to dispell the
opinion that a college diploma is the heritage of
everyone who matriculates, however little work
he may do. Yale and Columbia are trying t
escape being labelled "pipe" universities.
Yale will try to check the abuses of its "read-
ing periods," two-week intervals during which
students are released from formAl lectures and
recitations. The reading-period plan, instituted
eight years ago, was designed to afford oppor-
tunity for students to work on original essays
and theses or to round out knowledge in major
fields in preparation for final comprehensive
The reading period has basically the same
purpose as the tutorial system to be started here
next fall: to allow the student a greater measure
of freedom in choosing subjects that are of inter-
est to him. It offers a release from arbitrarily
assigned subjects and formal classroom work.
However, as the Yale Daily News has said, there
is "the blind but determined minority who re-
gard the fortnight solely as two additional weeks
3f vacation." There are the playboys who look
upon two weeks without classes simply as two
weeks during which to forget college.
By their abuse of the reading period, the play-
boys have dug their own scholastic grave. Yale
has resolved to "crack down" on "the blind but
determined minority." It is, as statistics show, a
helplessly small minority. Fully half the students
remain on campus during the period and many
others go home to study. About five per cent,
however, spend their time in Bermuda or Florid
or in Canadian ski resorts. The Yale Daily News
has warned that if this minority insists on sun-
bathing in the South or skiing in the North, the'
university will turn its attention to those more
Columbia's plan is to limit the higher degrees
to a select few who have proved their merit by
running a gauntlet of stiff courses. Only those
persons who have attained a "B" average in
undergraduate work, who have passed a rigid
English test and who can read and write a
foreign language will be permitted to register as
candidates for higher degrees. The new restric-
tion will be applied first, as a test, to graduate
courses in the history department next semes-
As voiced by Prof. Charlton J. H. Hayes, the
aim of the more stringent requirements is to
force a new.valuation of the Ph.D. degree. "The
degree was, and should be, considered as an
award," he says, "to which any person in anz
profession who has a great intellectual curiosity
may aspire . . . At present there are too many
candidates who regard attainment of the doctor's
pegree as a life's work in itself rather than as d
preparation for a life's work."
We see, then, two universities which are
attempting, to escape the American notion of a
democratic higher learning that accepts every
rrnrn T lr nlr .. tnr n,a rr nnnasfa ,ihac.
Three weeks ago, Prof. Percy W. Bridgman,
Harvard's well known physicist and research
scientist, looked up over a row of test tubes and
retorts and gave an ultimatum-the surprising
thing about that ultimatum was that he declared
it against the citizens of totalitarian states be-
cause their countries declared ultimatums. Tut,
tut, Professor-isn't that being a tiny bit hypo-
An Ultimatum As A Protest .,.
Professor Bridgman's objection centered around
the fact that science was being misused in the
totalitarian states and that it was being directed
toward their own aims. He says, "In partiular,
the totalitarian states do not recognize that the
free cultivation of scientific knowledge, for its
own sake, is a worthy end of human endeavor,
but have commandeered the scientific activities
of their citizens to serve their own purposes,"
and, further, "I have decided from now on not
to show any apparatus or discuss my experi-
ments with the citizens of any totalitarian state.
A citizen of such a state is no longer a free in-
dividual but he may be compelled to engage in
any activity whatever to advance the purpose
of that state. The purposes of the totalitarian
States have shown themselves to be in irreconcil-
able conflict with the purposes of free States."
When the professor states that "cessation of
scientific intercourse with the totalitarian states
serves the double purpose of making more diffi-
cult the misuse of scientific information by those
states and of giving the individual opportunity to
express his abhorrence of their practice," we
wonder whether he may not be making a mis-
take. It has seemed that in the past few years
some of the states to which Bridgman raises
objection have turned out rather notable
achievements in science, regardless of whether
one approves of the nation's political policies or
not-but peihaps we are subscribing to the
wrong "Popular Sciences" magazines.
