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January 11, 1934 - Image 6

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1934-01-11

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Dutchman Is
Beheaded In
German Case
Van Der Lubbe Executed
For Firing Of Reichstag
Building Last February
Refused To Name
Crime Accomplices
Dutch Government Fails
In Attempt To Obtain A
Lighter Sentence
LEIPZIG, Germany, Jan. 10.-- (P)
- Merinus Van Der Lubbe, 24-year-
old Dutch stonemason, was beheaded
today for firing the German Reich-
stag building in Berlin last Feb-
He had repeatedly confessed set-
ting the fire, but steadfastly refused
to divulge any information as to
whether he had any accomplices.
Van Der Lubbe had been under
sentence of death since Dec. 23 when
the'supreme court convicted him and
acquitted four co-defendants.
Steps through which the Dutch
government sought to gain a lighter
sentence for the young Hollander
were unavailing.
Late Tuesday night Van Der Lubbe
was informed by the Leipzig prison
governor that justice must take its
course, but the announcement failed
to rouse him from the stupor in
which he remained virtually through-
out the long trial.
Has No- Special Wish
Van Der Lubbe did not reply to the
question of whether he wanted a
clergyman to attend him on the last
walk to the guillotine, nor did he
express any special wish.
The guillotine was erected during
the night by the official executioner
and his attendants in the prison yard
of the Leipzig district court.
At 7:25 a. in. today, a few strokes
of the prison bell announced to the
outer world that a man was paying
the extreme penalty.
Few realized, however, that it was
Van Der Lubbe, probably the most
talked-of criminal in recent years.
There had been no intimation until
the last moment that President Paul
Von Hindenburg would decline to
pardon the Dutchman.
At 6 a. in., the warden entered Van
Der Lubbe's cell and told him his last
hour had come.
Without saying a word, he arose
and after being shaved, was led by
the prison governor into the court-
Witnesses Assembled
There State's Attorney Werner,
several physicians and 12 citizens "of
good repute," in accordance with the
law, were assembled.
Without showing the least emotion,
Van Der Lubbe with bowed head lis-
tened as the death sentence again
was read by Wilhelm Buenger, pre-
siding judge during the trial.
He silently shook his head when
asked if he wanted to make a state-
Werner then said, "I surrender you
to the executioner."
The latter, Herr Goebler of Mag-
deburg, dressed in evening clothes
and wearing white gloves, laid his'
hand on Van Der Lubbe's shoulder.
Meekly, the young man ascendedt
the scaffold where he was tied down.1
In 30 seconds it was all over. 1
A physician stepped forward and
attested the death and, while wit-1
nesses signed an official document,
the body was removed in a simple

black coffin.I
No Dutch officials attended. ;
Children's Voices
Harmed By Singing
OfNational Anthem
(By Intercolegiate Press hi
NEW YORK, Jan. 10-Teaching
a school kid to sing the Star Span-
gled Banner may be a fine patriotic
task, but it's one of the best ways in
the world to ruin his voice for later
vocal work.
This, at least, is the opinion of
Dr. Leo Kallen, New York University
otolaryngologist, who thinks a good;
many of the songs school children;
sing may be responsible for malad-
justments in their vocal organs.
Not only, he says, do songs which
have too wide a range on the scaly
tend to ruin the voice for later sing-1
ing, but they often make the young-
sters hoarse.
"Only a minority of children can
span the wide range which many
school songs require," he says. "Such
songs should be dropped. 'The Star
Spangled Banner,' for example, has
a range which taxes even an accom-
plished adult voice, let alone the,
voice of a child.
Better no school singing at all
than the sort which directly dam-

Milk Strike Hits Chicago Area; Investigate Loop Fire; Confer On Budget
-Associated Press Photos

This tangle of milk cans was the result of the invasion of a condensery at Walworth, Wis., by Illinois
milk strikers who damaged machinery and spilled 90,000 gallons of milk.