Against Totalitarian Ultimatums
In answer to the Bridgman ultimatum, two
undergraduate papers, the "Minnesota Daily"
and the "Harvard Crimson," have expressed op-
posing views, with the latter, the one Bridgman
props against the sugar bowl every morning, tak-
ing a stand against him. The "Minnesota Daily"
says, "Professor Bridgman's attitude seems en-
tirely justified. By turning over to the dictatom
the products of scientific advance in a democ-
racy, the dictators are being given the means by
which to continue their campaigns against
"The Harvard Crimson" sees far-reaching and
disastrous effects in the declaration. "By endeav-
oring to combat fascism by means of a typical
fascist tecnique, the learned professor is setting
a precedent which may easily lead to less harm-
less abuses of the American tradition of free-
dom. From prohibition of fascists in specific lab-
oratories to a prohibition extending to graduate
courses is no long step; from there the virus may
spread to whole universities, and then go on t6
infect the entire educational system. Thus do
such efforts to eliminate totalitarianism breed
of themselves the germ they seek to destroy."
Richard Strauss: Caecilie (Op. 27, No. 2), and
Seitdem dein Aug' in meines schaute (Op. 17,
No. 1).2 sides, 10", V-1967, $1.50. Kirsten lag .
stad (soprano, in German), accompanied by Ed-
win McArthur. Two more Strauss songs, the
latter hitherto unavailable in electrical record-
ings, recorded several years ago in Europe and
just now released in America. Here, as ever,
Mie. Flagstad's marvelous musicianship and
vocal abilities, her habit of singing what the com-
poser actually wrote rather than using his vocal
line as the starting point for a free fantasia of
"emotion," are evident. Perhaps her perform-
ance is a trifle more smooth, and recorded with
better balance, on her later disks, but the effects
of the present record are stirring enough.
Martini it Tedesco: Plaisir d'Amour; Cottrau:
Santa Lucia. Beniamino Gigli (tenor, in French
and Neapolitan) with orchestral accompani-
ments conducted by John Barbirolli and Dino
Olivieri. 1 side each, 12", V-15348, $2.00. Critical
comment is hardly necessary here. Gigli is Gigli;
no one else living today can achieve simultan-
eously the heights in tonal beauty and the
depths in musical logic as he can. If you like
your singing well seasoned with garlic, you'll
thrill to these Italianate lyrics-to Cottrau's
folksongish barcarolle, with its typical and lov-
able emotionalism, more than to the less voluble
and more destructible Romanza of the eighteenth
cenutry "German Martini."
Saint-Saens: Havanaise, Op. 83. Jascha Heif-
etz (violin) and London Symphony, John Bar-
birolli conductor. 2 sides, 12", V-15347, $2.00. The
first recording with orchestral accompaniment
of one of the fiddler's old stand-bys. Heifetz'
tone is luminous and seductive, matching well
the slinky. insinuating appeal of Saint-Saens
rhythms. Saccharine as the piece is, however, the
soloist keeps it within the limits of good taste. A
flawless recording job adds to the excellence of
the total effect.
"Where the need for beauty and the response
to it are alive in youth real education is going on.
Education is, after all, the expression of a prac-
tical hope that young men and young women
will find what they can do best, throw them-
selves into the doing, and realize the whole of
life and not merely part of it." University of Pitts-
Y.:,. . ~ _
-by David Lawrence-
WASHINGTON, March 20.-War in Europe,
or else bigger and bigger armaments to scare off
Hitler and draw Mussolini away from his ally,
very much as the Italians threw into the discard
the famous triple alliance which before 1914
joined them to Germany and the Austro-Hungar-
ian Empire-these are almost the only contin-
gencies spoken of here as possible sequels to the
seizure of Czecho-Slovakia and her gold. Is there
There are other alternatives, which, but for
the political influence of "isolationists" in the
United States, would now be engaging the atten-
tion of the world. The trouble which Europe has
faced since the ill-fated Versailles Treaty has
been to no small extent the outgrowth of the
greed and selfishness of Great Britain and France
in their absolute refusal to treat the German Re-
public fairly and justly, loading impossible repar-
ations on the backs of the German people and
keeping the country in a state of economic sub-
jection by exhausting demands for cash and
raw materials as punitive payment for the war.
The colonies which were wrested from Ger-
many in Africa and elsewhere were put by the
Versailles Treaty under "mandates" which were
supposed to be a sort of "trusteeship" and were
not to constitute a permanent annexation of
territory to the countries appointed as trustees.
Faced by economic strangulation and a debase-
ment of their monetary system, the Germrf
people were peresuaded to believe that, by
abandoning their republic and accepting Nazism,
they would be liberated from economic adversity.
Today, they support the Nazi rulers because
there is no certainty that the allied nations would
treat them any more fairly now or after the next
war than they did in 1919.
What is needed today is a second peace confer-
ence, to undo the wrongs imposed by the Versailles
Treaty and to assure economic stability for Eur-
ope by the removal of the trade barriers, without
which action, as Mr. Wilson foresaw, there could
be no lasting opportunity for the smaller coun-
tries to survive even though granted political in-
The only instrumentality sufficiently disinter-
ested in the world which can act as mediator to-
day and summon the nations to a second peace
conference is the United States Government. If
Mr. Wilson were alive today and head of the
Government, he would not hesitate to mobilize.
by radio and the press the public opinion of the
world back of a concerted effort to all peoples to
prevent war, and he would perceive that the real
way to prevent war is to recognize the sources of
friction and boldly seek to remove them.
Were President Roosevelt to adopt this course,
he would face, in America, a strong faction which
would regard this as "meddling" and would de-
nounce it as a means of entangling ourselves. Thi
"isolationist" group succeeded in wrecking the.
League of Nations by keeping America from join-
ing it, even though, in 1920, the Republican Party
contained a large number of prominent men who
insisted in public declarations that a vote for
Harding meant a vote for the League with reser-
vations. After Mr. Harding was elected, the Re-
publican leadership took the position that the
people had repudiated the League, reservations
and all. Premier Poincare, believing that America
had withdrawn her moral support and every pos-
sibility of furnishing any aid to Europe in solv-
ing her troubles, promptly set about to recreate
a system of military alliances. From that mo-
ment forward, the Geneva League was brushed
aside and the theory of a concert of nations to
maintain peace was discarded in favor of the old
balances of power which now have brought exact-
ly the fate for Europe that Presidet Wilson pre-
dicted when he urged in 1919 American entry into
The question of which course will eventually
drag America into war-an active policy of medi-
ation with an attempt to bring moral force to
bear by showing the German people a prograni
that will tempt them to abandon Nazi rule, or a
passive policy of drifting and waiting for a World
War in which Canada on the north and the Latin-
American states on the South would inevitably
get us entangled isan open one at the moment.
Either course has its dangers and risks, but it may
well be asked whether a genuine effort to bring
justice to bear in Europe by a second peace con-
ference, with economic opportunity and financial
aid definitely in the picture, as a concrete pro-
gram for peace is not after all worth the effort
as a means of preventing another adventure in
"organized murder," as Lloyd George called the
With the principles of democracy being chal-
lenged throughout the world, the inauguration
of a Democracy institute at Northwestern's sum-
mer session is a step toward a fuller understand-
ing of the factors involved in this all-encom-
passing ideological conflict.
All abstract ideas, such as democracy, become
emburdened with superimpositions that tend to
make the original principle vague. Today, though'
everyone talks about democracy, few seem to
have a clear conception of the term's meaning
and implications. It is as an attempt to counter-
act this hazy thinking that the Democracy insti-
tute should have its most value.
Prominent thought leaders in the fields of
By JAMES DOLL
In New York
When Spring Vcation coincides with
Easter week, you can see more shows
in New York than almost any otherI
week in the year. Practically every
show has an extra Monday matinee
and at least three: "Outward Bound,"
"Hellzapoppin," and "What a Life,"
have matinees every day.