Some independent Chicago dairies received milk shipments by
airplane after pickets blockaded highways and railroads during the
strike in which the Pure Milk association sought to raise prices. This
shipment of 1,000 quarts was guarded by a cordon of police upon its

Meader Wil
Give Speech
On Esperanto
Linguistics Professor Is To
Explain Significance Of
International Language
Starts New Con rse
In Strange Tongue
FERA Sponsors Free Class
For Everyone; Taught
By Dr. Onderdonk
Prof. C. L. Meader's lecture on the
significance of Esperanto, the inter-
national language, at 4:15 p. m. next
Tuesday in Natural Science Auditori-
am, comes at a particularly fitting
ime in accordance with the begin-
iing of Esperanto courses at the Ann
Arbor High School, according to Dr.
Francis S. Onderdonk, who is con-
ducting the courses.
Professor Meader, of the general
linguistics department, teaches Rus-
sian and is familiar with over 100
other languages. It is said that he
once learned the Dutch language in
one day. He has been called "one
of the very few, truly great lin-
An Auxiliary Language
Esperanto is not intended by its
advocates to supplant existing lan-
guages. It is meant rather as an
auxiliary international language for
the use of all peoples in commerce,
science, medicine, literature, and so-
cial causes. Invented in 1887 by a
German doctor, it is composed of
features drawn from many languages
and easily learned by a person in
any country.
Simplicity is the outstanding fea-
ture of Esperanto, Dr. Onderdonk
says. All of its essentials have been
included in a small booklet of less
than 30 pages. There are only 1
rules of grammar to learn. Its sim-
plicity was exhibited in a recent ex-
periment at Wellesley College. A
group of students studied Danish and
Esperanto at the same time. After
a short period of instruction, it was
found that the students progressed
much better in Esperanto than they
did in Danish.
Many Magazines
A great many Esperanto magazines
dealing with subjects as diverse as
medicine and poetry, are published
in Japan, Poland, Sweden, Germany,
Austria, England, the United States,
and other countries. Some of these
periodicals are bilingual, written
partly in Esperanto and partly in
the nation's language.
Esperanto has progressed to a
greater extent in Europe and the Far
East. Due to the many languages,
the need for a universal means of
communication is felt more keenly,
Dr. Onderdonk says. It isused by
the League of Nations for the pub-
lication of various reports. The In-
ternational Union of Wireless Te-
lephony has recommended that ra-
dio stations broadcast for 15 min-
utes each week and announce the
name of the station daily in Esper-
Dr. Onderdonk's class in Esperan-
to began January 8, and is to con-
tinue for 16 weeks. The course meets
at 7 p. m. Mondays and Wednesdays
in the Ann Arbor High School. It
is taught free of charge under the
Federal Relief Administration pro-


This was the scene as flames swept through a big auto accessories concern on Chicago's State street,
causing damage which Israel Warshawsky, head of the firm, estimated at $1,000,000, but which firemen said
was less. Warshawsky was questioned in officials' attempts to account for a series of explosions which
spread the fire.

Representative James P. Buchanan, (left), Texas Democrat, chair-
man of the powerful appropriations committee of the House of Rep-
resentatives, as he conferred with Lewis W. Douglas, director of the
budget, on the government's huge spending program for the coming
Dean Bates Upholds Court In
Minnesota Mortoage Decision

Educators Predict Closing Of
20,OOQ Schools Before April 1

WASHINGTON, Jan. 10.- (1')
Research specialists of the National
Education association estimate that
by April 1 closed schools in the
United States will number 20,000 and
the children affected by their closing
will total 1,000,000.
It is this prospect of further re-
duction in already drastically cur-
tailed educational facilities that has
prompted educators to seek action
by Congress to prevent "collapse of
the American school system."
The most recent data compiled by
the research division of the associa-
tion show that nearly 2,000 rural
schools failed to open last fall due
to lack of funds. Some 18,000 rural
schools are operating for less than
National Guild
Of Lawyers Is
Being Planned
CHICAGO, Jan. 10 - Speaking be-
fore the annual convention of the
Association of American Law Schools
here, Prof. Karl N. Llewellyn of the
Columbia School of Law, urged the
formation of a national guild of law-
yers which would govern the profes-
sion in such a way as to lower the
the fees and raise the standards of
There must be something wrong,
he said, when two-thirds of the
population of the country could not
afford to employ lawyers and when
half the membersaofythe bar were
"driven to unethical practices to
make a living which they could not
make otherwise."
The guild, he suggested, should
advertise, develop business for its
members and certify competent law-
yers to the public.