"The Little Foxes" provides Tallul-
ah Bankhead with the best part she
has had in any modern play, in New
York. Lillian Hellman, author of the
highly successful "The Children's
Hour," shows a grasping family build-
ing a huge business at the expense of
other relatives. Carl Benton Read
plays a capitalist again just as well as
he did last year in the Drama Sea-
son's "The Ghost of Yankee Doodle."
"The Philadelphia Story" h a s
brought success alike to Philip Barry,
its author; Katharine Hepburn, its
featured player; and the Theatre
Guild which produced it. None of them
have been conspicuously successful
the last few seasons. In it Barry. re-
verts to the mood of "Holiday" and
"The Animal Kingdom" rather than
the more serious attitude of "Here
Come the Clowns."
While the reviewers were unani-
mous in their praise of Judith Ander-
son's performance in "Family Por-
trait," they seemed uncertain of the
play. However, it has had champions'
in many quarters. Robert Benchley,+
in "The New Yorker" was especially+
enthusiastic about this study of Christ1
as seen through the eyes of his moth-
er and the rest of his family.
"Abe Lincoln in Illinois" has been
one of the season's biggest dramatic+
successes. Raymond Massey may still
be seen as Lincoln in the years be-
fore he reached the White House.
Robert Sherwood has managed'to use
Lincoln as a commentator on our own
times without straying far from Lin-
coln's own speeches.
"Oscar Wilde" is perhaps more note-
worthy for Robert Morley's perfor-
mance in the name part than for the
play itself, although Wilde's career is
treated with understanding and taste.
Morley made a conspicuous success
as Louis XVI in the movie "Marie An-
"Outward Bound" is the play, fami-E
liar to all Little Theatre audiences,
which shows an assortment of pass-
engers on a boat bound for the here-
after. Revived with an all-star cast;
it has proved as thrilling to audiences
as it first did fifteen years ago.
Revise Tax System1
The federal tax system has long
been regarded inadequatae and un-
necessarily muddled by many treasury
and governmental officials. Now, 'with4
Secretary Morgenthau urging a re-
vision of the syzstem, in an attempt
to replace this hodge-podge with aI
method approaching a systematized
tax law, officials are in the bewilder-
ing and uncomfortable state of agree-
ing on what should be done, but fear-I
ing the political consequences of do-
ing it. I
Secretary Morgenthau's model tax
idea is based on a careful survey andI
study of the situation. Prof. Roswell1
Magill of Columbia University spentI
over a year compiling his recommen-£
dations. His successor, John W.
Hanes, continued his work, and has
been urging the revision with little
success up to the present time. i
The new tax system contains three'
major changes. First, the tax base is1
broadened to include millions who doI
not now pay direct taxes. Rates in
the productive middle bracket on in-
comes from $10,000 to $80,000 are in-
creased. The highest surtaxes are de-
creased and the method of collection'
The second revision is the scrap-
ping of corporate taxation schedules
and all corporate taxes, save a gradu-
ated income tax, which is to give
special preference to smaller busi-
nesses. The last step is the abandon-
ing of all nuisance and excise taxes
and the replacement of them by the
direct income tax conducted on a
Some of the most desirable changes
are in the field of exemptions. Sal-
aries of state employees certainly
should be taxed, as the recent
Supreme Court decision allows. The
allowable deduction of $400 for chil-
dren should be extended until the
children are twenty-one, instead of
only eighteen. For those who send
their children to college, this time is
the period of greatest expense.
Necessary tax revision should not
be hindered by the fears of alienat-
ing politicians. Taxes, as they stand
today in many cases, work directly
I against certain groups, and assist in
the formation of strong political fac-
tions and machines that are unde-
sirable in both their social and eco-
Too long taxes have been tossed on
here and added there with the result
that taxes have become burdens. Re-
vision of the taxation system may not
lighten the burdens, but it will cer-
tainly throw the load upon those best
able to stand it.