six months, 700 of these being open
less than three months.
Changes in the public school situa-
tion between 1930 and 1934 show
total enrollments up 3 per cent; high
school enrollments up 24 per cent;
number of teachers and principals
down 5. per cent; average salaries
down 2 per cent; total expenditures
down 24 per cent; capital outlays
down 74 per cent.
There are approximately 860,000
teachers, principals and supervisors
in the public schools of the country,
some 450,000 of whom are in rural
areas. This year, according to the
survey, approximately half the rural
teachers in the nation are receiving
an annual salary less than $750 and
one in every five is receiving less than
Salaries Held Low
"Many city teachers also are below
these levels but the number of such
is not known at present," says a re-
port of the research division.
"However, it may safely be said
that of the entire public school
teaching force at least one in every
four is receiving annual wages below
the minimum provided for factory
hands under the blanket code."
Non-payment of teachers' salaries
was reported from cities and counties
in 14 states, the total amounts owing
to teachers ranging from $2,400 in
Clayton, N. M., to $22,000,000 in Chi-
cago. While city schools have not
been hit as hard generally as rural
institutions, the median reduction in
teachers' salaries between September,
1930, and June, 1933, as reported by
363 cities, was 13.7 per cent.

Norman Anoell
Cites Need Of
Mass Education
Bridge Also Complicated
If Taught In Manner Of
Economics, He Says
(By Intercollegiate Press)
CLEVELAND, Jan. 10 - Great-3
est need in the United States today
is for the education of the masses
toward an understanding of the is-
sues at stake, in the opinion of Sir'
Norman Angell, English author and
internationally known economist,
who visited here last week.
"The American efforts toward re-
storation of economic well-being are
experimental," he said. "I hope they
succeed. For if they don't succeed
some other 'control experiments will'
have to be tried.
"This is not a struggle between'
capitalism and socialism. There is
some socialism in capitalism and
there is some capitalism in socialism.
"The greatest need today is for:
education of the millions toward an
understanding of the issues.
"Teachers say it is too compli-
cated to explain. So would bridge
be if taught like economics. If we
tried to teach bridge through ab-
stract exposition, a lesson would run
like this:
"The game of bridge is played by
the distribution of 52 discs, divided
into four classes or denominations;
these separate denominations con-
sisting of disc of an ascending scale
of values, the whole distributed by
players in rotation."

(Continued from Page 1)j
will continue to hold a liberal' view-
Views Cases Separately
The Supreme Court has always re-
viewed each case as a separate and
distinct matter. The Minnesota mort-
gage moratorium act was considered
as such and the Court undoubtedly
had no intention of indicating
through its action upon that case the
stand it might take upon future is-
sues. Those who say that "there is
grave danger that it will establish a
precedent and give rise to innumer-
able unconstitutional laws under the
pretext of an emergency" are actually
the ones who have taken a "radical"
stand on the case, according to Dean
Chief Justice Hughes, in uphold-
ing the law, was careful to explain
that an emergency does not create
power nor increase granted power,
nor remove restrictions imposed upon
power granted or reserved. He did
note, however, that "while emergency
does not create power, emergency
may furnish the occasion for the ex-
ercise of power. The constitutional
question presented in the light of an
emergency is whether the power pos-
sessed embraces the particular exer-
cise of it in response to particular
Explains Court's Position
This portion of the majority opin-
ion should serve as ample explana-
tion of the Court's position on the,
matter, Dean Bates stated. The
phraseology is obviously interpreted
as an indication that the Court un-

dertook to commit itself to no more
than the particular case under con-'
sideration, reserving the right to
weigh each issue on its merits as it
comes up for decision.
Furthermore there is no reason to
believe that the Court will have to
pass upon many of the recent meas-
ures referred to as "emergency legis-
lation." The codes of the NRA which
have been called "radical" and which
are classed as a usurption of powers
by the government, were in most in-
stances drawn up largely by the in-
dustries themselves and the question
of their constitutiopality is not as
grave as it might seem, according to
Dean Bates. The Court may have
to pass upon some of the recent
actions of the President and Congress
but the Minnesota case does not serve
as an indication of the stand the
tribunal will take, he pointed out.
"And certainly that body will not
sanction any legislation which would
in any sense cast a shade upon the
Federal constitution."


®i t --___ __ ._ .

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