-The Daily Kansan
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
Publication in the Bulletin is constructive notice to all members of the University.
Copy received at the office of the Assistant to the President until 3:30 P.M.;
11:00 A.M. on Saturday.
ence, and the Arts: Freshmen may
not drop courses without E grade
after Saturday, April 8. In adminis-
tering this rule, students with less
than 24 hours of credit are considered
freshmen. Exceptions may be made
in extraordinary circumstances, such
as severe or long continued illness.
E. A. Walter, Assistant Dean.
Students, School of Education:
Courses dropped after Friday, April
7, will be recorded with the grade of
E except under extraordinary circum-
stances. No course is considered of-
ficially dropped unless it has been re-
ported in the office of the Registrar,
Room 4, University Hall.
All June Graduates in the College
of Architecture, Schools of Educa-
tion, Forestry, and Music should fill
in grade request cards at Room 4
U.H. between April 3 and April 7.
Those failing to file these cards will
assume all responsibility for late
grades which may prohibit gradua-
Students, College of Engineering:
This is the final week for dropping
courses without record. Signatures
of classifiers and instructors should
be obtained before Saturday, April 8.
A. H. Lovell, Secretary.
'Students, College of Engineering:
The final day for removal of incom-
pletes will be Saturday, April 8.
A. H. Lovell, Secretary.
Faculty, College of Literature, Sci-
ence, and the Arts:
Midseester reports are due not
later than Friday, April 7. More
cards if needed can be had at my
These reports should name those
students, freshman and upperclass,
whose standing at midsemester time
is D or E, not merely those who re-
ceive D or E in so-called midsemester
Students electing our courses, but
registered in other schoolssorucol-
leges of the University, should be
reported to the school or college in
which they are registered. '1
E. A. Walter, Assistant Dean.
Students wishing to make applica-
tion for admission to the Degree Pro-
gram for Honors in Liberal Arts
should leave their names in the Of-
fice of the Dean of the College of
Literature, Science, and the Arts by
4:30, May first.
Seminar in Analysis (Math. 302).
Will meet Friday at 4 o'clock in 3201
Final Doctoral Examination of Mr.
D. B. O. Savile will be held today at
9 a.m. in Room 1139 Natural Science
Building. Mr. Savile's field of spe-
cialization is Botany. The title of
his thesis is, "Nuclear Structure and
Behaviour in. Species of the Uredi-
nales." Professor E. B. Mains, as
as Chairman of the Committee, will
conduct the examination. By direc-
tion of the Executive Board the
Chairman has the privilege of invit-
ing members of the faculty and ad-
vanced doctoral candidates to at-
tend the examination and to grant
permission to others who might wish
to be present.
C. S. Yoakum.
Final Doctoral Examination of Miss
Violet L. Wu will be held today at 2
p.m. in the West Council Room,
Rackham Building. Miss Wu's field of
specialization is Physics. The title
of her thesis is, The Infra-red Ab-
sorption Spectrum of Propane." Pro-
fessor E. F. Barker, as Chairman of
the Committee, will conduct the ex-
amination. By direction of the Ex-
ecutive Board the Chairman has the
privilege of inviting members of the
faculty and advanced doctoral can-
didates to attend the examination
and to grant permission to others
who might wish to be present.
C. S. Yoakum.
Prospective Applicants for the Com-
bined Curricula: The final date for
the filing of applications for admis-
sion to the various combined cur-
ricula for September, 1939, is April
20. Application forms may be filled
out in Room 1210 Angell Hall. Medi-
cal students should please note that
application for admission to the
Medical School is not application for
admission to the Combined Curricu-
lum. A separate application should
be made out for the consideration of
the Committee on Combined Cur-
Orchestra Concert. The University
Symphony Orchestra, Thor Johnson,
Conductor, will provide a program of
numbers by Schubert, Wagner, and
Elgar, tonight at 8:30 o'clock, in Hill
(Continued from Page 2)
through April 19. The public is cor-
Exhibition of Paintings by David
Fredenthal and Helen May, shown
under the auspices of the Ann Arbor
Art Association. Alumni Memorial
Hall, afternoons from 2 to 5, March
24 through April 7. -
University Lectures: Dr. Otto Heller,
Dean Emeritus of the Graduate School
of Washington University, St. Louis,
will lecture on "The Meaning of
Goethe" on Tuesday, April 18, at
8:15 p.m. in the Rackham Amphithe-
atre, and on "Ideas and Ideals
Against Facts and Figures in Educa-
tion" on Wednesday, April 19, at
4 15 p.m. in the Rackham Amphithe-
atre under the auspices of the De-
partment of German. The public is
School of Education Seniors: A
meeting of all seniors of the School
of Education for the purpose of elect-
ing class officers will be held this
afternoon in 2436 University Elemen-
tary School, at 4:10 p.m.
Vocational Guidance Talk: Stu-
dents interested in graduate work
are urged to attend a talk to be given
by Dean Yoakum of the Graduate
School, to be held in conjunction
with the regular Union Coffee Hour
in the Union Small Ballroom today
from 4:30-5:30 p.m. Dean Yoakum
will speak on "The Value of gradu-
ate work as a mean of preparing for
the business world."
Athena: Initiation and pledging to-
day at 4:00 in the Michigan League.
I Old members and officers please
come at 3:30 if possible. Call 23159 if
you find the time inconvenient, as
we would like to have everyone there.
international Center Spring Vaca-
The Center will be open from 8:30
a.m. to 10 p.m. daily throughout va-
Saturday, April 8. Intramural
night. Any foreign students and
their American friends may make
use of the Intramural Building at 8
o'clock p.m. There will be a swim-
ming tournament for both men and
Sunday, April 9. 7 p.m. There
will be an informal social hour. There
will be bridge, other games, and in-
Tuesday, April-11.. 8 a.m. The group
will leave by bus for a trip through
Jackson Prison, to a Battle Creek
food factory and to the Kellogg Sani-
tarium. Any students interested' in
joining this tour should sign up in
the office of the International Cen-
ter at once-not later than Monday
morning, April 10.
Wednesday, April 12. 2 p.m. A
basketball tournament will be played
at the Intramural Building.
Thursday, April 13. 12 noon. The
group will leave Ann Arbor for a trip
through the Starr Commonwealth for
Boys at Albion. Any students in-
terested in joining this tour shold
sign up in the office of the Inter-
national Center at once, or not later
than Monday morning, April 10.
Wednesday, April 12. 2 p.m. A
basketball tournament will be played
at the Intramural Building.
Thursday, April 13. 12 noon. The
group will leave Ann Arbor for a trip
through the Starr Commonwealth
for Boys at Albion. Any students
interested in joining this tour should
sign up in the office of the Interna-
tional Center at once, or not later
than Wednesday, April 12.
Friday, April 14. 10 a.m. The
group will leave the International
Center for a hike. All foreign stu-
dents and their American friends are
invited to join.
8 p.m. There will be the usual
recreation night, including games,
bridge playing, and other informal
Saturday, April 15. 2 p.m. The
Metropolitan O p e r a Company's
broadcast will be listened to in the
lounge of the Center.
J. R. Nelson.
Forestry Assembly: There will be
an assembly of the School of Forestry
and Conservation at 11 a.m. Friddy,
April 7, 1939 in the amphitheatre of
the Rackham Building, at which Pro-
fessor Adalbert Ebner of the Univer-
sity of Munich, will speak on "For-
estry in Germany." All students in
the School of Forestry and Conserva-
tion are expected to attend and oth-
ers interested are cordially invited to
Senior Engineers: The last day for
placing orders for the Senior Class
ring is Friday, April 7. Orders and
Lfitting are being akenn a rr Pat_